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can church resulted in Parker. We carries them, we desire to test the certainly know no reasons, why the premises by their results to Mr. Par. liberal body may so affect either ker and his associates of the liberal state or mystery, or social preroga- school, and of them we might say tive, as to refuse to explain itself, or much that is favorable and not do to stand upon its principles. full justice to our convictions and
While we say these things we feelings. can not but earnestly testify our re For that portion of the liberal spect for the believing spirit in the body, whether lay or clerical, who body, which has been so shocked by mingle in their system the good and Mr. Parker's conclusions, as to rise evil element of Christian truth and against them, even though in so do. liberal philosophy, we testify our ing, they have forgotten their own highest interest and most friendly first principles of fellowship and regard, as we think, by doing what philosophy. Our object is not to dis- lies in our power, to lead them to honor their honest motives, nor to cast out the evil element which has weaken their good enterprises, nor been so fully illustrated in Mr. Parin any way to justify Mr. Parker. ker; and to follow the good, in its As far as we have to do with him, better philosophy and better interwe desire in a friendly spirit, to lead pretations, to its legitimate and unhim to better conclusions, by giving alloyed conclusions. Let them do him better premises. As far as we this, and we shall hope to read John have to do with the liberal body who and Paul with them, and find in hold the same premises, but shrink their words, the same substantial from the conclusions to which he Christianity.
Life of Godfrey William Von tual character, his chief aims and Leibnitz, on the basis of the projects, his most important discovGerman work of Dr. G. E. Guh- eries, inventions and writings, his brauer. By John M. Mackie. religious and moral principles, may, Boston : Gould, Kendall & Lin. we think, be interesting to our read. coln. 1845.
ers. These several points we shall
embrace as far as possible in a brief The work of Dr. Guhbrauer, is narrative of his life. the last and best of the biographies Godfrey William Von Leibnitz, of Leibnitz. The abridgment be was born at Leipsic on the 21st day fore us is well executed. The style of June, (0.S.) 1646. His father is clear, manly, free from Ger was Professor of Philosophy in the manisms, and so compact, that few University of Leipsic. Boih his volumes of the size contain an equal grandfather and great grandfather, amount of information. A contin- held honorable offices under the uous and minute history of a man government. When he was six of remarkable activity and power of years of age, his father died and left achievement, through a long life him to the care of his mother, a wofull of vicissitudes, is condensed into man of sound judgment and exema less compass than three hundred plary piety, who early imbued his duodecimo pages.
mind with her own principles. He An outline of the principal events was sent at a tender age to a gramin the life of Leibnitz, his intellec mar school in Leipsic, where his
extraordinary talent soon manifested Elector of Mentz; and who now itself. From this preparatory school, became the close friend and patron he passed at the age of fifteen to the of the young philosopher. He acUniversity of his native city-and cepted an invitation from the Baron received at the age of nineteen the to visit Frankfort, where he served degree of Bachelor of Philosophy. his patron in various capacities, He then entered on the study of law, as librarian, secretary, advocate, intending to make it his profession counsellor, and factor, and became for life. During these studies, he acquainted with the celebrated spent three months at the University Spener, and other distinguished of Jena, enjoying the lectures on He was soon favorably injurisprudence, of the celebrated troduced to the Elector of Mentz, professors of that institution. In the a liberal patron of learning, by year 1666, after having completed means of a treatise which he wrote, his legal studies, be applied to the entitled, “ A New Mode of learning University of Leipsic for the degree and teaching Jurisprudence." The of doctor of laws, intending then to Elector appointed him an associate enter on the practice of his profes- with Lasser, to revise the System sion. With a view to obtain this of Roman Law, in order to adapt it honor, he wrote his celebrated trea. to the existing circumstances of the tise entitled De Arte Combinatoria, German empire. He also assist. which unites in a focus all the philo- ed his patron, Boineburg, in presophical views and tendencies of his paring for a mission to Poland in precocious mind, with the germs of behalf of the Palsgrave of Newburg, the subsequent discoveries of the dif- who laid claim to the throne of that ferential calculus, and the project of a kingdom. He prepared a learned universal language. He was then only state paper in support of this claim, twenty years of age. For reasons that which produced no small sensation we can not here detail, but which had among the adepts in political science. no connection with his scholarship, The fame of Leibnitz rapidly extendthe University refused him the doc. ed to other courts, and he received torate of laws. This event, to invitations from the Duke of Hanogether with the recent death of his ver, and from the Prince of Durlach, mother, quite weaned the young to engage in their service; which philosopher from Leipsic. He bade however he declined. Yet in the foladieu to his friends, left his native lowing year, when he was not fully city, and repaired to the University twenty four years of age, he acceptof Altdorf, near Nurenberg, where ed the office of counsellor in the he sustained an examination with College of Appeals, the highest jugreat applause, and received the de- dicial tribunal of the Electoral gree of a doctor in his twenty first Archbishopric of Mentz. It was in year. He was also offered a pro- this year, 1670, that he published an fessorial chair in the University, essay, which is said to contain the which he declined. He spent the germs of his doctrine of monads; winter of 1667 in Nurenberg, where and commenced that epistolary corhe became a member and secretary respondence with men of learning of a Society of Rosicrusians, whose all over Europe, which cost him a object it was to discover the philos. great part of the labor of his life. opher's stone, by chemical experi- At this period he began to devote ments. Here he learned the folly himself more exclusively than ever of alchemy. At this time Leibnitz to the subject of politics. He en. met at Nurenberg, Baron Von gaged actively with Boineburg in a Boineburg of Frankfort, who had plan to unite the German Princes formerly been first minister of the against their common enemy, Louis
XIV of France. Soon after, his at- and from the prime minister of tention became engrossed in a pro- the King of Denmark, to enter ject to drive the infidels out of Egypt their respective services. His time by a union of the European powers was chiefly occupied in superinwith the Abyssinians. He endeav. tending the education of the son of ored to divert the attention of Louis Boineburg, in settling the claims XIV from an intended invasion of of Boineburg's estate on the French Holland, to the conquest of Egypt, government, in drawing up me. and the colonization by Christians morials to the court, and state paof the African coast of the Mediter. pers of importance, for respectranean, a glory which he predicted able persons, and in the adjustment would belong to France. Receive of the affairs of illustrious foreigning some encouragement from the In these ways he defrayed French court, Leibnitz, in 1672, the expenses of his residence in set off with his servant for Paris. the capital of France. At length His mission, it is known, was un.
he became so much attached to successful. He remained however Paris, that on being offered a lucrain Paris, examining the libraries tive office, he determined to make and amusing himself with various it his permanent home. A large studies until 1673, when by order of sum, however, was to be paid for the Elector of Mentz he left France, the preferment, and after in vain apand sailed for London in compa. plying to his friends in Saxony for ny with the Baron Von Shönborn, aid, being suspected by them of son-in-law of Boineburg, and em. having become a Romanist, he was bassador of the Elector to the courts obliged to relinquish his object. It of France and Great Britain. Shön. was in 1673, that Leibnitz, while in born brought with him to Paris, Paris, entered on his splendid ca. Philip William, the son of Boine reer of mathematical investigation. burg, to be placed under the care of The first discovery made by him Leibnitz. It was during their visit was the differential calculus. In to Paris, that he invented his cele. 1776 Newton took the pains to in. brated calculating machine, a model form Leibnitz, that he himself likeof which was favorably received by wise was in possession of certain the Royal Society of London, on new methods, the application of his arrival in that city. While in which to tangents and quadratures London he busied himself in making he pointed out, but did not reveal the acquaintance of eminent men, the nature of these methods. At and in ascertaining the state of sci
. this point commenced the long and He found that many of his painful controversy between these discoveries had been anticipated by two great men, as to which belongs others, and what was much to his the honor of priority in the discov. advantage, he became acquainted ery of fluxions. There is no reawith some mathematical operations sonable doubt, that the discovery of use to him in his subsequent stud was original with both of them, ies. On the death of the Elector whence the honor of priority is not of Mentz, Von Shönborn returned worth a word of disputation. In to Paris. Leibnitz accompanied 1776, the Duke of Hanover invited him, “bearing away," as he ex Leibnitz for the third time to enter presses it," the bloom and fragrance his service, in the capacity of coun. of English literature, all for forty sellor and librarian. He accepted thalers." Here, at Paris, he re the appointment, returned to Ger. mained in the capacity of counsellor many by the way of London and to the new Elector-declining invi. Amsterdam, in which cities he made tations from the Duke of Hanover, the acquaintance of several distio.
guished men, among them the phi. munion-a darling project with him losopher Spinoza. He was received for many years, but finally abandonby the Prince of Hanover with ed in despair. In 1686, he undermarked favor, and remained in his took a purely literary work, on the service, and in that of his success. genealogy and history of the House ors, the remainder of his life-al- of Brunswick. After many years though for a considerable period, his of interrupted labor, this work was time was devoted, in part, to the in- completed in two volumes, near the terest of the courts of Berlin and close of his life, but as yet it reVienna. The first two years of his mains unpublished. The complete residence at Hanover were chiefly works of Leibnitz are now in a spent in the Hartz mountains, where course of publication at Hanover.] the duke had valuable silver mines, In order to collect materials for the working of which was very this work, he was ordered by the greatly impeded by the influx of duke to visit various parts of Gerwater. It was Leibnitz's business many, and also Italy. These jourto, discover a method of draining neys occupied him more than two them—but though he failed in this years. He was received at Vienna, main object, yet having his attention at Rome, at Bologna, at Florence, turned towards the subjects of min. and at Venice, with high consideraing, of coining, and of the cur. tion, and found ready access to the rency, he introduced some impor. libraries and eminent scholars of tant improvements. Under his man those cities. At Modena he dis. agement the Hanoverian currency covered indubitable evidence of a became the best of the age. He enter connection between the house of ed also with zeal upon investigations Brunswick and the ancient Marin mineralogy and geology, and was graves of Este. After reaching Hanthe first to make the various layers over, Leibnitz continued his efforts composing the earth's surface, the in favor of his master's claim to foundation of a theory respecting the the rank of Elector, and wrote origin and structure of our planet. several able pamphlets on the subHe was also the first to suggest that ject, until the duke at last succeed. the strata of the earth's surface ed in obtaining the object of his am. were formed by the processes of cool. bition. In reward of these services, ing and evaporation. Natural his. the new Elector promoted Leibnitz tory, too, had a share of his atten- to the office of privy counsellor of tion. In 1678, the duke raised him justice—the highest judicial office to the rank of court counsellor, in in the country. Between the years virtue of which he was a judge in 1693 and 1711, he published, as the court of chancery. At this time historiographer of Hanover, several he wrote an able diplomatic paper valuable historical works, besides on the rights of the smaller Ger. continuing his history of the house man princes, with a view to advance of Brunswick. In 1698, Leibnitz the claim of his master as an elect met with a heavy loss by the death or of the empire.
of Ernest Augustus. His son and In 1679, his patron the Duke of successor, George Lewis, confirmed Hanover died, and was succeeded the philosopher in his offices, but nevby Ernest Augustus.
Leibnitz em er gave him his hearty confidenceployed his pen, at this period, in and finally abandoned him to neglect. writing political papers, to fur. In 1700, Leibnitz went to Berlin, ther the views of the duke, and in having several ends in view, the clocorresponding with distinguished ser union of the houses of BrandenCatholics and Protestants respecting burg and Brunswick, the union of a reunion of Christians in one com- Protestant sects against the Catho
lics, and the establishment of a churches of Germany. Would it society of sciences in the Prussian be so now? The interest Leibnitz capital. In this last project he suc. took in the reunion of Christians led ceeded, and became the first presi. to his writing his great philosophical dent of the society—the objects of work, the Theodicea, or Justification which were, to guard the purity, and of God on account of the evil in the promote the improvement, of the world. This work contains not only German language, and to cultivate his philosophical system, but its apthe sciences with a view to their plication to the docirines of the atone. practical applications to the useful ment, the eucharist, of grace and arts. The culture of silk was at works, of freedom and predestination. this time introduced into Prussia by It was published in 1710. The phiLeibnitz, and a monopoly of the losophy of Leibnitz was well rebusiness given to the new society ceived in Germany and France, for its support, but the plan turned and maintained its ascendancy until out in loss, not in profit. At this Kant superseded him. In 1704, time he embarked ardently in the Leibnitz became acquainted at Ber. cause of popular education, and lin with Christian Wolf, the cele. opened a correspondence with the brated expounder of his philosophy, philanthropist Franke, the founder with whom he maintained a friend. of the Orphan Asylum in Halle-ly correspondence for the rest of whose plans he warmly approved. his life. Just prior to the publication He advised an application to Peter of the Theodicea, occurred the death the Great, to establish similar asy. of Sophia Charlotte, the queen of lums in every part of his dominions. Prussia, a princess of the house In 1700, Leibnitz went to Vienna, of Hanover, a pupil of Leibnitz, on an invitation from the emperor, and his generous patroness. This to attend a conference on the sub. event broke off his connection with ject of Church union. At the end Berlin. Soon after, he was sent of that year he returned to Hanover, on a secret misson to the head just as Frederic, the Elector of quarters of Charles XII, at AlBrandenburg, was crowned King of translädt, near Leipsic. He met Prussia ; to which elevation the wri. also with Peter the Great, in 1697, tings of Leibnitz had very much con at the castle of Koppenbrück, where tributed. In 1703, he addressed a Peter visited incognito the Elector memorial to Frederic, recommends of Hanover. He met him twice afing a union with the Church of Eng. terwards, the last time by invitation land, and the introduction of a hie- from the emperor, at Carlsbad, rarchy into Germany, adducing the where he received from the Czar English adage, “No bishop, no the title of privy counsellor of jusking." In 1704, the English litur- tice, with a pension of one thousand gy was translated, and sent in the albertus-thalers. Instead of returnname of the king of Prussia to the ing from Carlsbad directly to HanoArchbishop of Canterbury, with a ver, he visited Vienna, being weary request that he would give his advice of life in a small city, where he as to the mode of introducing into could find, as he complains, no one Germany the organization of the but the Electoress Sophia, who took English church; and it is a singular any interest in philosophy. He was fact, that the plan was defeated by the extremely desirous of spending a Helmstädt divines refusing to avow
part of every year in London, where in express words their abhorrence he could enjoy the society of such of Popery, at which the archbishop men as Boyle, Bentley, and even was so offended that he would hold Newton. But he could not obtain no connection with the Protestant liberty from the Elector, who con