prize of their high calling, in fact, it brings down the mind from the familiar and habitual contemplation of the true perfection, to direct its attention to a fictitious or nominal perfection, which, of necessity, is less ennobling and efficient in its influence on the mind. Prof. Upham is, indeed, very careful to guard his readers against the impression that progress ceases when what he calls holiness is attained. But after all, we can not but feel persuaded, that to stimulate to high and holy endeavor, a perfect persection held up before the mind, has a vast advantage over an imperfect one ! So long as the Christian keeps his eye fixed on the exalted perfection towards which the Scriptures point him—that which involves absolute perfection of being and of conduct—a likeness to Christ and to the pure spirits about his throne ; so long he must feel himself powerfully impelled to struggle upward. But let him imagine himself perfect, while the carnal nature is not yet rooted out; let him bring down the standard, and form to himself the notion of an inferior kind of perfection, and he will be in danger of ceasing to feel what mighty necessity there is for effort, in order to grow up into the image of God.

In stating our own views, and what we suppose to be the prevailing doctrine, as to the nature of moral perfection, we have necessarily shown what we regard as the true idea of sanctification. The theory which we have been considering, places sanctification on the same ground precisely as justification, in these respects, that both take place instantaneously, and both alike by an act of faith. The difference which it makes between them is, that while the latter is a forensic act, a setting the sinner right as relates to the law, the former is the bestowment of a positive blessing, the blessing of grace so to deliver from the power of evil as to secure an habit

ual delight in God, and a victory over known sin ; or the state which this theory calls perfection. From this notion of sanctification, we of course altogether dissent. To sanctify, is to make holy ; and if the state of holiness or perfection to which the Gospel proposes to recover fallen man, be such as we have described it, the work of sanctification must be a process, carried on by the grace of God accompanying appropriate means; and can not be regarded as completed, till the soul is fully purified from all traces of the disease of sin. To speak of sanctification as completed in those who still exhibit “such imperfections as flow from our fallen condition, and our connection with Adam, and require the application of Christ's blood,” those who are not “able to assert absolutely and unconditionally that they have been free from sin, at least for any great length of time,” appears to us to be a very singular and unauthorized use of terms. The Bible speaks of all regenerated men as saved, although their salvation is yet incomplete, because their ultimate salvation is made certain. And so it speaks of them all as sanctified, although the work of sanctification is as yet but partially accomplished, because God is pledged to carry it on to perfection. But as we have said before, this use of the term proves altogether too much for Prof. Upham's theory, which applies it only to such of the regenerated as have reached a given point of Christian progress. The practical part of the matter, is attended with equal difficulty. The young disciple, with the hope that he is renewed and justified, wishes to be sanctified also. What shall he do 2 He is a mere babe in Christ as yet. His graces are only beginning to be developed. He has no opportunity to confirm his confidence in God, by actual experience of his faithfulness; or his love, by many rich discoveries of the glory of his character. Nevertheless he is directed to make, at once, a perfect and permanent consecration of himself, with all his faculties of body and of soul to God, and to appropriate to himself the ample provisions of the Gospel with a perfect faith of acceptance; and this as a means to the end, that he may be brought immediately into a state of complete sanctification or perfection. Now this, we do confess, to us seems very much like saying to an infant, who is just able to totter about by the help of his mother's finger, walk, and you will be able to walk. It is telling the inquirerperform those exercises which are implied in a certain state, and you will be in that state ; or more simply,–be perfect, and you will be perfect. No doubt, he replies, but how shall I attain at once, to such self-devotion and such faith ? That is the point on which I wish to be instructed. Certainly, to discover our title to the promises, and to learn to appropriate them to ourselves, and to offer ourselves to God in frequent and hearty self-consecration, are the appropriate means of attaining an elevated state of piety, and of enabling the soul to rest in God as its all-sufficient good. But it appears to us equally certain, that such directions in relation to these duties as those above described, must greatly embarrass the seriously inquiring mind.

We have, perhaps, dwelt sufficiently on the peculiarities of the treatise under review. We have endeavored to exhibit the author's views with fairness, and examine them with candor; and have freely stated our objections. That the work will continue to find readers, and that its calm and temperate tone, and its spiritual views and judicious suggestions on various topics, will render it interesting and useful to many, we do not doubt. It is due to the respected writer, to say, that his views are at a wide remove from

much that has recently been written and said and acted out, on the subject of perfection; and that he has so qualified and guarded his statements, generally, as to avoid, in a considerable degree, what might be considered practically pernicious in the bearings of the theory he adopts. He belongs to the sober, meditative school of Fenelon, and not to that which of late, in some places, has been led by impulse into all the extravagances of popular fanatacism. All this, however, does not prevent our wishing that the treatise on the Interior Life had been written in accordance with what we believe to be the scriptural doctrine of holiness; in the .* Doddridge, rather than in that of Michael Molinos and Francis De Sales.

That the attention of the ministry, and of the church, may be effectually drawn to the practicability and necessity of a far higher type of Christian life than that which generally prevails, is ardently to be desired. Without this we fear that great reverses await us in our religious enterprises, and that the withdrawment of God's special grace, will leave Zion to long seasons of darkness and discouragement. And if there is something better within our reach, we are bound surely by every obligation not to rest contented as we are. Let each then look at the matter for himself, and feel his individual responsibility. Let pastors endeavor by the influence of their own example and spirit, and by steady and continued effort, to bring their churches up to the higher walks of the life of God. And if there are those private Christians, as we believe there are, who are earnestly desiring to understand better what it is to live by faith in Christ, and to have comfort in the Holy Spirit, let them not give over the pursuit, but rest assured that it may be successful. Deeply do we sympathize with the yearnings of every heart that longs for holiness; that pants for the true perfection. Blessed are they who are striving after entire conformity to God, and who feel that they can never be content, till they have his image perfectly restored within their souls l Instead of checking the aspirations of such, we would give them a new impulse. We would persuade them, in place of calling any attainments they have already made perfection, while they are conscious that their shattered moral constitution has but just begun to be restored, to feel like David when he said, I shall be satisfied when I awake in thy likeness / Should any one attain in this life, what has been set forth as the true perfection, he would have no need to speak of it, in order that it might be known. Such an one, would

shed a glory all around him which the world might see. He would be, in the midst of sinful men, like the evening star, when it looks out in serene and untroubled splendor, from among frowning masses of dark and angry clouds. And when all the faithful disciples of Jesus Christ shall finally attain it—having put off the body of death and put on immortality—the Scriptures tell us, that they shall shine forth as the sun, in the kingdom of their Father! O, it is well worth a life of striving to mount up to such a glory ! We can well afford to fight the good fight of faith until we die, while we are sure of victory then;–while we have the certainty, that in the language of John, we shall then be, in every moral lineament, like Him whom we adore


Religious FREEDOM.–the gift of Christ—the hope of earth! Yet, on this subject, as on that of civil liberty, both in respect to its nature and its present condition and prospects, there is afloat much confusion of thought, and much vagueness of speech. Multitudes would seem to think that earth's great battle on this subject has been fought, and it only remains to finish up the fragments and sing the peans of victory. Little do such understand of the full import of the thing itself, and of its actual condition in the world at large; and still less of the baptisms of blood that lie between it and universal conquest. We know not how to speak intelligently of its present prospects except in the light of its true nature and its real general condition.


Men are wont to speak of the di

vine and human governments as if they were not only separate and distinct, but might with propriety be constructed and administered on different and even opposite principles, and for different and even conflicting ends. No mistake is great. er. In strictness of speech and of rightful existence and authority, there is but one government in the universe. All others are but parts of the one great whole that ruleth in and over all. Within assigned limits and for given ends, the subordinates may be distinct and separate from the superior, but even there they exist only by its allowance or direction, they are subject wholly to its authority and ends, and beyond or contrary to these they have no rightful existence, function, or authority. So far as they rightfully go, they serve merely its place and its offices, and so are but parts of itself; and when, by the wayward perversion of those who administer them, they cease to be just this, or become antagonist thereto, the scourge of the Highest or the bolts that dash them like a potter's vessel are their portion. Now the divine government in its relations to this world, and to all worlds where sin is and is not hopelessly doomed, has, of necessity, three general departments—that of Instruction, to enlighten and guide its subjects; that of Sacrifice or Atoneinent, to recover and save them ; and that of Justice, to maintain its own existence, authority, and usefulness, in the protection of the innocent and the punishment of the guilty. In each of these departments, God, the Supreme Administrator, is competent, if he think best, to carry out all, even the minutest and most temporary details of the administration in his own person, and by his own immediate and visible agency; or, if he think otherwise, is equally competent to call in various intermediate agencies, whether of men or things, and commit such of the details as he chooses to them, he only maintaining such a supervision, support, and direction of the whole, as the particular cases and the general exigencies of his government may from time to time demand. This last we suppose to be the divine arrangement for this world. Accordingly, God ever has had, and with a single exception still has, a ministry of intermediate agencies on earth corresponding to each of the departments named. In all ages, in the works of his hand —the green earth and the shining heavens; in the events of his providence—now speaking in mercy, and now in judgment; in the teachings of chosen men—prophetic, instructive, encouraging and admonitory, there is no land or people but has heard the voice and seen the shape of God's earthly Ministry of Instruction. In like manner, in the Vol. III. 50

desolation of suspended nature or the play of maddened elements, and, since the flood at least, in the existence and action of civil government as a present avenger of slain or injured innocence, the world has had God's earthly Ministry of Justice. And there was a time when, in the service and the sacrifices of a consecrated Priesthood, it also had an earthly Ministry of Sacrifice. But that ministry has done its work. In the coming of the great High Priest, the offering of himself once for all, his entrance into the holy of holies in heaven, and his exaltation upon the mediatorial throne as a Prince and Savior, and ever-living Intercessor, all earthly priesthood and sacrifice are at an end; and now, the Department of Sacrifice in the divine government lives only in Christ's administration of it on high, in those memorials of it he has left on earth in legacy for his people, and those lessons of instruction respecting it which he has commissioned them, as his Ministry of Instruction, to bear to every creature. Now, as in the divine government itself, the Department of Instruction must be, in the order of nature, antecedent to and independent of, as well as distinct from that of justice, God has ever kept his earthly representative of it equally so. For, how can justice make out either innocence or guilt where instruction has not gone before freely and fully to make known obligation and duty 2 Accordingly, in every age and dispensation the ministry of instruction in the divine arrangement has been kept free and independent of all other ministries, knowing no supremacy in its utterance of truth but that of God himself. Even under old economies, it was never competent for the sacrificial nor for the civil power to exercise supremacy in the way of direction over the instructive. Neither was at liberty to say to it what, or when, or how, it should teach, or to put any restric

tions, or hang up any penalties over it, so long as it kept strictly to its work of instruction. In the simple utterance of religious truth, God set it free and high above them all, and bid it speak for him. In the simple garb of prophet or other teacher it did so. It gave instruction touching the character, conduct, and choice of rulers. It descended to all the walks and business of ordinary life, and spoke God's claims and God's truth freely and fully there. No earthly power was at liberty in respect to any thing to strike it dumb. As occasion called, it walked calmly to the temple, exposed the corruptions of a degenerate priesthood, and told it that according to its iniquities God had made it contemptible and base before all the people; or, it stepped into the halls of legislation, declaring that God would have no fellowship with him which frameth mischief by a law; or it came into the presence of the judiciary, pronouncing woes on those that justified the wicked for a reward, and took away the judgment of the righteous; or it drew near to proud and oppressing nobles, and exclaimed against them as wolves ravening the prey; or it carried rebuke to the people, assuring them of the divine indignation, because they had used oppression, and exercised robbery, and vexed the poor and the needy; or it stood in king's palaces, and in the name of the Most High said to kingly offenders, “Thou art the man.” In a word, wherever, and to whatever, and to whomsoever, God's authority extended, his ministry of instruction went with his lessons of instruction. Prophets, priests, legislators, judges, princes, people, kings, in all the relations and acts of their respective lives, were the subjects of its attention and address. Now Christianity recognizes and perpetuates this same function of the instructive power, and its same relation to the civil. The civil is

now, as ever, God's earthly ministry of justice. As such its whole work is the protection of innocence and the avenging of wrong—“a praise to them that do (not teach) well; a terror to them that do (not teach) ill.” It is no part of its rightful and appropriate work to be the instructor of its subjects—least of all to assume the direction of their religious instruction. This is devolved on another ministry—God's ministry of instruction. As such, that holds its commission from the Lord Jesus. Its direction and work are to propagate his religion in the simplicity of its worship and the fullness of its instructions, to the ends of the earth; and, in so doing, to maintain every where and in respect to all beings and things the entire supremacy of Christ; to insist on the devotion of all hearts, the obedience of all lives, the subjection of all relations, employments, and interests—that every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess “that Hs is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” No subject, man, officer, authority, relation, employment, or interest is to be exempt. Wherever Christ's authority extends, there is the gospel of his instruction and worship to go. No man or combination of men is to draw a charmed circle here, and another there, and say, hitherto shalt thou come, and no farther; least of all are they to draw that circle around men in their civil relations, whether acting as rulers or the ruled. No—the gospel of Christ, beginning with the individual, lays his individual will, life, and interest, at Christ's feet; and, going thence to the social and the civil man, demands the equal submission and obedience of the entire social and civil heart, life, and interest. While to the one it comes with the mandate, “Whether ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God,” it says to the other with like authority, “Be your conduct in civil relations (no.

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