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tions, and which are still very im- end; yet it seems to us it can not perfectly understood by many who fail of an encouraging measure of think themselves acquainted with success. The third part and onthe general principles of his treatise. ward, we find the most novel and Prof. Day, however, has examined interesting portion of the volume. for himself. He has not trusted to The lessons consist of very short the dicta of any man.

He has seen

extracts in prose or poetry adapted reason to differ from Dr. Rush on

to prompt a natural gesticulation, some minor points, and has given each piece being accompanied with the subject a very thorough and a figure exhibiting the speaker in a searching examination in all its ma- graceful attitude, and illustrating terial parts—we mean the subject some appropriate gesture. These of training the voice. There is an- figures seem likely to impress the other and very broad field into imagination of pupils more strongly which he has not attempted to enter, even than the example of their teachviz. the principles which guide us, It can hardly be feared, that expressing thought and feeling by the gestures can pass from their modifications of the voice ; in other minds or cease to be models of words," what determines the place practice in future life. of the emphasis, the kind of slide,"&c. This he leaves to the taste and judg. Statutes of the State of Conneclicut, ment of the reader, expecting that and additional laws to 1844, reif he is perfect master of the organ duced to questions and answers, he will use it substantially right, for the use of schools and famiunder the impulse of excited feeling. lies. By WilLIAM B. WEDGWOOD, A treatise on this subject, however, A. M. Published by Gurdon Robis greatly needed--a philosophical ins. Hartford, 1844. inquiry into the subject of emphasis in its various and extended relations. This work is recommended by

Thomas S. Williams, Chief Justice The Young Speaker : An introduc- of Connecticut, and by other gentle

tion to the United States Speaker; men of the bar, better qualified than designed to furnish exercises in ourselves, to judge both of the corboth Reading and Speaking, for rectness of the compilation and of pupils between the ages of six and the importance of such a work as a fourteen; comprising selections text-book in our primary schools, in prose, poetry and dialogue, and as a book of reference for the and a variety of figures illustra- community at large. We cheerfulting principles of position and ly express our concurrence in the gesture. By John E. LOVELL, views of these gentlemen, and hope formerly instructor in the Mount for the work a wide circulation, be. Pleasant Classical Institution, Am- lieving it can not be made familiar herst, Mass. ; and author of the to the public, without preventing United States Speaker, Rhetorical much inadvertent crime, and securDialogues, &c. Published by Dur. ing a more efficient administration rie & Peck. New Haven, 1845. of justice, through the intelligent co

operation of the people with the offi. An examination of this work has cers of the law. We think, howleft in our minds a high opinion of ever, the work is susceptible of imits excellence. It comes into exist- provement by the addition of a few ence as a competitor for public fa- subjects, now wholly omitted, such vor with a multitude of works, de as nuisances, frauds and breaches signed, and in many cases admira- of trust, than which no topics are of bly adapted, to accomplish the same more practical consequence.

Lectures on Church Government, to two volumes a year, but much

containing Objections to the valuable time was lost by delays and Episcopal Scheme, delivered in by temporary arrangements with difthe Theological Seminary, An- ferent publishers. Eight years had dover, Aug. 1843. By LEONARD elapsed, and eleven volumes had Woods, D. D., Professor of Chris. been published, before the editor, in tian Theology. New York; pub- 1827, assumed the entire responsibil. lished by Turner and Hayden, ity of the work, both in its pecuniary Feb. 1844. pp. 198, 12mo.

and scientific interests. Thirty sev.

en volumes have since been added, We have here a plain common making forty eight,* in twenty six sense view of the Episcopal contro- years. versy, drawn up in the author's usual Death and vicissitudes have rediscursive, but kind and temperate moved most of the original subscrimanner, with no parade of learning, bers, and although many new reand no attempts at original or pro- cruits have been obtained, their found discussion. The spirit of the numbers and the existing resources work is excellent; and the humble, are inadequate to the exigencies of anxious inquirer, who wishes to sat- the service. isfy his own conscience on the sub The American Journal has never ject, will find the work suited to changed its title, its editor or its meet his wants.

plan; this can not be said of any

other Journal of Science in the En. THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF Sci. glish language ; and it is believed THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF Sci- that in age it is not surpassed by any ENCE AND ARTS.

work having a similar object. A Being desirous to contribute our noble band of contributors, chiefly aid to sustain this important national gratuitous laborers in the cause, have work, and with a view to extend its aided it from the beginning to the patronage and influence, we have present time, and without their help obtained from the senior editor the the editor could not have sustained following historical statement of facts the work; although, since July, 1838, and prospective plan for the Journal and during the publication of the after 1845.

last fifteen volumes, he has been In our next number we shall call effectually assisted by one trained by the attention of our readers again to himself, but of whose merits he is the claims of this national work on precluded from naming any thing the American public.—ED. except his zeal and fidelity.

Plan and future prospects of To the Editor of the New Englander. the Journal.- Index volume.-The

Dear Sir,—The American Jour. forty eighth volume will, in regular nal of Science and Arts was pro- course, be finished in April, and jected upon the plan of one volume the forty ninth in October, 1845. per annum of 400 pages, in quar. The want of a general index has terly numbers, the first of which long been felt, and it is proposed appeared in July, 1818.

that the fiftieth volume shall be At the end of the year, these lim- devoted to that object. It will form its were found to be too narrow, an extra bill at the regular rate of while the receipts proved insufficient the Journal, and will be sent to all to pay the expenses ; this seemed to the subscribers who do not dis. forbid an enlargement of the plan, tinctly express their dissent, by a diand the work was relinquished by rect communication to the editors. the publishers. The editor, reluctant to give it up, hazarded the extension * Including the volume now in the press. .

The utility of such an index in sa. compensated by the sets that have ving much time and labor in re been sold. Many entire sets have search for articles and subjects, is been presented gratuitously to infant quite obvious, since even those sub institutions at home, and to scientific scribers who do not possess entire individuals and public bodies abroad, sets may obtain access to them in while the current numbers, as they various libraries. That the regular have appeared, have been freely course of scientific and practical given and exchanged, with and with. publications may not be interrupted, out an adequate equivalent, as the the Index volume, although number interests of useful knowledge, the ed Fifty, will not be allowed to in. demands of courtesy and benevoterfere with the regular appearance lence, and the liberal spirit of sciof the Journal at the beginning of ence, required. each quarter; it will be in fact, an A very large accumulation of the extraneous collateral volume. With back volumes of the Journal re. this volume, however, it is intended mains on hand, but it is hoped that to close the series with the end of they will not be allowed to slumber the year 1845.

uselessly in our attic. Entire sets New Series. It is expected that will be furnished, as heretofore, in in January, 1846, No. I of a new the hope and belief that they will series will appear, and it is hoped prove highly useful, while the avails that an enlarged subscription and a will aid us in reprinting the exhaustreduced postage, may justify a price ed numbers, and thus the work may equivalent to that of the literary be perpetuated. . In every enlightquarterlies, although a more limited ened country, this Journal has been, patronage and a heavier expendi. for many years received as a work ture, would fully justify the original of great value, especially in regard price of the Journal."

While we

to the western continent, while its invite all the existing subscribers relations with scientific men and to continue, it is expected and be. journals of science, and public inlieved that many additional patrons stitutions, both at home and abroad, will appear for the new series, have long been fully established; which will retain the scientific char- it would be easy to support these acter, but will be made as practical positions by numerous authorities, · and readable as possible.

but in relation to a work which has The Old Series.-Fifty volumes already outlived almost a human of the American Journal of Sci- generation, such a display_would ence and Arts, will we trust be fin. appear to be superfluous. Except. ished by the end of the currenting its much respected coadjutor, year. They will contain a large the Franklin Journal of Philadel. mass of important and interesting phia, (which, however, in its useful communications, both scientific and and honorable course, occupies a practical, with ample graphic il different sphere,) it is alone, among lustrations ; being chiefly original American journals of science, in American productions, the entire having sustained all vicissitudes for work has thus become a necessary more than a quarter of a century, part of the public libraries of the until it has reached a degree of country, and it is to be found in maturity which will, we trust, innot a few private collections. With sure its long continued existence a view to its perpetuity and more and usefulness, even after its founder extended usefulness, the back num shall have ceased from his labors, bers, as they have run out, have

B. SILLIMAN. been regularly reprinted, at an ex New Haven, Nov. 19, 1844. pense which has been inadequately

THE

NEW ENGLAND ER.

No. X.

APRIL, 1845.

L. H. aturater,

CONGREGATIONAL COUNCILS AND ASSOCIATIONS.

THERE IS A NECESSITY FOR Ec. higher duties to the whole body of CLESIASTICAL BODIES MORE EXTEND Christ. Nor can it sunder these ED THAN SINGLE CHURCHES.

ligaments, or disown this relationEach church of Christ sustains ship, without at the same time comimportant relations to all other mitting suicide. As well might a churches, and to the church univer. a member of the human body unsal, in addition to its peculiar ties to dertake to subsist and act for itself its own members. If the direct end alone, refusing to help or be helped of its organization is the due regu- by its fellow members. The very lation and training of its own mem- attempt to appropriate its whole life bers, for the furtherance of their to itself, or its own exclusive wel. peace and holiness, the ultimate end fare, would sever it from the comof it, to which this first end is sub- mon spring of life, torn from which servient, is the advancement of the none can live. So is it with the kingdom of Christ in the world, the body of Christ and its members. welfare of the church universal. And it is well observed by Owen, This is evident from the fact that that a church which isolates itself each church, like each individual, is from other evangelical churches, is but a member of the body of Christ. a body to which it is dangerous Hence it is bound indissolubly to for any person to commit his soul. that body and to all its members. Its Thus arises a twofold necessity prosperity and peace are in a high for communion and concert of degree identified with theirs. For churches, involving of course ecit is divinely ordered, so that of ne clesiastical bodies more extended cessity the members should have the than single congregations of besame care one for another, and lievers. whether one member suffer, all suf 1. They are needed for the care fer with it; or one member be hon- of those common interests which afored, all the members rejoice with fect the well being of the whole it. 1 Cor. xii, 25, 26.

body, not less than of its single Hence, while the first and imme- members. It is one of the clearest diate concern of every church is of all axioms in secular as well as with its own members, its obligations religious affairs, that all who are do not terminate with them. It has affected by given measures, should still higher relations, and owes still have a share in their management. Vol. III.

21

Quod tangit omnes, debet ab omni. dividual peace and prosperity, and bus tractari. Things which relate render them tributary to the welfare to the common defense, welfare, and of the whole body of Christ. peace of the churches; and in which Any system of church polity, agreement is of the highest moment therefore, which does not make ad. to all and each of them, should be equate provision for this purpose, is adjusted by a common council rep so far forth vitiated by a radical de. resenting all, and not by the caprice fect. A system which claims adopof single churches. The good which tion, should not only show itself they are all bound to promote, the adapted to the internal regimen of evil which they are all bound to resist, single churches, but also well fitted they may manage with far greater to bring into exercise the communion efficiency and success in combined of churches in all needful combined than separate action. United they ecclesiastical action. It must prostand against all assaults; divided vide ecclesiastical bodies, constituted they are an easy prey to foes within ihty a union of churches, which are and without. The preservation and competent to promote the peace, promotion of sound doctrine, the purity, and prosperity of the whole increase and propagation of religion, body; to "provide for the common the suppression of error, discord, defense, and promote the general and prevailing sins, obviously re welfare." We believe it can be quire their united action.

shown that no system of church 2. Various cases arise in the ad- government secures these ends so ministration of the affairs of a sin. well as the Congregational. gle church, which either deeply af Congregationalism reaches these fect other churches in their conse objects by means of councils form. quences, or are beyond the ability ed by a union of churches, each of of the churches in which they occur which chooses one lay delegate to to issue safely without assistance attend, together with its pastor, who from sister churches. The settle. is always a member ex officio. These ment and dismission of pastors re councils may be either standing boquires the counsel and assistance of dies to attend to all cases within other churches on both these grounds. their circuit, as in Connecticut; or Cases of discipline, either because occasional, selected and formed for they are weighty or complex in their each successive case, and dissolved own nature, or on account of the when it is issued. Of the compara. obstinate dissensions they engender, tive merits of standing and occasionor because the person censured in- al councils, we shall treat hereafter. sists that he is oppressed, it may be But we have described the general absolutely indispensable to submit to character of those bodies, which on a higher court for advice, before the Congregational system, transact they can be issued with safety. In such'ecclesiastical business as is besuch emergencies it is the duly of a yond the province or ability of parchurch to ask, and of its associate ticular churches. And it is mainchurches to render the requisite as- tained, that on a general view, aside sistance, to be helpers of their joy, from a minute survey of their workwithout lording it over their faith. ings, they are eminently scriptural

Thus it is clear that the great and rational. ends of church organization can not 1. They are scriptural. The be realized, without the action of ec. only example recorded in the New clesiastical bodies more extended Testament of any ecclesiastical bothan single churches, and capable dy more extensive than a particular of reaching those churches them- church and its officers, is found in selves, so far as to further their in Acts xv. Here it appears that the

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