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and heaven there must be a homo- innocence, and grace of the second geneity-an internal relation; “ that state, or state of lapsed nature. relation which, by God's eternal or There are treatises upon these dinances and his express promises, several subdivisions. exists between sanctity and beati Works are then divided into three tude ; terms which are not only in classes, viz. works deserving of separable, but which stand in the eternal life, works, only morally relation of cause and effect.” If good, and salutary works. Those this is all, we do not object to the works are called salutary which in idea, though we should prefer to some mode conduce to eternal hapexpress it by some less exceptiona- piness or justification, viz. works of ble term. But this is not all which faith, hope and charity, fasting, is meant by the term merit when alms, &c.” No such work can be applied to the works of believers. performed without actual grace. Not to insist upon the sense attached But “man even in his fallen state to it by the body of Roman may without grace perform some Catholics, let us see how it is un works which are morally good ; i.e. derstood by Dens, the acknowledged which are done according to the dicguide of their priests. We shall tate of right reason through the discover that his doctrine of grace natural powers only, with the gene. is completely nullified by that of ral concurrence of God; and which merit; for man can both do by are intermediate between sinful grace deeds which entitle him to works, and such as conduce to saleternal life, and deserve an increase vation." of grace for these self-same deeds. The writer next proceeds to asWe can not follow him in all his sign the various causes of grace. minute scholastic distinctions on “ The primary efficient cause of these points, but shall give a brief grace, both actual and habitual, is outline of them to illustrate our God alone. The secondary or inposition.
strumental efficient causes are the He first divides grace into two human nature of Christ, and the sakinds, external and internal; the craments of the church. The minone affecting a man outwardly or isterial causes are angels and men; through the senses, as the preaching angels, by supplying directions by of the Gospel; the other affecting which we may attain to grace; and him inwardly. Internal grace is men, not only by prayer and teachthen divided into grace conferred ing, but also by administering the gratuitously, and grace which places sacraments. The final cause is the its subject in a gracious or accepta. glory of God and Christ, and our salble state before God; and this latter vation. The meritorious cause is species of internal grace is divided Christ. The prayers and merits of into habitual and actual grace. holy men may be a meritorious
Habitual grace is divided into pri- cause, but subordinate to the merits mary, which makes the unrighteous of Christ, because they are united righteous, and secondary, which is to him. In this way a just man, by an increase of grace, and makes the works done through grace, may wore righteous more righteous.
thily merit for himself an increase Actual grace is also divided into of grace, and properly merit prima1, operating and co-operating; 2, ry grace for another." preventing and subsequent; 3, ex Dr. Dens divides merit into two citing and assisting ; 4, sufficient kinds; the merit of fitness and the and efficacious; 5, grace of the un merit of worthiness. The former derstanding and grace of the will; is “ a work to which some reward 6, grace of the first state or state of or recompense is ascribed from gra
tuitous liberality and propriety ;" the firmament; and they that turn the latter, “ a work to which a re many to righteousness, as the stars ward or payment is due from jus. for ever and ever.” This prooftice."
text is about as applicable as many He then asserts that “the ac which are ordinarily appended to tions of a just man working by Confessions of Faith. grace, merit worthily (i. e. justly Here then we have the doctrine, deserve) grace and glory ;" that as plain as words can make it, that even “the endurance of diseases and men can merit salvation for them. other afflictions can be meritorious selves and others; that on performand satisfactory;" and in short, that ing certain works of mercy they “ every human action which pro- may hereafter claim the rewards of ceeds from free will not only moved heaven as their just due. True we by actual grace, but also instructed are told that this very merit flows by sanctifying grace, if it may be from the grace of Christ; but to referred to God, is worthily merito the mass of Roman Catholics what rious : and thus not only acts of is this but an unmeaning abstraccharity, but also of temperance, tion? Is it not their practical belief justice and every virtue, are merito- that they can counterbalance their rious of eternal life.”
sins by their good deeds? The The Douay Catechism inculcates round of ceremonies prescribed by the same doctrine. In chapter xv. the church encourages this belief; we find mention of seven corporal the doctrine of the sacraments, esworks of mercy and seven spiritual. pecially that of penance, encouraThe former are, 1. To feed the hun- ges it. The very grace of God is gry. 2. To give drink to the thirsty. conferred through the sacraments, 3. To clothe the naked. 4. To har. and these do not depend for their bor the harborless." '-5. To visit the efficacy on the faith of the recipi. sick. 6. To visit the imprisoned. ent. Theologians may insist that 7. To bury the dead. It is claimed they do ; but the mass of the peothat these works are meritorious, ple do not so understand it; and and justly entitle him who performs here we think they follow the Coun. them to a reward in heaven, from cil of Trent more closely than its such passages as Matt. xxv, 35, 36, learned apologists. Dr. Moehler 2 Tim. iv, 7, 8,* and Heb. vi, 10, tells us that “the Catholic church, where such deeds are commended above all things, insists on a radical in. simply as proofs of devotion to the ternal change.” But where does she Lord Jesus Christ, whose reward is insist upon it? In her pulpits ? Who “ of grace.”
does not know that the pulpit occuThe seven spiritual works of mer. pies a secondary place in Roman cy are, 1. To give counsel to the Catholic churches even in this coun. doubtful. 2. To instruct the igno- try-where the priest is made a rant. 3. To admonish sinners. 4. preacher by the force of circumTo comfort the afflicted. 5. To for- stances—while in the cathedrals of give offenses. 6. To bear patiently the old world it is rarely found at the troublesome. 7. To pray for all? Who does not know that one the quick and dead.
thing which distinguishes Protestants These works are proved to be from Roman Catholics is the impormeritorious from Daniel xii, 3! tance attached by the former to the “They that be wise, (or are teach- faithful preaching of the Gospel ? ers,) shall shine as the brightness of Where in Roman Catholic countries
can be heard, upon the Sabbath, a * The Rhemish Testament here reads clear and faithful exhibition of the a crown of justice.”
sinfulness of man and the necessity
of repentance and a new life? It the hearing of the people? Do the is the mass, the ceremony, the sa great body of Roman Catholics crament; something to address the know anything about the nature senses, not the understanding and and necessity of that “radical in. the heart, which we there find. ternal change,” on which we are The altar is above the pulpit, the told the church insists so much? sacrament is put before the preach. We hazard nothing in the assertion, ing of the word.
that they are as ignorant on this The theories of Moehler find no point as the heathen. The only re. realization in the general belief and generation they know of is baptism. practice of Romanists.
The church stands before and in the We would lay stress upon this way of the Gospel, instead of modpoint by repetition. Let us not be estly following it to receive its conblinded by the plausible representa- verts into her bosom. The work of tions of men of shrewd and cultiva. regeneration should precede all conted minds concerning the inoffen- nection with the church; but the siveness of the doctrine of merit in church assumes to accomplish it the Romish church. What are the through her sacraments, and to disfacts in the case? Is the doc- pense salvation to those who keep trine of Bossuet, Moehler or Wise- her commandments. man, that the term merit is but expressive of the worth and dignity of
[We are necessarily obliged, by the
pressure of other matter, lo postpone to ihat which we perform through our next Number the conclusion of this grace, inculcated from the pulpit in Article.-Ed.)
f. P. Thorwisoolo
A CHRONICLE “THE CHURCH" FOR 1844.
Ar the beginning of a new year, (we know not what else to desig. it may be useful to recur to a few nate it) an opportunity of defining points connected with the discussion its own position in our review of of “church principles," in which Bishop Brownell's Charge, (p. 143.) we have mingled somewhat freely The manner in which the number during the past twelve months. We was received by the organs of these do not allude to the subject now for parties,—the Episcopal Recorder, the sake of reiterating arguments and the Churchman-was both amuwhich we have already presented sing and instructive. The Recordunder every possible aspect, but er, passing over our inquiry into that we may put on record certain the position of the evangelical party, facts which seem worthy of pre- forgot its usual candor and courtesy servation, and which may be of ser. in its sympathy for prelacy, and vice hereafter. Nothing has ap- made a most alarming assault upon peared in the present controversy our picture of Connecticut Episwith “church principles," which copacy in canonicals. has produced so much commo Its editorial of February 17, is tion among Episcopalians of every worth preserving entire. It is as grade, as did the number of the New follows: Englander for January, 1844. “ A SPECIMEN.-We have remarked in that number we attempted to define another article upon the assaults which the position of the evangelical party simply give a few sentences from a late
our church is obliged to bear. We will in the Episcopal church, (p. 113,) professed review of the Charge of Bishop while we gave the dominant party Brownell in the New Englander, a quar
terly religious publication at New Haven, having three several pamphlets of the of course from a vehicle which is con very same description received this week, sidered dignified and gentlemanly accord to show the nature of this warfare, and ing to their standard.
one reason why we have no taste for *** Ought we for Christ's sake, to be so. mingling in it." ber, when prelacy is acting Bottom in the play, because it is prelacy, and not the
We shall have occasion to refer real Bottom?'"
to this “specimen” again. “ . Here it (Connecticut Episcopacy) is would only ask here, whether it is ness, and our churches and ministers
may in accordance with the “spirit of see it without mistake. The dry bones Christ” to select an article of unu. are uncovered, the dead Aat of Pharisaism sual though justifiable severity, as grin of spiritual death stares them in the a“ specimen”
of the ordinary tone face.'
of the New Englander ; to make “. Bishop Doane goes over to get the garbled extracts from that article, annointing of Dr. Pusey, pous Lord George, to set up a cross ? ' On: presenting its seemingly harsh stric derdonk is so fierce to become a Lord, tures out of their connection and so that he makes himself a bear. And the perverting their meaning; to keep good Bishop of Connecticut, whose mis- out of view the arrogant and confortune it is to be hedged about by the temptuous assault upon the great which it will not do so well either to be doctrines of the Bible as held by all a Lord or a bear, must still charge.' evangelical Christians, which called
“«The Book of Common Prayer is a it forth; and then to denounce the shell of sects and schisms in its own coinposition, a patchwork of discord and mo
New Englander as a low and vul. ral confusion.''
gar assailant of the church of Christ. “« The church has been and now is but This may be " considered dignified a band of discord and confusion—a synod and gentlemanly according to the of foxes and firebrands—Calvinistic min. standard” of the Recorder ; but to isters, priestly drones and nothingarians -Arminian bishops who have not so us it savors of slander and “ill. much as learned from Arminius the no. bred abuse." tion of a spiritual religion-sentimental
The Churchman on the other formalists, formalists without sentiment save the love of money and good living, hand, thinking it prudent to refrain Oxfordizing and Romanizing doctors-all from commenting upon our review kennelled together under the standard of the “ errors of the times,” fully of faith and worship in the Book of Com. endorsed all that we said of the inmon Prayer.'”
“These are some extracts from the Jan. consistency of the evangelical party. uary number of this great modern vehicle A communication appeared in the and defender of Congregationalism. Are Churchman of March 2d, in which, they the spirit of Christ? What must be after quoting a few sentences from the known taste and character of the persons for whom such provisions are made? our "position of the evangelical We can appeal to the whole range of the party, the writer remarks as folsharpest assaults in our sharpest publica- lows : tions against the errors of Presbyterianism and Congregationalism, and ask if any “ The above extracts, Mr. Editor, are single instance can be found approaching from an article in the New Englander, these in character. We can not wonder the whole of which from its pointed and at the indignation of Connecticut Episco- nervous style, as well as from its peculiar palians at such ill-bred abuse. And while fiiness, may be profitably read by all quasiihe same publication invites the low evangelicals. The writer has evidently churchmen of our church to come out studied the Prayer-book and its doctrines and unite with them, we think the an to some purpose, and has made a home swer at present to be sufficient, whatever thrust which must cause no little uneamay be their religious offers, that we siness." have not been enough accustomed to per “ We tell the New Englander, and we sons of this language and demeanor to be tell him honestly, that he is right in the come hardened to their rudeness, or to view he has taken of the Prayer-book and desire any further connexion with them. its doctrines. The church does not and We give our readers these specimens of never has recognized any other than an the kind of assaults we have to meet- Episcopally ordained ministry. Every
clergyman who serves at her altars, red to in our January number in
tion. The review of the Errors of
in reply to the pamphlet of Juris tain the invalidity of others' ministerial Consultus. The article on the "pocommission, and if questioned, will place sition of the evangelical party," ap. Episcopacy where it manifestly belongs, peared in Philadelphia under the on the principle of jure divino. It may be very much doubted, whether in the
name of its author, Rev. Albert whole body of the Episcopal clergy, Barnes; who having thus publicly crooked as some of them may be in other acknowledged it, leaves us at liberty respects, there is one who does not bold Episcopacy to be essential to the perfec- than we could otherwise have done.
to speak more freely of its merits tion of a church, while nineteen twentieths of thein maintain the sounder doc This pamphlet met with a ready trine, that it is essential to the being of a sale, and passed rapidly through church.
So far as the ministry is concerned, the (evangelical) party is high another commendation from the
several editions. It called forth church to the back-bone."
“ We would gladly see the article from Churchman in the following words. the New Englander published in every “Mr. Barnes' position of the Evan. paper of the land, for it takes the bull by the right horn. Such sentiments will gelical party, which appeared first soon lead our low church brethren to
in the New Englander, has been re#define their position,' and after defining printed in several different forms. it, to keep it.
It is on many accounts a valuable It will be seen from these ex- production, and deserves to be ex: tracts, that each party in the Epis- tensively circulated."-Churchman, copal church took more notice of April 6. what was applicable to the other in It met with a different fate, how. our January number, than of what ever, at the hands of the Recorder. had reference to itself. Perhaps It was immediately attacked with this was judicious in them both. It great virulence in the columns of was not long, however, before both that usually moderate journal, and parties forgot their discretion. Our the substance of three editorials was review of the Bishop's doctrines of then published in a pamphlet, which tradition, church salvation and bap- is the very counterpart of Mr. tismal regeneration, was not suf. Barnes' in shape, size and color, fered to wither under the animad. -in every thing-except its logic versions of the Evangelical Records and its spirit. The predominant er. It was summoned before the feature of this pamphlet is ill-nature. bar of High Churchism itself, where When we first read it we were the Bishop appeared by his attorney, strongly inclined to hand it over to (a lawyer known only as the attachè our friend Juris Consultus, that he or umbra of a miter,) and undertook might read the authors a lecture on to show without a single reference his three favorite points of criticism, to Scripture, that “ New England- viz. "taste and style," " courtesy," ism” i. e. the pure faith of the Gos- and “orthodoxy."* But relenting pel as it has been held by the at the thought of instigating one churches of New England for two sour-tempered churchman to worry hundred years, is “not the religion another, we concluded to leave it to of the Bible.” The plea of this Mr. Barnes to administer the reproof attorney was dissected, as far as it which such an outrage on all the would bear dissection, at p. 309. common decencies of life demanded.
At length it was deemed expedi. ent to reprint both the articles refere
* N. E. Vol. II, pp. 309–313.