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thing of interest to the Government, which it was possible to preserve, was transferred to the Cumberland. Every thing in the Yard, that, might be of immediate use to the Confederates, was destroyed, includiny many thousand stands of arms. Carbines had their stocks broken by a blow from the barrels, and were thrown overboard. A large lot of revolvers sbared the like fate. Shot and shell by thousands went to the bottom.
The work of destruction was un weariedly continued from nine o'clock until about midnight, during which time the moon gave light to direct the operations. But when the moon set, the barracks near the centre of the Yard were fired, in order that by the illumination the work might be continued. But time was not left to complete the work. Four o'clock of Sunday morning came, and the Pawnee was passing down from Gosport harbor with the Cumberland in tow-every soul from the other ships and the Yard being aboard of them, save two. Just as they left their moorings, a rocket was sent up from the deck of the Pawnee, and as it burst, the well-set trains at the ship-houses and on the decks of the fated vessels left behind, went off as if lit simultaneously by the rocket. One of the ship-houses contained the old New York, thirty years on the stocks, and yet unfinished. The other was vacant; but both houses and the New York burnt like tinder.
Within thirty minutes from the time the trains were fired, the conflagration roared like a hurricane, and the crackling, soaring flames seemned, by their motion, to sympathize with the work of destruction beneath. In all this magnificent scene, the old ship of the line, Pennsylvania, enveloped in towering masses of flame, was the central figure. She was a very giant in death, as she had been in life. Several of her guns were left loaded, but not shotted, and as the fire reached them they exploded with a roar which shook the surrounding country.
As soon as the Pawnee and Cumberland were known to be gone, the gathering crowds of Portsmouth and Norfolk rebels burst open the gates of the Navy Yard, and rushed in. As early as six o'clock, a volunteer company took formal possession in the name of Virginia, and ran up her flag. In another hour, several companies were at work unspiking cannon, and by nine o'clock they were moving them to the dock, whence they were transferred to points below, where sandbatteries were to be built.
In April, the Star of the West, which had been fired upon on entering Charleston Harbor, in the unsuccessful attempt to supply Fort Sumter, was sent to Indianola, Texas, to bring off the United States troops that had vacated the forts seized by the Texans. On the 17th, the rebel Colonel Van Dorn, with eighty Texan troops, went on board the steamer General Rusk and steamed down to the Star of the West, as she lay off the bar. As they approached, Van Dorn's vessel was hailed, and he replied, “The General Rusk with troops.” The captain of the Star of the West took it for granted that they were the troops he was expecting. But in a few moments his vessel was seized and sent into Galveston.
The effect of the President's proclamation calling for troops in the
loyal North was electric. The citizens every where formed themselves cinto relief and vigilance committees, the young and ardent rushed to arms, and the older and richer organized meetings, and subscribed with a liberal hand for equipping troops to aid the Government. The authorities of the several cities voted means, and the State Executives convened the legislatures to provide for the exigencies of the nation. Governor Yates, of Illinois, convened the legislature for April 23d, to adopt such laws as were necessary for the more perfect equipment of the militia, and to render efficient assistance to the General Government. Governor Buckingham, of Connecticut, issued a proclamation for troops to rendezvous at Hartford. New Hampshire promptly mustered her troops, and subscriptions of money from citizens and corporations were tendered on all hands. All the States set themselves eagerly to the work, and the troops first ready immediately started for Washington.
The call of the President was for seventy-five thousand of the State militia, which, under the laws of Congress, could not be required to serve more than three months in the year. As Congress was not in session and the Government was almost without means, it was evident that the troops must be equipped and forwarded at the States' expense. Accordingly most of the States immediately voted loans. The quota of New York was thirteen thousand, but a bill passed the legislature in a few hours, authorizing thirty thonsand volunteers for two years, and creating a military board to organize them. On the 24th of April an agent was sent to England to buy twenty-five thousand Enfield rifles. A loan was authorized for three million dollars, which was soon taken. The common council of New York voted one million dollars, which was promptly advanced by the banks, and various public associations subscribed funds to equip the troops that were promptly mus. tering, and to aid their families. In all, twenty-three regiments of three months' troops, comprising a force of more than fifteen thousand men, were put into the field by the State, in compliance with the President's proclamation. Among these were a number of well-equipped and disciplined organizations from the cities of New York and Brooklyn.
In Massachusetts, Governor Andrew, in anticipation of a collision between the rebels and Federal authorities, had previously equipped two thousand militia, who were mostly ready to move. The call for troops was received April 15th, and two regiments mustered on the 16th. The Third Regiment of State Militia, Colonel Wardrop, departed on the 17th for Fortress Monroe, where it arrived in time for the expedition to Gosport Navy Yard on the 20th. The Fourth and Sixth Regiments were also ordered forward at once, the former to Fortress Monroe, and the Sixth to Wasbington via New York and Baltimore...
The excitement in the latter city was great. On the 18th the Governor of Maryland iss'ed a proclamation, exhorting the people to keep the peace, and assuring them that no troops would be sent from Maryland unless to defend the National capital. On the same day the Mayor of Baltimore issued a proclamation concurring with the Governer. The rumors of approaching troops from other States began, however, to inflame the disaffected, and preparations commenced to resist the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment, which started on the 17th, passed through New York on the 18th, in a sort of triumphal march, and on the morning of the 19th arrived at Camden Station in Baltimore, together with a portion of the Seventh Pennsylvania.
Several of the cars containing the troops pushed through the city with horses to the Washington Dépôt, but the remainder, from want of horses, were unable to proceed. Meanwhile an excited and angry crowd gathered in the vicinity of the Camden Station, and while a portion tore up the rails and otherwise obstructed the track, others began to make threatening demonstrations against the remaining Massachu. setts and Pennsylvania troops. These remained quiet for a short timo, when the infuriated mob assailed them with stones, bricks, and other missiles, wounding several of the soldiers. The men then alighted, formed a solid square, with fixed bayonets, and with the Mayor of Baltimore and a body of police at their head, started through the city. The mob rapidly increased in numbers and ferocity, and the shower of missiles upon the troops momentarily thickened, interspersed with shots of revolvers and discharges from the muskets taken from the soldiers. As the wounded soldiers dropped they were taken into the centre, sustained by their comrades, and the column pushed on. Two were now dead and several wounded, when some of the exasperated soldiers returned the fire by single shots. After a severe and protracted struggle, the men finally gained the Washington Dépôt, and immediately embarked, having sustained a loss of three killed and eight wounded. Eleven of the rioters were killed and an unknown number wounded. The Pennsylvanians were also attacked and many injured, as they were unarmed, they were sent back whence they came.
The mob now ruled supreme.' The gun-shops were plundered, other stores closed, and a public meeting summoned for the afternoon. The Mayor and Governor both notified the President that no more troops could pass through Baltimore, and also advised the President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad that the troops then in the city should be sent back, which was done. The mob then waited at Canton for the train coming from Philadelphia, compelled the passengers to alight, and went back in the train to Gunpowder Bridge, which they burned, after which they burned Cushman Bridge and Canton Bridge.
The news of this conflict, as it flew North, caused great excitement. The Northern blood boiled with indignation, and all were eager to save the capital of the Nation. Troops hastened their preparations to press forward and force a passage to the seat of Government. The fact did not fail to impress itself on the public mind, that this first conflict, in this great strife, was the anniversary of the day, the 19th of April, 1775, when the Massachusetts yeomen drew the first blood, from the invading English, at Lexington. The lineal representatives of these men, after a lapse of eighty-six years, were the first to open the war on the soil of Maryland. The deep movement of the popular passions was manifest in many ways. The National flag, which had gone down before the guns of the enemy, became at once the emblem of patriotism and of deeided purpose. It fluttered from every building, and was borne by every person. The stopping of the highway to the capital served to give point to the public purpose, and “through Baltimore” became a rallying-cry. General Scott, at Washington, immediately took measures to open the communication on that side. The news had no sooner reached him than he issued a general order, adding Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania to the military department of Washington, and placing Major-General Patterson, of the Pennsylvania volunteers, in command, with orders to post Pennsylvania troops all along the line, from Wilmington, Delaware, to Washington City.
The enthusiasm in New York was very demonstrative, showing a great contrast to the apparent apathy that had prevailed, since its longcontinued efforts to effect some compromise had ceased to be of any avail. The political sentiment as well as the material interests of New York were ever eminently conservative. Her geographical position had made her the commercial centre of the Union, and her acquired wealth had made her its financial head. The capital of the whole country carne to her for investment. Her own vast capital moved the crops of the West, and the exchanges, based on Southern productions, were negotiated in her market. She was the factor for every producer, the banker for every merchant; she was, so to speak, the negotiator between every section of the Union and foreign nations. She had debtors in every town and hamlet of the country, and every producer, even of the most remote region, was directly or indirectly her customer. In every harbor her shipping was to be found, and her capital insured the merchandise on every lake and river. She could not, therefore, but regard the approach of hostilities with dissatisfaction and dread. She knew that she held the purse-strings of the Nation; that, whatever Congress might plan, or President execute, nothing could be effected without her aid, and that the first burden of every struggle must fall upon her. She therefore strove earnestly to avoid the difficulty ; but when once it burst upon the country, she offered her vast means upon the altar of the Nation, and frankly accepted the situation. Her troops at once assembled in imposing force. Every armory and drill-room was busy with active officers, mustering, organizing, and preparing for the march. The Seventh militia regiment, long the pride of the city, was the first ready, and its departure was a day of triumph long to be remembered.
It marched at four P. M. of the 19th, amidst unparalleled demonstrations of enthusiasm from the dense multitudes who thronged the streets; and on the same day the Rhode Island artillery, Colonel Tompkins, and the Massachusetts Eighth, Colonel Monroe, with General B. F. Butler, went through New York. The troops now began to move in crowds from all quarters. “Through Baltimore,” was the rallying-cry, and the hurrying tread of departing regiments of determined men was drowned amid the cheers and acclamations of the tbrongs, which peopled house-top, street, and wharf, alive with flags and banners, and vocal with patriotic strains. Every Northern State and every condition of life sent its enthusiastic patriots to meet the National foes, and defend the old Stars and Stripes, that, born of independence, has so often been flung to the breeze in the strife of liberty. Massachusetts, in six days from the date of the President's call, had six regiments on the way, including a battalion of riflemen and a battery of artillery. Rhode Island had sent two under Governor Sprague, New York had sent seven. This Northern “avant-garde," as they passed on, were joined by the troops of Obio and Pennsylvania. In Indiana, six regiments were raised and mustered into service in a week after the call was made. All the other States were prompt and effective in their aid. The living stream poured on by rail and flood, and Baltimore, which had, under the bad impulse of the moment, attempted to stay its course, only caused by its resistance an accumulation of force that threatened to sweep the city from existence.
The New York Seventh arrived in Philadelphia at four o'clock A. M. of the 20th. The universal desire of the regiment was to push through, and emulate the gallant Massachusetts men, if it did not avenge them. The difficulties that presented themselves were, however, very grave. The bridges were burned in many places, the rails torn up forty miles from Baltimore, and the road was commanded by the mob, to quell which was no part of the business in hand. The great object was to throw a force into Washington, which should protect the Government; that, once safe, the riot would be taken in hand in its turn. To effect that object, it was necessary to go round Baltimore, and accordingly the regiment proceeded by water to Annapolis, where it arrived on the afternoon of the 22d, in company with the Eighth Massachusetts, under General Butler. The regiment was quartered in the Naval School. On the 23d, General Butler took military possession of the Annapolis and Elkridge Railroad ; and on the same day, the Seventy-first New York arrived. On the morning of the 24th, the troops began their march to Washington.
The track had been torn up between Annapolis and the junction with the Baltimore and Washington Railroad, and here it was that the wonderful qualities of the Massachusetts Eighth regiment came out. The locomotives had been taken to pieces by the inhabitants, in order to prevent the march. A Massachusetts volunteer stepped up, and looking at a piecemeal engine, remarked, " I helped make this engine, and I can put it together again.” Engineers were wanted when the engine was ready; nineteen stepped out of the ranks. The rails were torn up; practical railroad-makers out of the regiment laid them again; and all this without care or food. These brave men were nearly starving while they were doing this good work. As they marched along the track that they had laid, they greeted the New York Seventh with ranks of smiling but hungry faces. One boy said, with a laugh on his young lips, "that he bad not eaten any thing for thirty hours.” There was not a haversack in the Seventh regiment that was not emptied into the hands of these ill-treated heroes, nor a flask that was not at their disposal.
The march continued until the next morning, with a short halt here and there. There were two roads to Washington; one by the railtrack, and the other the common country road. The commander had information that the latter was beset by parties of cavalry, intending