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“Army of the Frontier” in Southern Missouri. In September a party of guerrillas under Colonel Porter made a raid upon Palmyra, and captured among
other persons an old and respected citizen named Andrew Allsman, who had been of great service to scouting parties sent out to arrest disloyal persons. As he was not again heard of, the belief gained ground that he had been murdered, particularly as the guerrillas had been recently guilty of several similar acts. Accordingly, General McNeil gave public notice that, unless Allsman should be surrendered within a given time, ten rebel prisoners should be shot. The ten days having elapsed without tidings of Allsman, ten prisoners were shot in literal conformity with McNeil's notice.
Early in 1863, the rebel General Marmaduke, with a force of six thousand men, proceeded down the Arkansas River to Spadry's Bluff, near Clarksville, Arkansas, and thence marched rapidly north towards Springfield, Missouri, with the intention of seizing the large amount of Federal commissary stores accumulated there. The design of Marmaduke in proceeding so far eastward before making a movement northward into Missouri was to avoid all chance of collision or interference with his plans by Generals Blunt and Herron. He hoped to reach Springfield and accomplish his purpose before they could obtain intelligence of his approach, and this once accomplished, these generals and their army, deprived of all supplies, would, almost of necessity, be compelled either to surrender to General Hindman or fly from Northwestern Arkansas.
As Marmaduke approached Springfield, Generals Brown and Holland, who were in command there, collected a force of about twelve hundred men, sent the stores north towards Bolivar, and succeeded in repulsing the enemy, who retreated with the loss of forty-one killed and one hundred and sixty wounded. Meantime, General Porter, who had been detached by Marmaduke with three thousand men to capture Hartsville, reached that point on the 9th of January, 1863, and moved towards Marshfield. General Fitz-Henry Warren, in command of that Federal military district, sent from Houston, on the 9th of January, Colonel Merrill, with eight hundred and fifty men, to Springfield, to reenforce the Federal garrison there. They reached Hartsville on Saturday, the 10th, and learned that Porter had been there the day previous. Leaving Hartsville at three P. M., they marched to Wood's Forks, on the road towards Springfield, by nightfall, and encamped in line of battle. The next morning (January 11th), at daybreak, they encountered Marmaduke's forces marching from Springfield, and inflicted a defeat upon him. Marmaduke, however, formed a junction with Porter, and marched for Hartsville. Colonel Merrill reached the place in time to put himself in defence. The Confederate attack was repulsed, and the rebels fell back upon Houston, and thence to Little Rock, where Marmaduke remained some two months. On the 17th of April, where he abandoned the chase, and General John McNeil, commanding the District of Southwest Missouri
to Tennessee, under the orders of Thomas, to oppose the invasion of Hood. He checked the advance of the latter at the hard-fought battle of Franklin, November 30th, 1861, and in the suc. ceeding month participated in the series of brilliant victories in front of Nashville. Early in
1565 he accompanied his corps to North Carolina, and co-operated with Sherman in the final overthrow of Johnston. At the close of the war be received command of the Department of North Carolina
, took it up and ran him across the Boston Mountain in Arkansas. General Blunt, commanding the District of the Frontier, having been relieved by General Me Xeil, he at once started to assume the command of Blunt's army. With these last convulsive throes, the active existence of the Confederate authority in Arkansas died out. On the 12th of November, a meeting was held at Little Rock, to consult on measures for the restoration of the State to the Union, and was succeeded by others in different parts of the State.
General Rosecrans succeeded General Schofield in the command in Missouri. Early in 1864, he found it prudent to concentrate his forces in the vicinity of St. Louis, and the country south of the Maramee River was a prey to anarchy. The towns in that vicinity had suffered great injury, and some of them been burnt, the crops destroyed, and the inhabitants conscripted or driven from their homes. Small guerrilla forces, under Shelby and others, committed great depredations. In May, 1864, a company of Missouri cavalry, escorting a train, were de feated and the train burned near Rolla. Vague rumors and threats of a new invasion of Missouri by Price began now to spread with grow. ing strength, and about the 21st of September information was re ceived at head-quarters that Price, crossing the Arkansas with two divisions of cavalry and three batteries of artillery, had joined Shelby near Batesville, sixty miles south of the State line, to invade Missouri with about fourteen thousand veteran mounted men.
The Federal force there consisted of six thousand five hundred mounted men for field duty in the department, scattered over a country four hundred miles long and three hundred broad, which, with the partially organized new infantry regiments and dismounted men, constituted the entire force to cover our great dépôts at St. Louis, Jefferson City, St. Joseph, Macon, Springfield, Rolla, and Pilot Knob, guard railroad bridges against invasion, and protect, as far as possible, the lives and property of citizens from the guerrillas who swarmed over the whole country bordering on the Missouri River.
After the defeat of Banks's expedition, General A. J. Smith, with the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Army Corps, returned to Vicksburg, where they were destined to rejoin the Army of the Cumberland under Sherman, of which force they really constituted a part. Meantime, however, Marmaduke, with a force of about six thousand infantry and cavalry and three batteries, occupied Lake Village, whence he inter rupted the traffic of the Missouri River. General Smith therefore pro ceeded in quest of Marmaduke. On the 5th of June, Smith's force, comprising General Mower's Division of the Sixteenth Corps and one brigade of the Seventeenth Corps, disembarked at Sunny Side. After a march of thirty miles they encountered Marmaduke, and defeated him. On the 7th, Smith's forces re-embarked for Memphis.
No sooner had Price commenced his march than Steele followed, reenforced by Mower's Infantry and Winslow's Cavalry, sent from Memphis, and A. J. Smith's troops, passing Cairo towards Nashville, at the earnest solicitations of the general commanding, were ordered to halt and return to oppose Price, who was aiming for Jefferson City, the State capital. Crossing the White River at Salina, Arkansas, on the 14th of September, with a force estimated at eight or ten thousand, and several pieces of artillery, Price entered Missouri from the southeast. On the 23d, his advance, under Shelby, occupied Bloomfield, Stoddard County, which place was evacuated by our forces on the night of the 21st. On Monday, the 26th of September, Price advanced against Pilot Knob, St. Francois County, which had fortunately been occupied on Sunday by Ewing, with a brigade of the Sixteenth Army Corps, General A. J. Smith. With this force, strengthened by the garrisons of Pilot Knob and outlying posts, Ewing was able to repulse the rebels, who, without delay, undertook to carry the place by assault. Our forces occupied a fort in the neighborhood of Ironton, which was commanded, however, by adjacent hills. Confident of their ability to capture the place by a direct assault, the enemy advanced against it, but were driven back with severe loss by a well-directed fire of artillery and musketry at easy range. The fort was a strong one, mounting four twenty-four-pounders, four thirty-twos, and four six-pound Parrotts, besides two six-pound Parrotts mounted outside ; but the occupation by the enemy of Shepherd Mountain, a hill commanding the place, compelled Ewing to evacuate. After blowing up his magazine, he fell back to Harrison Station on the Southwest Branch Railroad, where he made a stand, behind breastworks left by a party of militia who had previously occupied the town. The enemy followed him sharply, and cut the railroad on both sides of him, severing communication both with St. Louis and Rolla. Ewing reached Rolla with the main body of his troops.
Meantime, Springfield having been placed in a state of defence, General Sanborn moved with all his available cavalry to re-enforce General McNeil at Rolla ; while the infantry of Smith, aided by the militia and citizens, put St. Louis in a state of defence, where General Pleasonton had relieved General Frank Blair. The militia were placed by Rosecrans under the direction of Senator B. Gratz Brown.
Brown concentrated at Jefferson City the troops of the Central District, and, re-enforced by General Fisk with all available troops north of the Missouri, prepared for the defence of the capital of the State, the citizens of which vied with the military in their enthusiastic exertions to repel the invasion. The enemy, after awaiting at Richwood's for a day or two, and threatening St. Louis, started for the State capital. McNeil and Sanborn, moving with all their available cavalry, by forced marches reached the point of danger a few miles in advance of him, and, uniting with Fisk and Brown, saved Jefferson City. Price then retreated upon Booneville, and Pleasonton, having assumed command at Jefferson City, sent a mounted force, under Sanborn, in pursuit. This force, on the 19th of October, united with the brigade of Winslow, which had been dispatched by General Mower to follow the enemy from Arkansas. The united force, now six thousand five hundred strong, under Pleasonton, pursued the enemy to Independence, where the rebel rear-guard was overtaken and routed. Curtis, who held Westport, was driven out by Shelby, who in his turn was defeated by Pleasonton. The retreat and pursuit were kept up with vigor, and, Curtis having united with Pleasonton, the enemy were overtaken at Little Osage Crossing, where two advanced brigades, under Benteen and Phillips, charged two rebel divisions, routed them, captured eight pieces of artillery, and near one thousand prisoners, including Generals Marmaduke and Cabell. Sanborn's Brigade againled in pursuit, overtook the rebels, and made two more brilliant charges, driving every thing before them across the Marmiton,whence the enemy fled, under cover of night, towards the Arkansas. After thus marching two hundred and four miles in six days, and beating the enemy, his flying columns were pursued towards the Arkansas by the Kansas troops and Benteen's Brigade, while Sanborn, following, marched one hundred and four miles in thirty-six hours, and on the 28th reached Newtonia, where the enemy made his last stand, in time to turn the tide of battle, which was going against General Blunt, again routing the enemy. The gains claimed by Price in this invasion were far more than neutralized by his losses. These amounted to ten pieces of artillery, a large number of small-arms, nearly all his trains and plunder, and, besides his killed, wounded, and deserters, upward of two thousand prisoners. The total Union loss was less than a thousand. With this abortive attempt to rival the early successes of the rebellion in this quarter, ended the rebel attempts to conquer Missouri. Price retired with a depleted and demoralized army into Southern Arkansas, and thenceforth Missouri enjoyed a greater degree of tranquillity than she had known since the outbreak of the war.
Mobile.-Its Defences.-Concentration of Troops.—Combined Operations.—Landing on
Dauphine Island.—Order of Battle.—Tecumseh blown up. — Tennessee Attacks Desperate Battle.—Mode of Attack.- Fort Powell blown up.–Fort Gaines Surres ders.—Siege of Fort Morgan.-Surrender.-Minor Expeditions.
As a part of the concerted plan of campaign, an attack upon Mobile was projected by Grant, with the object of weakening Johnston in Georgia, by inducing him to send troops for the defence of that city, After the return of Banks's army from the Red River, and the appointment of General Canby to the command of the West Mississippi Military Division, an expedition against Mobile began to be organized. The land defences of Mobile consisted of three lines of strong earthworks, extending five or six miles to the rear of the city. Along the east coast of Mobile Bay were Pintow's Battery, Batteries Choctaw, Cedar Plain, Grand Spell, and Light-house Battery, each of which consisted of thirty-two-pound rified cannon mounted in earthworks. The land is, however, level and low, and presents no natural advantages for a defence. Forts Morgan and Gaines, commanding the entrance to Mobile Bay, are the first obstacles that a fleet encounters in attempting to enter from the Gulf. The former is situated on the south west
extremity of a long spur of land, that separates Bon Socour Bay m the Mexican Gulf, and commanded the two easterly channels entrance, while the western one, and Grant's Pass, are immediately ler the guns of Fort Gaines, a casemated fortification. Between the s and the city, the channels were obstructed by lines of stout piles en in the mud, and a sloop loaded with stone was stationed immeely in the centre of the channel that runs through Dog River Bar, ly to be sunk on the passage of the forts. In the Mobile River, iderably above the city, an iron-clad ram, the Tennessee, and four den gunboats, were afloat. The harbor of Mobile is generally ow, and it was customary for heavy shipping to anchor just inside Jauphine's Island, near the entrance to the bay, and some twenty& miles from the city. Steamers, however, being more easily ged, were admitted under the guidance of skilful pilots, and even g vessels of six or seven hundred tons could approach the city. aratory to an expedition for the capture of Mobile, the Federal s in Louisiana were concentrated in New Orleans. July, the fleet of Admiral Farragut, accompanied by a land force : Generals Canby and Granger, arrived off Mobile Bay. A conion was held between Generals Granger and Canby with the Ad
on July 8th, when it was determined that Fort Gaines should st invested. The fleet was to cover the landing of a force on nine's Island for that purpose, and the 4th of August was, after