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Marietta, and directly upon the line of the railroad, which here makes a bend to the east, to escape the mountain. Lost Mountain, whose isolated situation explains its name, lies some miles west of southwest of Marietta, directly north of the railroad running from that place to Dallas. Between Kenesaw and Lost Mountain, and half a mile to the north, is Pine Mountain, a lesser elevation, constituting the apex of a triangle, of which the other two may be said to form the base. The three hills and their connecting ridges were fortified, and afforded an admirable defensive position against an attacking army.
On the 9th of June the army was once more put in motion for Atlanta. By means of the railroad, which was kept in good running order from Chattanooga to the front, supplies of all kinds had come forward in abundance, and on the 8th the Seventeenth Army Corps, General Blair, reached Acworth, and was incorporated with the Army of the Tennessee. It compensated for Union losses in battle and for garrisons left at Rome, Kingston, and elsewhere, and Sherman was enabled to renew the attack upon his wary adversary with as strong a force as at the commencement of the campaign. The order of advance was now somewhat different from that previously observed during the campaign, McPherson being shifted to the left wing and Schofield to the right, while Thomas still held the centre. McPherson was ordered to move towards Marietta, bis right on the railroad, Thomas on Kenesaw and Pine Mountains, and Schofield off towards Lost Mountain ; Garrard's Cavalry being on the left, Stoneman's on the right, while McCook looked to our rear and communications. Our dépôt was at Big Shanty.
By the ilth of June our lines were close up, and dispositions were made to break the line between Kenesaw and Pine Mountains. Hooker was on its right and front, Howard on its left and front, and Palmer be tween it and the railroad. During a sharp cannonading from Howard's right or Hooker's left, the rebel general Polk * was killed on the 14th, and on the morning of the 15th Pine Mountain was found abandoned by the enemy. Thomas and Schofield advanced, and found him again strongly intrenched along the line of rugged hills connecting Kenesaw and Lost Mountain. At the same time McPherson advanced his line, gaining substantial advantages on the left. Pushing our operations on the centre as vigorously as the nature of the ground would permit, an assault was ordered on the centre. On the 17th, the enemy abandoned Lost Mountain and the long line of admirable breastworks connecting it
* Leonidas Polk was born in Raleigh, North ( battle of Murfreesboro'. For alleged disobedienco Carolina, in 1806, and graduated at West Point in of orders at the battle of Chickamalga, whereby, 1827, but resigned his commission in the army in according to General Bragg, the Union army was the same year, in order to study for the ministry. alone saved from annibilation, he was placed In 1830 he was ordained a deacon of the Protestant | under temporary arrest. In the early part of Episcopal Church; in 1838 he was consecrated 1964 he regained his prestige by skilful disposiMissionary Bishop of Arkansas and the Indian tions to prevent the junction of Sherman and Territory south of 36° 30', and in 1841 he became Smith in Mississippi, and in consequence was Bishop of Louisiana. He embraced with ardor appointed to command a corps in Johnston's the doctrines of secession, was commissioned a army. He was killed by a cannon-shot while major-general in the rebel army, and until the reconnoitring on Pine Monntain. At the time spring of 1862 held command in Tennessee and of his death he held the rank of lieutenant-genKentucky. He commanded a division at Shiloh, eral in the rebel service. He never resigned his and, during the siege of Corinth, participated in diocese, and intended, at the close of the war, to Bragg's invasion of Kentucky in the autumn of | resume his episcopal functions. 1862, and distinguished himself at the hard-fought
with Kenesaw, to prevent being flanked by Schofield, who had wheeled around Pine Knob, and was pressing along the Dallas and Marietta road. An additional motive for this movement was found in the fact that while our forces had been so successfully at work upon their centre and left, McPherson on our left had put them in a dangerous position on their right, pressing it on that flank beyond Big Shanty and Brush Mountain. Sherman continued to press at all points, skirmishing in dense forests of timber and across most difficult ravines, until the enemy was found again strongly posted and intrenched, with Kenesaw as his salient, his right wing thrown back to cover Marietta, and his left behind Nose's Creek, covering his railroad back to the Chattahoochee. This enabled him to contract his lines and strengthen them accordingly.
Our right, meanwhile, forced its way across and two miles beyond Nose's Creek, on the Dalton and Marietta road. This creek it had been found impossible to cross before, because of the swollen condition of the stream. The stream was to be crossed by a bridge, close beyond which the rebels had a heavy line of skirmishers to repel any attempt to cross. In the face of a raking fire of musketry, four regiments charged over the bridge at a double-quick, driving the enemy before them, and making way for our advance forces. No serious opposition appears, however, to have been made to this advance, the rebel left being already refused. Their position in front of our right to the northeast remained at this time unchanged, their troops resting there behind strong works. Our centre had worked up the base of Kene saw Mountain, and had carried some knobs west of the mountain, thus securing a position for an annoying enfilading fire upon the mountain. These points, which had been lost by the enemy through negligence, were held by our troops so firmly that all efforts to dislodge them were in vain.
Kenesaw Mountain is made up of two elevations, joined almost at their summits, one being about eight hundred feet high and the other about one hundred feet higher. Looking at them from the north side, they have the appearance of two immense mounds, surrounded at the base by gentle irregularities of surface adapted to every depart. ment of agricultural labor. The outline of the mountain rises on the east side rather gradually, describing almost a half circle, thence falling upon the west, about two hundred feet. The other portion joins the first and rises to a still greater height, and being a trifle more irregular. On the west side it then loses itself somewhat abruptly in a small valley beyond, by which the country is deprived of a mountainous character. The base of the Kenesaw is about four miles from east to west, drawing a straight line, and in breadth is about one mile. Its sides are covered with thick forests, brush, and rock and bowlders of various dimensions. It would be impossible to take it in front. The defences of the mountain consisted of a line of works on the summit, upon which were erected several batteries. Upon the sides, single guns were located at commanding points. The flanks of the mountain were beld by heavy bodies of infantry and artillery, and its rear was protected in a similar manner. · It was no longer possible for our wings to make a further advance without cutting themselves loose from the centre, whose further prog. ress was stayed by the formidable defences of Kenesaw Mountain, the enemy on which was watched by McPherson, working his left forward, while Thomas was swinging as it were on a grand left wheel, his left on Kenesaw, connecting with General McPherson, and General Schofield was all the time working to the south and east along the old Sandtown road.
On the 22d, as Hooker had advanced his line, with Schofield on his right, the enemy, Hood's Corps, with detachments from the others, suddenly sallied and attacked. The blow fell mostly on Williams's Division of Hooker's Corps, and a brigade of Hascall's Division of Schofield's army. The enemy was badly repulsed. This was the affair of “Kulp's house." It was now that Sherman, smarting under the imputation that he would not attack fortified lines, but depended upon overwhelming numbers to outflank, determined to risk an attack. Accordingly, on June 24th, he issued orders for an attack to take place June 27th. The general point selected was the left centre; because, if a strong column could be pushed through at that point boldly and rapidly two and one-half miles, it would reach the railroad below Marietta, cut off the enemy's right and centre from its line of retreat, and then either part could be overwhelmed and destroyed.
Accordingly at the appointed time the Seventeenth Corps (Blair's) circled the eastern point of the mountain and threatened the enemy's right. The Sixteenth Corps (Dodge's), next on the right, assaulted the heights on the northern slope of the mountain ; the Fifteenth (Logan's) the western slope of the mountain. On the centre, Davis's Division of the Fourteenth Corps and Newton's of the Fourth constituted the assaulting column, supported on the right by Geary and Butterfield of Hooker's Corps. On the extreme right of our line was stationed Schofield, who moved forward his whole force, driving the enemy from a line of light works. The position to be attempted offered but a desperate chance of success. On the summit of the rugged mountain peak, covered with a dense growth of underbrush, the enemy had stationed a battery of twelve guns, from which they maintained a withering cross-fire on our troops engaged in forcing a passage up the steep sides of the mountain, and over the abatis and rifle-pits behind which the enemy lay sheltered. The utmost efforts of the men could not avoid a repulse. The Union loss, as reported by Logan, was three thousand five hundred and twenty-one. Generals Harker and McCook were among the slain.
General Sherman did not rest long under this failure, and Schofield was ordered to press strongly on the left, while, on July 1st, McPherson, being relieved by Garrard's Cavalry in front of Kenesaw, moved with his whole army by the right, threatening Nickajack Creek and Turner's Ferry on the Chattahoochee. Stoneman was sent to the river below Turner's. The result was the retreat of the enemy on the night of July 2d. At half-past eight A. M., July 3d, Sherman entered Marietta. Logan's Corps of General McPherson's army, which had not moved far, was ordered back into Marietta by the main road, and McPherson and Schofield were instructed to cross Nickajack and attack
the enemy in flank and rear, and, if possible, to catch him in the confusion of crossing the Chattahoochee; but Johnston had foreseen and provided against all this, and had covered his moveinent well. He had intrenched a strong tête de pont at the Chattahoochee, with an advanced intrenched line across the road at Smyrna camp-meeting ground, five miles from Marietta.
Here Thomas found him, bis front covered by a good parapet, and his flank behind the Nickajack and Rottenwood Creeks. Ordering a garrison for Marietta, and Logan to join his own army near the mouth of Nickajack, Sherman overtook Thomas at Smyrna. On the 4th of July he pushed a strong skirmish line down the main road, capturing the entire line of the enemy's pits, and made strong demonstrations along Nickajack Creek and about Turner's Ferry. This had the de sired effect, and the next morning the enemy was gone, and the ariny moved to the Chattahoochee, Thomas's left flank resting on it near Paice's Ferry, McPherson's right at the mouth of Nickajack, and Schofield in reserve. The enemy lay behind a line of unusual strength, corering the railroad and pontoon bridges, and beyond the Chattahoochee.
The operations of General Sherman had been greatly harassed by the movements of guerrillas, and on his arrival in the neighborhood of Marietta he issued the following letter to the people of Tennessee and Georgia, living within the limits of the Department of the Cumberland, for their information, as expressing the sentiments of the departmert commander :
"HEAD-QUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE ) “ MISSISSIPPI, IN THE FIELD, BIG SHANTY,
“GEORGIA, June 21, 1864. "General BURBRIDGE, Commanding Division of Kentucky:
“GENERAL:The recent raid of Morgan, and the concurrent acts of men styling themselves Confederate partisans or guerrillas, calls for determined action on our part.
“Even on the Southern State Rights' theory, Kentucky has not seceded. Her people, by their vote and their actions, have adhered to their allegiance to the National Government, and the South would now coerce her out of the Union and into theirs by the very dogma of 'coercion' upon which so much stress was laid at the outset of the war, and which carried into rebellion the people of the Middle or Border Slave States.
“But politics aside, these acts of the so-called partisans or guerrillas are nothing but simple murder, horse-stealing, arson, and other well-defined crimes, which do not sound as well under their true names as more agreeable ones of warlike meaning.
“Now, before starting on this campaign, I foresaw it, and you remember, that this very case would arise, and I asked Governor Bramlette to at once organize in each county a small, trustworthy band, under the sheriff, and at one dash arrest every man in the community who was dangerous to it; and also every fellow hanging about the towns, villages, and cross-roads who had no honest calling, the material out of which guerrillas are made up; but this sweeping exhibition of power doubtless seemed to the Governor rather arbitrary.
“The fact is, in our country personal liberty has been so well secured that public safety is lost sight of in our laws and institutions, and the fact is, we are thrown back one hundred years in civilization, law, and every thing else, and will go right straight to anarchy and the devil, if somebody dom't arrest our downward progress.
“We, the military, must do it, and we have right and law on our side. Al governments and communities have a right to guard against real and even supposed danger. The whole people of Kentucky must not be kept in a state of suspense and real dan. ger, lest a few innocent men should be wrongfully accused.
"1. You may order all your post and district commanders that guerrillas are not soldiers, but wild beasts, unknown to the usages of war. To be recognized as sol. diers, they must be enlisted, enrolled, officered, uniformed, armed, and equipped, by recognized belligerent power, and must, if detailed from a main 'army, be of sufficient strength, with written orders from some army commander to do some military thing. Of course we have recognized the Confederate Government as a belligerent power, but deny their right to our lands, territories, rivers, coasts, and nationality-admitting the right to rebel and move to some other country, where laws and customs are more in accordance with their own ideas and prejudices.
“2. The civil power being insufficient to protect life and property, ex necessitate rei, to prevent anarchy, which nature abhors,' the military steps in, and is rightful, consti. tutional, and lawful. Under this law everybody can be made to 'stay at home and mind his and her own business,' and, if they won't do that, can be sent away, where they must keep their honest neighbors in fear of danger, robbery, and insult.
“Your military commanders, provost-marshals, and other agents may arrest all males and females who have encouraged or harbored guerrillas and robbers, and you may cause them to be collected in Louisville, and when you have enough—say three or four hundred-I will cause them to be sent down the Mississippi through their guerrilla gauntlet, and by a sailing-ship send them to a land where they may take their negroes and make a colony, with laws and a future of their own. If they won't live in peace in such a garden as Kentucky, why, we will send them to another if not a better land, and surely this would be a kindness to them, and a God's blessing to Kentucky.
"I wish you to be careful that no personalities are mixed up in this, nor does a full and generous love of country,' of the South,' of their State or country, form a cause of banishment, but that devilish spirit which will not be satisfied, and that makes war the pretext of murder, arson, theft in all its grades, perjury and all the crimes of human nature.
“My own preference was, and is, that the civil authorities in Kentucky would and could do this in that State; but, if they will not, or cannot, then we must, for it must be done. There must be an end to strife,' and the honest, industrious people of . Kentucky, and the whole world, will be benefited and rejoiced at the conclusion, however arrived at.
"I use no concealment in saying that I do not object to men or women having what they call 'Southern feeling,' if confined to love of country, and of peace, honor, and security, and even a little family pride, but these become 'crimes' when enlarged to mean love of murder, of war, desolation, famine, and all the horrid attendants of anarchy.
I am, with respect, your friend,
“W. T. SHERMAN, Major-General."
The New Position of the Enemy.-Johnston again Turned and Pushed Back upon
Atlanta-Rousseau's Raid.-Hood Succeeds Johnston.-Investment of Atlanta. | Battles of July 20th and 22d.-Death of McPherson.-Cavalry Raids of Stoneman and McCook.-Defeat and Capture of Stoneman.-Battle of July 28th.-Prolongation of the Union Right Wing. —Changes of Commanders in Sherman's Army.
The oft-recurring difficulty again presented itself to General Sherman of the enemy holding a position too strong to be carried by assault, even with the superior force that the Union general maintained in spite of the continued waste by battle and disease. The position could only be turned by crossing the rapid and deep Chattahoochee on bridges. It was necessary to move promptly, and Schofield was ordered to cross at Soap Creek, eight miles above the railroad bridge. This movement was completed July 7th, and a gun and some prisoners were captured. At the same time Garrard moved