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and one, at least, a pale young German, from Pennsylvania, with a miniature of his sister in his hands, that seemed more meet to grasp an artist's pencil than a musket. Horses fell, shrieking such awful cries as Cooper told of, and writhing themselves about in hopeless agony. The boards of fences, scattered by explosion, flew in splinters through the air. The earth, torn up in clouds, blinded the eyes of hurrying men; and through the branches of the trees and among the grave-stones of the cemetery a shower of destruction crashed ceaselessly.”
The hill, wihch seemed alone devoted to this rain of death, was clearin nearly all its unsheltered places within five minutes after the fire began.
This continued until nearly three o'clock in the afternoon, when Pickett, with his long, flowing hair, affecting the recklessness of a Murat, sprang to the head of his column, which rent the air with a hideous yell, as the troops advanced from out the short, scrubby timber that had sheltered them. The Federal position was approached by a large, bare, sloping meadow, nearly a mile in width. Across this “valley of the shadow of death” the divisions of Pickett and Pettigrew had no option but to proceed, swept by the concentrated fire of the Federal guns, and exposed when nearing those guns to a storm of musketry bullets. The distance was too great to advance at the double-quick; it was necessary to move slowly and deliberately, that, as the men approached the batteries, there might be some dash left for the final onslaught.
As the column advanced, its impetus increased. The men climbed sences and rushed along, each bent upon getting first into the cemetery. The cannon roared, and grape and canister and spherical case fell thick among them. Still they rushed onward, hundreds falling out of the line, until they came within musket-shot of the Federal troops, when the small-arms began to rattle. As the rebels mounted the low bank in front of the rifle-pits, a furious hand-to-hand confiict ensued, and for a time every man fought by himself and for himself. Hundreds of the enemy pushed forward into the works and up to the cemetery. All were shouting, and screaming, and swearing, clashing their arms and firing their pieces. The enemy's shells flew over their field upon the Federal artillerists on the hills above. These, almost disregarding the storm which raged around them, directed all the fire upon the surging columns below. Every available cannon on the Cemetery Hill, and to the right and left, threw its shells and shot in the valley. The fight was terrible; but despite every effort the enemy pushed up the hill and across the second line of works. The fire became hoiter. The fight swayed back and forth. One moment the enemy would be at the railings of the cemetery; then a rush from the Federal side would drive them down into the valley. Then, with loud yells, they would fiercely run up the hill again into the cemetery, and have a fierce battle among the tombstones. It was the hardest fight of the day, and hundreds were slain there.
Pickett had thus gained a partial lodgment. But the division of Pettigrew, which was to support him, was not in time. On the success of Pettigrew depends the ability of Pickett to hold his ground
As Pettigrew advances, and is near the guns, there appears a Union force on his left, descending the hill to outflank him. The line halts and falls into confusion. In vain Longstreet, anxiously watching, sends Major Latrobe to Pettigrew with orders “to refuse his left," in other words, to throw out a line obliquely to meet the Union columns. Latrobe's horse is shot under him-he urges his way on foot with desperate speed-he is too late. The avenging column of Union troops is doing its work. The confused Confederates fell back. The victorious Union troops sweep round in triumph, overlapping Pickett, who is thus forced to let go his hold and retire with what luck he may. Then his corps suffered terrible slaughter. What they lost during ihe fierce onset up to the Federal guns, was as nothing to the devastation of their ranks as they retired broken and shattered across the slope. Of four thousand five hundred who advanced against those fatal works, two thousand five hundred only were mustered on the following day. Three brigadiers lay upon the field, and one major only, of all the field officers, remained sound. Of thirteen colors carried into action, four only remained with the troops. With this repulse the battle was over. As it was, both armies, exhausted by their losses, were glad to rest on their arms and wait the conflict of the morrow.
The following dispatch was at once sent to Washington by General Meade:
"HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, L
“NEAR GETTYSBURG, July 3—8.30 P. M. "Major-General HALLECK, General-in-Chief:
"The enemy opened at one o'clock P. M., from about one hundred and fifty guns, concentrated upon my left centre, continuing without intermission for about three hours, at the expiration of which time he assaulted my left centre twice, being upon both occasions handsomely repulsed with severe loss to him, leaving in our hands nearly three thousand prisoners.
“ Among the prisoners are Brigadier-General Armisted, and many colonels and officers of lesser rank.
“The enemy left many dead upon the field, and a large number of wounded in our hands.
“The loss upon our side has been considerable. Major-General Hancock and Brigadier-General Gibbon were wounded.
“After the repelling of the assault, indications leading to the belief that the enemy might be withdrawing, an armed reconnoissance was pushed forward from the left, and the enemy found to be in force.
“At the present hour all is quiet.
"My cavalry have been engaged all day on both flanks of the enemy, harassing and vigorously attacking him with great success, notwithstanding they encountered superior numbers, both of cavalry and infantry. * The army is in fine spirits.
“GEORGE G. MEADE, Major-General Commanding." This was followed by the following:
“WASHINGTON, D. C., July 4–10.30. A. M. "The President announces to the country that news from the Army of the Potomac up to ten P. M. of the 3d, is such as to cover that army with the highest honor; to prom. ise a great success to the cause of the Union, and to claim the condolence of all for the many gallant fallen; and that for this, he especially desires that on this day, He, whose will, not ours, should ever be done, be everywhere remembered and reverenced with the profoundest gratitude
“ ABRAHAM LINCOLN."
Lee, having by this time satisfied himself that his second inrasion of the North was a more mortifying failure eveu than his first attempt, made preparations to retreat; and all day long on the 4th, while the guns on either side frowned at each other in angry silence, Ewell's train, swollen by the plunder in horses and wagons, which he had col. lected, was filing off behind the Confederate centre and left, and pushing into a pass of the South Mountain, which leads obliquely to H:gerstown. Towards evening the wagon train of A. P. Hill's Corps, which occupied the centre, followed Ewell; and it was not till long after midnight that the train of Longstreet's Corps got under way, and the 'army concentrated on the evening of the 6th, at Ilagerstown. Meantime, General Meade, having discovered the retrograde movement of Lee, occupied Gettysburg, and, as soon as his troops were somewhat rested, moved towards the Potomac.
The last invasion of the North by the Confederate Army was now virtually brought to a close, at the moment when the news of the fall of Vicksburg and Port Hudson arrived to hasten the retreat of General Lee, and to inspirit the movements of General Meade. The Union losses in this campaign were two thousand eight hundred and thirtyfour killed, thirteen ihousand seven hundred and nine wounded, and six thousand six hundred and forty-three missing; in all, twenty-three thousand one hundred and eighty-six. Upward of four thousand fire hundred rebel dead were buried by Union bands at Gettysburg, and their losses in prisoners were over thirteen thousand. In the absence of any official report, their losses in the battle of Gettysburg are estimatei at at least thirty thousand, including sixteen generals killed and wounded, and two captured.
Lee's Retreat from Gettysburg:-Peace Mission.-Conscription.--Veade Re-enforced.
Draft.-— Riots.—Lee Crosses the Rapidan.-His Advance and Subsequent Retreat.
GENERAL MEADE was unable to press the pursuit of Lee with so much vigor as he could have wished, and the enemy retired unmolested, with the exception of a cavalry attack in the mountains, by which he lost a nuinber of wagons and ambulances. The mountain passes being held by Lee's rear-guard, it was necessary for leade to pursue by a flanking movement. The rebel train, guarded by General Imboden, reached Williamsport on the 6th of July, where, on the succeeding day, he was worsted in a sharp combat with a body of Union cavalry and artillery, losing a number of wagons and prisoners.
On the 8th, Lee's rear-guard of cavalry, under Stuart, was driven out of Hagerstown with loss, and on the 9th the whole rebel army was concentrated in a strong position between Williamsport and Falling Waters, covering the crossings of the river at both places. The Potomac was now found to be so swollen by recent rains as to be unfordable. This interrupted communications with the South, and threatened the safety of the rebel army. The dificulty of procuring ammunition and
subsistence became very great, the more so that the swollen river stopped the working of neighboring mills. The pontoon bridge at Falling Waters having been partially destroyed by the Unionists, the Confederates were compelled to remain at Williamsport until a new one could be built and thrown across. This was successfully performed by the 13th. Meanwhile, Lee, having fortified his position by earthworks, awaited an attack from Meade, who, following from Gettysburg with caution, did not arrive in the enemy's front until the 12th, and decided not to attack until the rebel position could be reconnoitred. Pending the reconnoissance, on the night of the 13th the army of Lee began to cross, Ewell's Corps fording the river at Williamsport, while Longstreet and Hill's crossed upon the reconstructed bridge, near Falling Waters, where most of the train had previously passed. The movement was very tedious, owing to the condition of the roads, and was not completed until one P. M. of the 14th, when the bridge was removed. At Falling Waters, Hill's rear-guard was vigorously assailed by Kilpatrick's cavalry, losing two guns and upwards of fifteen hundred prisoners. In this encounter the enemy lost Brigadier-General Pettigrew, who was mortally wounded, and died a few days after at Bunker's Hill, which point the rebel army reached on the 15th. The army under General Meade crossed in pursuit, and took such a route as, aided by the swollen condition of the Shenandoah, compelled Lee to abandon his original plan of retreat and to cross the Blue Ridge, and keep along the soutb side of the Rappahannock. He left Martinsburg on the 18th, and, on the 20th, Meade's whole army was over the Potomac in full pursuit.
The retreat and pursuit continued without much of interest, until Lee's army occupied the south bank of the Rapidan, near Orange Court-House. The Union army occupied the north bank of the river, in the neighborhood of Culpepper Court-House. At the date of the battle of Gettysburg, a flag-of-truce boat arrived at Fortress Monroe, having on board Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of the “Southern Confederacy,” between whom and the Federal authorities the following correspondence took place :
"FORTRESS MONROE, July 4, 1863, L
"UNITED STATES STEAMER MINNESOTA—2 P. u. S “Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy:
“The following communication is just received from Mr. Stephens, who is in the flag-of-truce boat anchored above. I shall inform Mr. Stephens that I await your instructions before giving him an answer.
"S. H. LEE, Admiral, &c." " CONFEDERATE STATES STEAMER TORPEDO, 1
"IN JAMES River, July 4, 1863. 5 "SIR:-As military commissioner, I am the bearer of a communication in writing from Jefferson Davis, Commander-in-Chief of the land and naval forces of the Confederate States, to Abraham Lincoln, Commander-in-Chief of the land and naval forces of the United States. Honorable Robert Ould, Confederate States Agent of Exchange, accompanies me as secretary, for the purpose of delivering the communication in pereon, and conferring upon the subject to which it relates. I desire to proceed directly to Washington in the steamer Torpedo, commanded by Lieutenant Hunter Davidson, of the Confederate States Navy, no person being on board but the Honorable Mr. Ould, myself, and the boat's officers and crew.
"Yours most respectfully, " To S. H. LEE, Admiral, &c.
• ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS, ' »
"NAVY DEPARTMENT, July 4, 1863. " Acting Rear-Admiral S. H. LEE, Hampton Roads :
"The request of Alexander H. Stephens is inadmissible. The customary agents and channels are adequate for all needful military communication and conference between the United States forces and the insurgents.
"GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy."
The nature of the mission was not at that time made known, but the circumstance led to numberless conjectures. This attempted communication was followed by a vigorous conscription of every male person between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, and on the 1st of August Jefferson Davis issued an address to the soldiers of the confederation, appealing to their honor and manhood, and assuring them that there was now no alternative but victory or subjugation. The army of General Lee was gradually strengthened by these means, and it continued in its cantonments on the southern bank of the Rapidan. The corps were reorganized and consolidated after the losses incurred in the Northern invasion, and many changes in command took place. General Fitzhugb Lee, who commanded a brigade composed of the First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Virginia, and First Maryland Cavalry, was made major-general, and took leave of his brigade in a general order September 12th. Brigadier-General Wade Hampton was made a major-general, and Colonels M. C. Butler, of South Carolina, and William C. Wickham, late commander of the Fourth Virginia Cavalry, were appointed brigadier-generals, and the last named succeeded to the command of Fitzhugh Lee's Brigade.
The Union Army was at the same time re-enforced by the new levies obtained under the draft, which had been enforced in July, and which had caused a most serious riot in the city of New York. This, instigated by Southern conspirators, was quelled after considerable loss of life on the part of the rioters, and destruction of property; and, to Lasten recruiting, volunteering by bounties was in many places adopted instead of the draft. The new levies obtained in the Eastern and Middle States were, by general order from the War Department, sent to the Army of the Potomac, to which they gradually added great efficiency. On the 12th September, Warren's Corps moved into position at Hart wood, about nine miles north of Falmouth. This mancuvre was deemed to indicate an approaching forward movement by General Meade. The quiet was maintained, however, up to the middle of October. In the mean time, in consequence of important events taking place in Tennessee, considerable detachments had been made from the army of Meade, to support Rosecrans; and pending the elections in Ohio and Pennsylvania, a considerable number of troops had been furloughed that they might enjoy the right of suffrage. Taking advantage of this state of affairs in Meade's army, which was encamped around Culpepper CourtHouse, and thence to the Rapidan, General Lee, notwithstanding he had detached Longstreet to re-enforce Bragg in the West, on the 9th October put his army in motion and crossed the Rapidan, with the design of bringing on an engagement. Imboden was ordered to advance by the valley of the Shenandoah, to guard the gaps of the mountains, and Fitzhugh Lee, with his cavalry, to remain and hold the lines