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both friend and foe, and with a determination and vigor that at once settled the matter in that quarter. The Seventy-first and Seventythird New York showed that the bayonet was the true mode of winning ground with little loss. The example was followed on the right, and the ground trembled beneath the tread of a long line of men, before whose deadly bayonets the enemy's line scattered in confusion. The biting fire which the enemy poured upon them as they advanced did not for an instant check" or retard the irresistible attack. They cleared the woods at once, and the enemy retired, leaving the Union troops masters of the field. About an hour after the firing had ceased, General McClellan arrived on the field.
On Monday General Hooker was ordered to make a reconnoissance in force to the front, and he did so to within four miles of Richmond without resistance, when he was recalled by General McClellan. For this McCleltan has been severely censured. All accounts go to show that when the enemy retired towards Richmond after their defeat of June 1st, they were in a complete state of demoralization, throwing away muskets, accoutrements, and whatever might impede their progress; and according to the testimony of many officers engaged in the battle, as given before the Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War, the army could have pushed on to Richmond with little resistance. This was one of the many occasions during the war when the golden opportunity was needlessly thrown away.
During this battle the balloon was overlooking the strife, and was in telegraphic communication with General McClellan at his quarters. The losses on both sides were as follows:
5,739 The losses in the Third and Fourth Corps, reported by General Heintzelman, were three thousand eight hundred out of eleven thousand engaged. The enemy also, according to General Johnston's report, claimed to have captured ten pieces of artillery, six thousand muskets, besides colors, tents, and camp equipage.
The following are the dispatches forwarded by General McClellan from the field :
"FIELD OF BATTLE, June 1, 12 o'clock. " We have had a desperate battle, in which the corps of Generals Sumner, Heintzel. man, and Keyes have been engaged against greatly superior numbers.
“ Yesterday, at one, the enemy, taking advantage of a terrible storm, which had flooded the valley of the Chickahominy, attacked our troops on the right flank.
"General Casey's Division, which was in the first line, gave way unaccountably and disunitedly. This caused a tempcrary confusion, during which the guns and baggage were lost; but Generals Heintzelman and Keyes most gallantly brought up their troops, which checked the enemy.
"At the same time, however, I succeeded, by great exertion, in bringing across Generals Sedgwick and Richardson's Divisions, who drove back the enemy at the point of the bayonet, covering the ground with his dead.
“This morning the enemy attempted to renew the conflict, but was everywhere repulsed..
" We have taken many prisoners. among whom is General Pettigrew and Colonel Loring.
"Our loss is heary, but that of the enemy must be enormons. " With the exception of General Casey's Division, the men behaved splendidly.
“ Several fine bayonet charges have been made. The Second Excelsior Regiment made two to-day."
The following address was read to the army on the evening of the 3d, at dress parade, and was received with an outburst of vociferous cheering from every regiment :
"HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOXAC,
"CAMP NEAR NEW BRIDGE, VA., June 2. S "SOLDIERS OF THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC: I have fulfilled at least a part of my promise to you. You are now face to face with the rebels, wbo are held at bay in front of the capital. The final and decisive battle is at hand. Unless you belie your past history, the result cannot be for a moment doubtful. If the troops who labored so faithfully, and fought so gallantly at Yorktown, and who so bravely won the hard fights at Williamsburg, West Point, Hanover Court-House, and Fair Oaks DOW prove worthy of their antecedents, the victory is surely ours.
“The events of every day prove your superiority. Wherever you have met the enemy you have beaten him. Wherever you have used the bayonet, he has given way in panic and disorder.
"I ask of you now one last crowning effort. The enemy has staked his all on the issue of the coming battle. Let us meet him and crush him here, in the very centre of the rebellion.
“ Soldiers, I will be with you in this battle, and share its dangers with you. Our confidence in each other is now founded upon the past. Let us strike the blow which is to restore peace and union to this distracted land. Upon your valor, discipline, and mutual confidence the result depends.
GEORGE B. YCCLELLAN,
" Major-General Commanding." This first dispatch of General McClellan gave great offence in two particulars: one was in not giving General Sumner proper credit, and the other in the censure cast upon Casey's Corps. As a conse quence of this, the following dispatches were sent forward :
"NEW BRIDGE, June 5, 10.30 A. L. "To Honorable E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:
"My telegraphic dispatch of June 1st, in regard to the battle of Fair Oaks, was incorrectly published in the newspapers. I send with this a correct copy, which I request may be published at once. I am the more anxious about this, since my dispatch, as published, would seem to ignore the services of General Sumner, which were too val. uable and brilliant to be overlooked, both in the difficult passage of the stream and the subsequent combat. The mistake seems to have occurred in the transmittal of the dispatch by the telegraph. "(Signed)
G. B. MCCLELLAN,
“ Major-General Commanding." "THE CORRECTED DISPATCH.
"FIELD OF BATTLE, 12 o'clock, June 1. "Honorable E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:
"We have had a desperate battle, in which the Corps of Sumner, Heintzelman, and Keyes have been engaged against greatly superior numbers. Yesterday, at one o'clock, the enemy, taking advantage of a terrible storm, which had flooded the valley of the Chickahominy, attacked our troops on the right bank of the river. Casey's Division, which was the first line, gave way unaccountably and discreditably. This caused a temporary confusion, during which some guns and baggage were lost, but Heintzelman and Kearny most gallantly brought up their troops, which checked the enemy. At the same time, however, General Sumner succeeded, by great exertions, in bringing across Sedgwick's and Richardson's Divisions, which drove back the enemy at the point of the bayonet, covering the ground with his dead. This morning the enemy attempted to renew the conflict, but was everywhere repulsed.
"We bave taken many prisoners, among whom are General Pettigrew and Colonel Loring. Our loss is heavy, but the loss of the enemy must be enormous. With the exception of Casey's Division, our men behaved splendidly. Several fine bayonet charges have been made. The Second Excelsior made two to-day. "(Signed)
G. B. MOCLELLAN, General Commanding."
"HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, June 5. " Honorable EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War:
"My dispatch of the first inst., stating that General Casey's Division, which was in the first line, gave way unaccountably and discreditably, was based upon official statements made to me before I arrived upon the field of battle, and while I was there, by several commanders. From statements made to me subsequently by Generals Casey and Naglee, I am induced to believe that portions of the division bebaved well, and made a most gallant stand against superior numbers; but at present the accounts are too conflicting to enable me to discriminate with certainty. When the facts are clearly ascertained, the exceptional good conduct will be properly acknowledged. "(Signed)
“GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN,
“ Major-General Commanding." The dispatch correcting the omission in relation to General Sumner being altered in relation to the conduct of Casey's Corps, to read “discreditably" instead of “disunitedly” makes the censure more severe: nevertheless, on the same date, portions of the division are in the other dispatch relieved from censure. The result was, that General F. J. Peck superseded Casey, who was given some employment at White House in the rear.
CHAPTER XXIII. General Jackson's Movement.-Battle at Winchester.—Advance of Banks. - Shields
ordered to join McDowell.- Retreat of Banks.-Front Royal.-Banks driven across the Potomac.-Mountain Department.--Fremont supersedes Rosecran 8.-Battle at McDowell.-Fremont's Corps ordered to support Banks.—The Object of Jackson's Raid.-Fremont's Movement.—Retreat of the Enemy.-Harrisonburg.-Cross Keys. - Escape of Jackson.-McDowell concentrates at Fredericksburg.-Formation of the Army of Virginia under Pope.
WHEN General Jackson,* in the beginning of March, fell back before the advance of Banks, thus uncovering the communication by
• Thomas Jonathan Jackson was born in Clarks- tomac, and subsequently escaping from the comburg, Virginia, January 21st, 1924, and graduated bined forces of Banks, Fremont, and McDowell. st West Point in 1846. He was successively | In June he joined the rebel army at Richmond, brevetted captain and major, for gallant conduct I and participated in the seven days' fighting. In in the Mexican war; and in 1852 resigned his com the succeeding August, hu fought the battle of inission and became professor of mathematics in Cedar Mountain, and took a prominent part in the the Military Institute of Virginia. At the out second Bull Run campaign, after which he led tho break of the rebellion he was appointed brigadier. rebel invasion of Maryland, captured Harper's general in the Confederate army, fought at Bull Ferry, September 15th, and two days later fought Bun, wbere he earned the sobriquet of "Stone at Antietam. He commanded the rebel right wall Jackson, and during the winter of 1861-62, wing at the battle of Fredericksburg, December commanded at Winchester. In March, 1862, he 18th, was soon after appointed a lieutenant-gen. was defeated near that place by Shields, and in eral, and at the battle of Chancellorsville, May 2d, May conducted bis celebrated campaign of the 1868, was mortally wounded, while leading a 100Shenandoah Valley, driving Banks across the Po- cessful flank movement, He died May 10th.
Manassas Gap between the Confederate army and the resources of the Valley, the whole force of the enemy, in front of Manassas, fell back to the Rappahannock, abandoning Fredericksburg, and that in the Valley retreated towards Staunton. The retreat of Jackson was, however, slow. He abandoned Winchester on the 12th of March, and it was occupied by General Banks with his advance, on the same day that General McClellan assumed the command of the Army of the Potomac. On occupying Winchester, General Banks issued an order forbidding all depredations and marauding. This order had become necessary, since the people of the fertile but unfortunate Valley were exposed to the alternate operations of both armies. The mission of Jackson in the Valley was at that time to cover the retreat of that part of the rebel army, which, coming from Centreville by way of Strasburg, was destined to operate near Staunton, and to protect the road from the Valley to Gordonsville, to which point the main body of the Confederates had retreated. That object having been effected by the 15th of March, the subsequent movements of Jackson were at his own discretion. On the 17th, a force under General Shields left Winchester in pursuit of the enemy, who retired towards Strasburg. His rear-guard was overtaken near Middletown, and with four guns it disputed the ground foot by foot. The main förce of Jackson was at Mount Jackson. On the 20th, Shields's reconnoitring force returned to Winchester. The division of General Williams, forming one-half of Banks's command, at the same time moved off towards Battletown, through which a good turnpike runs from Winchester to Centreville. This movement led Jackson to suppose that nearly the whole army of Banks was about to re-enforce McClellan. To prevent this, he determined to attack Winchester. Accordingly, four regiments of infantry made a forced march from Mount Jackson to Strasburg, and advanced thence, on Saturday, the 22d, to the battle-ground within three miles of Winchester. This rapid march of thirty-five miles in two days was without supply trains, and the advance appeared in front of the Union pickets in the afternoon of Saturday.
About four miles in advance of Winchester, on the turnpike to Strasburg, through Middletown, is the village of Kernstown. A mudroad branches from the turnpike about midway between Winchester, and runs to the right over Cedar Creek. The Fourteenth Indiana was on Saturday picketed on the turnpike half a mile beyond Kernstown, and at half-past two discovered the enemy's cavalry under Ashby, reconnoitring the woods on both sides of the turnpike, and steadily advancing. The Union troops then fell back, pursued by the cavalry, occasionally facing about to fire upon the pursuing enemy. General Shields * ordered up four companies of infantry to support the Fourteenth Indiana, and hold the enemy in check until he could bring forward his division. A battery of artillery was also ordered forward to assist in checking the now advancing enemy. While directing this battery, Shields was wounded in the arm by the splinter of a shell. He, however, remained on the field until dark, when the troops began to arrive. The enemy were now in advance of Kernstown, and about three miles from Winchester. They, however, did not press the attack, but bivouacked for the night. This respite was not unwelcome to Shields, who was waiting for the return of Williams's troops to re-enforce him, although these did not arrive until after the action. The Union forces engaged in the battle embraced, with the exception of five hundred men, only the division of Shields (formerly that of Lander), composed of the brigades of Kimball on the right, Tyler in the centre, and Sullivan on the left. Inasmuch as Shields, in consequence of his wound, did not appear on the field, General Kimball assumed command. The enemy's centre was a little to the left of the turnpike, at the village, and his left extended one and threequarter miles west of the road, his right wing about one mile to the east of it. The mud-road branching from the turnpike passed through his left centre. Beyond this there was a grove of trees, and still farther a ridge of hills crowned by a stone wall about breast high. At eight o'clock, A. M., on the 23d, the enemy opened with four guns, which were replied to by six. The batteries were then re-enforced on both sides. The enemy's guns were so well served that it became necessary to storm them, and the infantry columns of the first and second brigades were massed for an attack upon the enemy's left. General Tyler moved his column on the mud-road until he came in front of the stone wall, from which at two hundred yards distance he received a deadly fire; but his unwavering troops pressed on without reply until within fifteen yards, when they delivered their fire with such effect that the enemy fell back across the field, unmasking as they did so two six-pound guns, the canister from which tore open our ranks with great havoc, without stopping the advance of the men, who speedily captured one gun with its caisson. Two other brass guns were now unmasked with such effect that our troops were forced back, upsetting the captured gun as they left it. The Fifth Ohio and Eighty-fourth Pennsylvania now formed, and advanced with the bayonet. In the desperate encounter the Ohio regiment lost its standard-bearer five times in a few minutes. The Fourteenth and One Hundred and Tenth Indiana now advanced at the quick in support, and the enemy fell back again, leaving the captured gun. It was now seven o'clock P. M., and the firing began to lessen. The cavalry in pursuit of the enemy captured about two hundred prisoners. The men slept upon the battle-field, and awoke to pursue the enemy on the morning of the 24th, who, however, retired on being attacked. At nine o'clock General Banks arrived on the field from Harper's Ferry, and assumed command. The Union loss in this battle was one hundred and thirty-two killed, five hundred and forty wounded, forty-six missing-total, seven hundred and eighteen. The loss of the enemy was estimated at nine hundred, of whom two
James Shields was born in County Tyrone, and Minnesota. At the ontbreak of the rebellion Treland. in 1810. le emigrated to the United he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers states in 1826, settled in Illinois, and became | succeeded General Lander in command of his Ludve of the Supreme Court of that State. Ho brigade, in March, 1862, and soon after defeated was brigadier-general of volunteers in the Mexi Jackson at Winchester. His troops were subsecan war. was protnoted to be major-renernl and
quently worsted in an encounter with Jackson, waa wonnded at Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec. | June 9th. In the succeeding year ho resigued hus Subsequently he was U. S. Senator from Illinois commission