Now out reefs! brace the yards! lively there!
0, no more to homeward breeze shall her swelling bosom spread,
But love's expectant eye bid Despair
Set her raven watch eternal o'er the wreck in ocean's bed.
Board your tacks! cheerily, boys! But for them,
Their last evening gun is fired, their gales are overblown;
O'er their smoking deck no starry flag shall stream;
They'll sail no more, they'll fight no more, for their gallant ship's gone

Bear a hand!

Note.—In the above selectio.., “Ho! | the starboard / watch, | in a loud calling voice, with vowels sharply intonated, and with full falling slide on


On the line of command at the middle of each stanza and at the beginning of the second and fourth stanzas, the author would use falling slides on the first and second order, and sustained force on the third.

Climax.-It has been previously stated in this work that a succession of objects or ideas should receive emphasis; that is, each of the series should be made more emphatic than the one immediately preceding. This gives a constantly increasing emphatic scale. The extreme point of this scale is called the Climax. There the vocal efforts should reach their culmination, giving great strength to the sentence.



1. Days, months, YEARS and AGES shall circle away.

Clarence has come! false, fleeting, PERJURED Clarence! 3. I tell you, though you, though all the world, though an ANGEL

FROM HEAVEN should declare the truth of it, I would not

believe it. 4. Let but the commons hear this testament, (which, pardon me, I

do not mean to read,)

And they [1] would go and kiss dead Cæsar's wounds,
And [2] dip their napkins in his sacred blood;
Yea, [3] beg a hair of him for memory,
And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy,

Unto their issue. 5. Add to your faith virtue, and to virtue knowledge, and to knowl.

edge temperance; and to temperance patience; and to patience godliness; and to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity.

6. Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold the gor

geous ensign of the republic, now known and honored throughout the earth, still full high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in their original lustre, not a stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star obscured-bearing for its motto no such miser. erable interrogatory as, What is all this worth? Nor those other words of delusion and folly, liberty first, and union afterward—but everywhere, spread all over in characters of living light, blazing on all its ample folds as they float over the sea and over the land, and in every wind under the whole heavens, that other sentiment dear to every true American heart-liberty and union, NOW AND FOREVER, ONE AND INSEPARABLE!

Repose is the sublime emblem of infinite power. It 1s reserve force that is immeasurabie. He who by violent exertion shows that he has reached nis limit loses that greater conception that we may have formed regarding his powers. We know not the weakness of an invisible cable, because its length and size are not revealed to us. Man, by exhibiting the measure of his strength, proves that he is human ; God, by His reserve force, shows us that He is divine. Violence is not our hignest idea of power. We see a greater force in the slowly-moving volume of a Mississippi or an Amazon than in the giddy tumult of a St. Lawrence.

Where climax is employed in speech, in order to convey the greatest possible idea of power it is necessary to mark the concluding portion of the sentence with that repose which indicates unlimited reserved strength. It has been well said that “ The highest power is mastery, and the highest mastery is self-mastery, and of self-mastery repose is the emblem.'

Impersonation.-In impersonation, the reader or speaker puts himself in the place of another, using the tone and style required by the assumed character. This, however, should not be resorted to when the beauty or sublimity of thought contained in a passage would be weakened thereby, as an assumed form always detracts from the ideas by directing our attention to the manner. But there are many times when personation really adds to the beauty and effectiveness of the rendering. The judgment of the reader must decide when it should be employed and in what particular cases it may be omitted.

When impersonating, the tone may be changed, as well as the general manner. A heavy or light voice, fast or slow rate, low or high pitch will often be a sufficient change.

Old Age requires a feeble or cracked voice, higher pitch, slower rate, gentler force, a greater use of the inflections, and an apparent toothlessness easily secured by retracting the lower jaw and drawing the under lip as far as possible over the teeth.

Children's Voices are imitated by light force, many rising and falling slides, using great expression. Let the throat be contracted, that the voice may appear to be formed in the front part of the mouth.

In imitating voices of the opposite sex, the reader should employ gentler or heavier force, as required.

It will be readily seen that a skillful mimic will surpass all others in impersonation, but it must not be inferred that such only will make good elocutionists. It is not the highest phase of the art to excel in this particular branch, though excellence in this will provoke great popular applause. The true elocutionist should aim at something higher than mimicry. (See List of Impersonations, page 108.)

In Dialogue Reading several impersonated voices may occur, varying one from another by changes of force, pitch, rate or quality. As a general rule the direction of the eyes and head should change with each transition of character. Where only two speakers are represented the whole body may change position, but where several appear a slight change only is required. In representing two characters, the gaze is alternated left and right, but the descriptive portions (those not spoken by either of the characters) should always be given front. Let changes of position and of voice be sudden and decided, especially so when one speaker is interrupted by another.

Bible Reading is of a graver cast than ordinary reading, and it requires a somewhat different style in order to properly express the majesty and sublime grandeur of many of its passages. The Bible should never be read in a trifling, careless manner, but always with expression aud solemnity. Its extreme importance demands a style suited to the correct rendition of its grand truths. With reverence should we approach the holy volume, and in a proper manner give expression to its inspired sentences.

The following may be mentioned as among the best examples for practice: Exodus xv., Psalms xxiii. and xxiv., Ecclesiastes xii., Isaiah xxxv. and `iv., Matthew vi. 26–34, I. Corinthians xv., and Revelation xxii.


Elocution may be divided into two parcs; that which is heard, and that which is seen. The former is called Voice; the latter, Gesture. Both are important and indispensable to its proper study. We speak (Elocutio, to speak out) by our words and by our manner. The manner may be so out of harmony that it entirely contradicts the words, and an idea is conveyed directly opposite to that intended.

It is important, then, that we study manner as well as matter. A pleasing style of delivery adds much to the effectiveness of a production, and in this gesture plays an important part. It is absolutely essential to the perfect success of vocal delivery that it be accompanied by a manner that will not provoke criticism, nor in any way draw the hearer's attention from the thought uttered. It should rather aid that thought by conveying to the eye what the voice sends to the ear. Gesture should always be an assistant, never a hindrance as it certainly is when not properly used.

Those who naturally employ many gestures should learn how to correctly use them; those who use but few should cultivate the use of more by making themselves familiar with the laws that govern intelligent gesticulation.

Gesture forms a natural language, but no exact rules can be given for its practice, though we may consider the principles upon which it is based. (See pages 43–45.)

The question arises, How much attention should we pay this subject? Certainly not as much as is given to the voice, for all will admit that it is of less importance. Few

will agree as to its exact relative importance. Nationali. ties differ on this point as well as do individuals. People of Southern countries, as the French, Italians and Spanish, employ many more gestures than the less vivacious inhabitants of the North, such as the English, the Danes, Swedes and Esquimaux.

The subject certainly should receive much attention, that we may accompany our voices with appropriate and pleasing gestures. Inappropriate gesticulation detracts much from the success of a speaker; study and practice are required to overcome our natural deficiencies and secure a polished manner. Excellent practice is afforded by repeating the words

High / Low ! Left! Right / using the left hand on the third word and the right hand on the others. Also, count One, two, three," etc., using free and graceful gestures on each word.

Double Gestures have the same significance as single gestures. They are used for variety, and greater effect and force. In speaking, do not employ one hand exclusively, but occasionally

use the other, to avoid sameness. Much value may be derived from the careful use of a

SELECTION WITH SET GESTURES. NOTE.—In the following exercise the letters refer to the direction as given on pages 43–45. All are to be given with supine hand unless otherwise designated.


The wind is high--the window shakes;

Dbl. A.0. H.L. Pointing Right.

With sudden start the miser wakes !

H.O. Vertical. H.O.

Along the silent room he stalks ;
H.F. to 0.

(Gesture sustained.)

Looks back and trembles as he walks !

Head and eyes beft. Dbl. H.O. (tremor.)

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