Word Individuality, Expressive Intonation, Imitative Modulation and Sound to Sense are terms used to express the act of playing upon words, sounding the syllables, or intoning the vowel in such a way as to more fully bring out the meaning of the word by its sound. (See page 42.) The stroke upon the vowel resembles that given the notes of a piano.

Practice the following words, intonating so as to best bring out the meaning: Rich, poor, little, great, brisk, smooth, rough, noble, large, broad, beast, dove, round, massive, strength, brilliant, sublime, powerful, grasping, glory, terrible, whirlwind, dazzling, gold, silver, joyous, slowly, victory, ragged, meekly, lordly, sparkling, glittering, bursting, repose.

Also practice selections on pages 127, 146, 160, 172, 179, 191, 234, 240, 250, 272, 281, and 340.

The following was given during the reign of Charles II. :


1. St (Latin sto) denotes firmness or strength. Examples: Stand,

stay, staff, stop, stout, steady, stake, stamp, etc. Str— indicates violent force or energy. Examples: Strive,

stress, strength, stripe, etc.

3. Thr- implies forcible motion. Examples: Throw, throb,

thrust, threaten, thraldom, thrill, etc. 4.

G2- indicates smoothness or silent motion. Examples : Glib,

glide, glow, etc.


Wim denotes obliquity or distortion. Examples: Wry, wrest,

wrestle, wrangle, wring, wrong, wrath, etc. 6. Sw- implies silent agitation or lateral motion; as sway, sweep,

swerve, swing, swim, etc. 7. Sl— denotes gentle fall or less observable motion. Sly, slide,

slip, slit, slow, slack, sling, etc. 8. Sp- indicates dissipation or expansion. Spread, sprout, sprinkle,

split, spill, spring, etc. 9, -ash indicates something acting nimbly and sharply. Crash,

dash, rash, flash, lash, slash, splash, etc.


-ush denotes something acting more obtusely and dully. Crush,

drush, hush, gush, blush, etc.

* The Engine,” and the following extract from “When the Cows Come Home," will be found good for practice:

When klingle, klangle, klingle,
Far down the dusty dingle,

The cows are coming home;
Wow sweet and clear, now faint and low,
"The airy tinklings come and go,
Like chimings from the far-off tower,
Or patterings of an April shower

That make the daisies grow;
Ko-ling, ko-lang, kolinglelingle,
Far down the darkening dingle,

The cows come slowly home.
And old-time friends, and twilight plays,
And starry nights and sunny days,
Come trooping up the misty ways

When the cows come home.

Through violet air we see the town,
And the summer sun a-sliding down,
And the maple in the hazel glade
Throws down the path a longer shade,

And the hills are growing brown;
To-ring, to-rang, toringleringle,
By threes and fours and single
The cows come slowly home.

The same sweet sound of worldless psalm,
The same sweet June-day rest and calm,
The same sweet smell of buds and balm,

When the cows come home.
With tinkle, tankle, tinkle,
Through fern and periwinkle,
The cows are coming home.


With a clang!
With a clank and a clang!

With a clamor, a clank, and a clang!
With clatter, and clamor, a clank, and a clang?
With veins full of fire, and the artery steam,
Roused to the pulse of a severish dream;
With a gray plume trailing, fleecy and pale,

Like mist-boats sailing to sea with the gale;
With the ring and the rattle of lever and wheel,
And the blow and the battle of track and of steel;
With the tremulous spring, like the launch of a wing
From the condor's cliff, where the wild vines cling;
An eagle of iron, with sinews of steel,
And blow of a pinion like avalanche peal;
With talons of fame and a blaze in the blood,
I tunnel the mountain and compass the flood;
I startle the morning and shiver the noon;
And splinter the cold, pale rays of the moon;
From pine and from granite to orange and palm,
From storm of sleet fury to zephyrs of balm;
From Allegan summit to Michigan's wave,
From the life of the East to the pioneer's grave,

Dragging a train
As a flying prisoner drags his chain;

Climbing the grade
Panting and sullen, but undismayed.
Then away to the prairie with antelope speed,
Belting the forest and skimming the mead,
Awaking the bear from its underground lair,
And startling the deer to a leap in the air;
Breaking the Indian's solitude rest,
Pushing the buffalo far to the west;
Skirting the current with spur and with thong,
Where the drain of the continent thunders along;
Mixing and mingling the races of men,
Bearing the Now in advance of the Then!
Then ceasing the rattle of lever and wheel,
And parting the battle of track and steel,
And ending, at last, the roll and the race,
And checking the flight into gradual pace-
With clatter, and clamor, a clank, and a clang!

With a clamor, a clank, and a clang!
With a clank and a clank !

With a clang!

Analysis and Grouping.-In reading, it is necessary first to analyze the thought, to decide in the mind what portions are most prominent, and these should receive greatest emphasis. The subordinate thoughts should be properly grouped together and expressed in such a manner as will clearly show them to be subordinate. To use a figure of speech, let the more important parts of a sentence stand in the foreground, giving them intensest light; the auxiliary thoughts may repose in the shadows of the background.

In general, the subject, predicate, object and connectives of a sentence should receive emphatic force. Give the same degree of force to words having a close grammatic connection, but separated from each other in the sentence. The intervening portions should be read parenthetically.


GO PREACH to the coward, thou death-telling seer
Or, if gory Culloden so dreadful appear,
Draw, dotard, around thy old wavering sight,

This MANTLE, to cover the phantoms of fright. Transition is the art of changing easily, rapidly and completely from one modulation or form of voice to another; as from Simple Pure to Pectoral, Long Quantity to Short, High Pitch to Low, Gentle to Heavy, or Natural to Explosive. It should be carefully practiced by advanced students, and, for this purpose, use the selections on pages 129, 164, 236, 237, 244, 250, 274, and 341.

The two following selections will be found admirahle practice in Transition :

EGO AND ECHO.—John G. Saxe.
I asked of Echo, th' other day,

(Whose words are few and often funny,)
What to a novice she could say

Of courtship, love, and matrimony.

Quoth Echo, plainly—“Matter o' money!
Whom should I marry ?-should it be

A dashing damsel, gay and pert,
A pattern of inconstancy;

Or selfish, mercenary flirt ?

Quoth Echo, sharply—“Nary flirt !!
What if, a-weary of the strife,

That long has lured the dear deceiver,
She promises to amend her life,

And sin no more: Can I believe her ?

Quoth Echo, with decision—Leave her!"
But if some maiden with a heart

On me should venture to bestow it,
Pray, should I act the wiser part

To take the treasure or forego it?
Quoth Echo, very promptly"Go it po

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But if some maid, with beauty blest,

As pure and fair as Heaven can make her,
Will share my labor and my rest

Till envious Death shall overtake her ?
Quoth Echo (sotto voce)—“Take her!"


Call the watch! call the watch!
Ho! the starboard watch, ahoy !! Have you

How a noble ship so trim, like our own, my hearties, here,
All scudding 'fore the gale, disappeared,
Where yon southern billows roll o'er their bed so green and clear!
Hold the reell keep her full ! hold the reel!
How she flew athwart the spray, as, shipmates, we do now,
Till her twice a hundred fearless hearts of steel
Felt the whirlwind lift its waters aft, and plunge her downward bow?

Bear a hand!

Strike topgallants ! mind your helm ! jump aloft!
'Twas such a night as this, my lads, a rakish bark was drowned,
When demons foul, that whisper seamen oft,
Scooped a tomb amid the flashing surge that never shall be found.
Square the yards! a double reef! Hark the blast!
O, fiercely has it fallen on the war-ship of the brave,
When the tempest fury stretched the stately mast
All along her foamy sides, as they shouted on the wave,

“ Bear a hand!”

Call the watch! call the watch!
Ho! the larboard watch, ahoy!Have you

How a vessel, gay and taut, on the mountains of the sea,
Went below, with all her warlike crew on board,
They who battled for the happy, boys, and perished for the free?
Clew, clew up fore and aft! keep away!
How the vulture bird of death, in its black and viewless form,
Hovered sure o'er the clamors of his prey,
While through all their dripping shrouds yelled the spirit of the storm ?

Bear a hand!

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