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be made in it to best express the sentiment. When perfectly at our ease we use the unemotional language of simple conversation. When we are influenced by feelings of adoration or sublimity, we use the same form of speech, but the language becomes grander, the tones more full and round; we then use the Orotund. When greatly agitated by intense emotions of the mind, such as terror, anger, etc., we lose the perfect control of our voices, the tension of the vocal cords is increased or relaxed, and we use the aspirated harsh, cold, steely tones designated Impure Quality. Were we to represent the Simple Pure voice on paper, it might be done with this STYLE of type, while the Orotund would require THIS STYLE, larger, but each letter of the same shape, as the Orotund is but a symmetrical enlargement of the Simple Pure. In the same manner, Impure Quality should be represented in distorted type, possibly by ITALIC CAPITALS.

The pure voice is used both in speech and song; in the former, however, we use speaking tones, and in the latter singing tones. The difference between music and speech lies in the manner of transition from one degree of pitch to another. In speech the movement is concrete, the voice continually sliding upward and downward, never remaining at one point of the scale except in the monotone. The singing voice passes from one pitch to another by a distinct step called discrete movement. Elocution requires a culture of the speaking voice, though the quality is improved by a cultivation of singing tones. Singing develops pure voice; speaking improves the other qualities and the various modulations. Music is a succession of similar sounds following one another in a regular order, though each sound of itself may be unmusical. In Elocution, guard against the use of singing tones except in practice.

As we have seen, the tones of voice are caused by the action of breath upon the vibrating vocal cords. The greater is the tension of these cords, the higher will be the pitch. In terror, they are strained to the utmost, and the result is a high-pitched tone, or shriek. In despair and anger, the vocal cords are relaxed, and the result is the Pectoral quality, very low in pitch.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE IN PITCH,

I.

10. (As high as possible.) “ Strike for the sires who left you

free !" 9. (Extremely high.) “I repeat it, sir, let it come, let it

come!

2.

3.

5.

6.

8. (Very high, spirited.) “Three millions of people armed

in the holy cause of liberty.” 7. (High.) “ The sounding aisles of the dim woods rang." 6. (Rather high.) “ With music I come from my balmy

home.' 5. (Middle. Firm, natural.) “A vision of beauty appeared

on the clouds." 4. (Rather low.) Friends, Romans, Countrymen !” 3. (Low. Modest.) “ And this is the night! most glorious

night!" 2. (Very low. Sublime.) “ Roll on, thou deep and dark

blue ocean,-roll !” 1. (As low as possible. Solemn.) “Eternity! thou pleasing,

dreadful thought!"

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7. 8.

9.

10.

NOTE.—The above examples for practice in Pitch, as well as the exercise in Rate, on page 87, are taken from Frobisher's “ Voice and Action.” They are recommended as excellent for the purpose for which they are designed.

EXERCISE IN INTERROGATION.
The Past-where is it? It has fled!

The Future? It may never come.
Our friends departed ? With the dead.

Ourselves? Fast hastening to the tomb.
What are earth's joys? The dews of morn.

Its honors ? Ocean's wreathing foam.
Where's peace? In trials meekly borne.
And joy? In Heaven-the Christian's home.

-Kidd's Elocution.

The following extract will be found valuable for

practice in Rate. It is from Henry Bateman's “Ship on Fire."

The bright sun
Lights up the deep blue wave, and favoring breeze
Fills the white sails.
Fire !-Fire !-Fire !-Fire !

.

Scorching smoke in many a wreath,

Sulphurous blast of heated air,
Grim presentment of quick death,

Crouching fear and stern despair,
Hist, to what the Master saith,

“Steady, steersman, steady there!"-Ay! ay!

" To the mast-head!”-it is done,

“Look to leeward !” — scores obey, —
“ And to windward!"-many a one

Turns, and never turns away;
Steadfast is the word and tone,
“ Man the boats, and clear away !"-Ay! ay!

Then it comes,-"A sail ! a sail !”.

Up from prostrate misery,
Up from heart-break woe and wail,

Up to shuddering ecstasy ;-
Can so strange a promise fail ?”
“Call the Master, let him see !"-Ay! ay !

Silence! Silence ! Silence !—Pray!

Every moment is an hour,

Minutes long as weary years,
While with concentrated power,

Through the haze that clear eye peers,
“ No," Yes,-“ No,”-the strong men cower,

Till he sighs,-faith conquering fears,—" Ay! ay!"
Pah!-a rush of smothered light

Bursts the staggering ship asunder,
Lightning flashes, fierce and bright,-

Blasting sounds, as if of thunder,-
Dread destruction wins the fight

Round about, above, and under.-Ay! ay!

EXERCISE IN RATE.

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9. (As quick as possible.) “Quick as the lightning's flash

that illumes the night.” 8. (Very quick.) Charge for the golden lilies, now, upon

them with the lance !" 7. (Quick.) “ Hurrah! the foes are moving!" 6. (Rather quick.) “ Wild winds and mad waves drive the

vessel a-wreck." 5. (Medium Time.) « What stronger breast-plate than a

heart untainted !"

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5.

6.

7.

8.

4. (Rather slow.) Slowly and sadly we laid him down.” 3. (Slow.)

“ The bell strikes one! we take no note of time

but from its loss.” 2. (Very slow.) “ Which, like a wounded snake, drags its

slow length along." 1. (The slowest time.) “ Slow tolls the village clock the

drowsy hour."

9.

“Emphasis," it has been said, “is in speech what coloring is in painting. It admits of all possible degrees, and must, to indicate a particular degree of distinction, be more or less intense, according to the groundwork or current melody of the discourse."

It consists of any peculiarity of utterance which will call special attention to a particular word or words in a sentence. Thus it will be seen that emphasis may be of force, stress, quality, pitch, or rate.

I. EMPHASIS OF FORCE.

Study to show thyself a man!

II. OF STRESS.

1. Initial: Be ready, gods, with all your thunderbolts !

Dash him to pieces
2. Median : What a piece of work is man !

How noble in reason! how infinite in faculties !
In form and moving how express and admirable !
In action how like an angel! In apprehension how

like a god!
3. Final: Ye gods, it doth amaze me!

A man of such a feeble temper should
So get the start of the majestic world,

And bear the palm alone !
4. Compound : Arm! Arm! ye heavens, against these per-

jured kings! 5. Thorough : I ask, why not "traitor” unqualified by an

epithet? I will tell him. It was because he durst not. It was the act of a coward who raises his arm to strike, but has not courage to give the blow.

NI. OF QUALITY.

1. Aspirate : A lowly knee to earth he bent; his father's

hand he took. What was there in its touch that all his fiery spirit shook :

2. Pectoral : You souls of geese,

That bear the shapes of men, how have you run
From slaves that apes wonld beat! Pluto and hell !
All hurt behind : backs red and faces pale
With flight and agued fear! Mend, and charge home,
Or, by the fires of heaven, I'll leave the foe

And make my wars on you : look to't. Come on!
3. Guttural : Thou stand'st at length before me undisguised.

Of all earth's groveling crew the most accursed.
Thou worm ! thou viper ! to thy native earth
Return! Away! Thou art too base for man
To tread upon. Thou scum! thou reptile !

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IV. OF PITCH.

1. High : They strike ! hurrah ! the fort has surrendered !

Shout ! shout! my warrior boy,

And wave your cap, and clap your hands for joy!
2. Low: The flag of the old Revolution

Swear firmly to serve and uphold,
That no treasonous breath of pollution
Shall tarnish one star of its fold.

Swear!
And hark, the deep voices replying,
From the graves where your fathers are lying,

Swear, O Swear !

V. OF RATE.

1. Slow: Then answers he, " Ah, Hal, I'll try;

But in my throat there's something chokes."
2. Fast: He looked across the grassy lea,

To right, to left, “ Ho, Enderby /
They rang

«« The Brides of Enderby.” NOTE.—Many of the above exercises are selected from Hamill's Elocution.

No definite rule can be given for the use of emphasis. It is so subtile, its shadings so delicate, that it can never be cabled to inflexible rules. But in general we should emphasize

1. Words, phrases or clauses that are particularly significant.
2. Words, phrases or clauses that contrast.
3. Anything repeated for the sake of emphasis.
4. A succession of objects or ideas.

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