« 上一页继续 »
SLIDES. Slides are inflections of the voice, used to prevent monotony and to give better expression to the idea. They are Ascending and Descending ; both are united in the Circumflex.
In music, the ascent or dcscent is made by distinct steps; but, in speech, the voice is bent more or less upward or downward. These changes are continually taking place, except in the monotone, and they give expression to the voice.
Ascending Slides denote uncertainty, doubt, interrogation, and incompleteness of idea.
I have felt, when I have seen,
Memories of what hath been
In the light of by-gone days;
Human histories and ways ?
Was it the chime of a tiny bell,
That came so sweet to my dreaming ear,
That he winds on the beach, so mellow and clear,
Descending Slides indicate positiveness, determination, or a completion of the thought.
Knave, stand aside!
The Circumflex (Rising or Falling - ), is used to denote surprise or to express a secondary meaning, which may be in harmony with or directly opposite to that con. zeyed by the words.
“ My father's trade ! now really, that's too bad !
My father's trade! Why, blockhead, are you mad?
Cadence is the tone with which a sentence terminates. According to the sentiment, it may have the ascending or the descending slide, the rising or the falling circumflex; or it may vanish with no slide whatever. A sentence expressing a complete thought, having no modifying phrase or clause, and not affected by anything preceding or following it, should always terminate with a downward inflection ; but, when so modified, it should close with a tone adapted to the connection of meaning.
The reader should study variety, and avoid uniformity in closing sentences. Practice the following with (1) the vanish, or absence of slide; (2) slight rising inflection; (3) full rising inflection; (4) slight falling inflection ; (5) full falling slide; (6) rising circumflex ; (7) falling circumflex:
“For weeks the clouds had raked the hills."
NOTE.—It will be remembered that there are infinite variations in Pitch, Force, Time and Slides. For instance, in Pitch we have Natural, Low and High, but one word may require a tone much higher than another, though the lower may be above the Natural. All varieties of Pitch that vary from the Natural are designated as High or Low; the degree must be determined by the judgment of the reader.
Form of voice may be Natural, Effusive, Expulsive, or Explosive.
The Natural is that ordinarily used in conversation.
'Twas the eve before Christmas, “Good-night” had been said,
I sometimes have thought in my loneliest hours,
The Effusive is a very light, gentle form, usually characterized by the swell (<>). It is used in expressing that which is beautiful, tranquil or pathetic. It is characteristic of lofty sentiment not requiring vigorous expression.
How beautiful she is ! how fair
Over the river they beckon to me,
Loved ones who crossed to the other side;
But their voices are drowned by the rushing tide.
And eyes the reflection of heaven's own blue.
And the pale mist hid him from mortal view.
The gate of the city we could not see;
My brother stands, waiting to welcome me.
The Expulsive (<) is a forcible utterance expressive of determination and intensity of feeling.
Why not reform ? That's easily said;
But I've gone through such wretched treatment,
And scarce remembering what meat meant,
And there are times when, mad with thinking,
To prop a horrible inward sinking.
The Explosive (>) is used in vehement language and in powerful description. It usually manifests itself in the bursting of the voice on a single word.
Men, at some time, are masters of their fates,
“ Halt !!—the dust-brown rank stood fast;
Force, or power of the voice, is of three kinds-Natural, Heavy and Gentle.
Natural Force is that most commonly used in speaking or reading
Roger's my dog-come here, you scamp!
Over the table-look-out for the lamp!
Five years we've tramped through wind and weather,
And ate and drank-and starved together.
'Tis easy to stand on a vessel's deck,
On a vessel snug and trim,
And the rainbow bubbles swim;
And zephyrs play
With the pennon gay
Heavy Force is used in grand description and in conveying any idea of power.
The storm o'er the ocean flew furious and fast,
Bell never yet was hung,
So grand a tongue.
As the bleak Atlantic currents
Lash the wild Newfoundland shore,
So they surged against the door.
Gentle Force is used in tender and pathetic description. and in all cases where a subdued form is necessary to correctly express the sentiment.
Noiselessly as the daylight
Comes when the night is done,
Grows into the great sun,