Lectures on history, and general policy: to which is prefixed, An essay in a course of liberal education for civil and active life. And an additional lecture on the Constitution of the United States. The whole corrected, improved and enlarged: with a chart of history and a chart of biography

Printed for P. Byrne, no. 72, Chestnut-street, 1803

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第 350 頁 - The accounts of all travellers, inconsistent in many other respects, agree in the low wages of labour, and in the difficulty which a labourer finds in bringing up a family in China. If by digging the ground a whole day he can get what will purchase a small quantity of rice in the evening, he is contented. The condition of artificers is, if possible, still worse.
第 350 頁 - The subsistence which they find there is so scanty, that they are eager to fish up the nastiest garbage thrown overboard from any European ship. Any carrion, the carcase of a dead dog or cat, for example, though half putrid and stinking, is as welcome to them as the most wholesome food to the people of other countries.
第 350 頁 - ... the rivers and canals. The subsistence which they find there is so scanty, that they are eager to fish up the nastiest garbage thrown overboard from any European ship.
第 412 頁 - The greatest abuses which arise in France, the most perfect model of pure monarchy, proceed not from the number or weight of the taxes, beyond what are to be met with in free countries ; but from the expensive, unequal, arbitrary, and intricate method of levying them, by which the industry of the poor, especially of the peasants and farmers, is in a great measure discouraged, and agriculture rendered a beggarly and slavish employment. But to whose advantage do these abuses tend ? If to that of the...
第 249 頁 - No regulation of commerce can increase the quantity of industry in any society beyond what its capital can maintain. It can only divert a part of it into a direction into which it might not otherwise have gone...
第 401 頁 - Moderate taxes operate like a constant spur and obligation to labour, and thereby greatly contribute to the flourishing state of a people, particularly if they be laid on gradually. Then, the only consequence of taxes is, that the poor increase their industry, perform more work, and live as well as before, without demanding more for their labour. This is agreeable to what is constantly observed, that in years of scarcity, if it be not extreme, the poor labour more, and live better, than in years...
第 351 頁 - It is not uncommon in the Highlands of Scotland, for a mother who has borne twenty children, not to have two alive.
第 422 頁 - If free and unmortgaged, it might be sufficient, with proper management and without contracting a shilling of new debt, to carry on the most vigorous war. The private revenue of the inhabitants of Great Britain...
第 422 頁 - Spain seems to have learned the practice from the Italian republics, and (its taxes being probably less judicious than theirs) it has, in proportion to its natural strength, been still more enfeebled. The debts of Spain are of very old standing. It...
第 333 頁 - In a country fully peopled, as few horses, or other beasts of burden, will be used as possible, because if the labour can be done by men, there will be so many, that it will be worth their while to do it rather than want subsistence. By this means the population of any country may be prodigiously increased, as more land is wanted to maintain a horse than a man. In China men may be said to have almost eaten out the horses, so that it is customary to be carried along the high roads to the greatest...