« 上一页继续 »
3. Various approved methods of analysis are supplied. 4. Models of Analysis, adapted to each stage and illus
trating every point in the text, are furnished. 5. An alphabetical list of connectives, showing the different
kinds of sentences each connective joins, is introduced
to serve as a table of reference. 6. Peculiar and difficult constructions are considered and
explained. 7. Full instructions for paraphrasing are given. 8. The Exercises contain numerous passages for Analysis
and Paraphrasing. 9. The Exercises and illustrative examples consist of sen
tences taken from Standard authors.
s are C
May 30, 1877.
ANALYSIS AND PARAPHRASING.
CHAPTER I.—DEFINITIONS. 1. A Sentence is a thought expressed in words ; as, Swallows twitter; The earth quakes ; They were clad in linen robes.
2. A sentence, as to its form, may be Assertive, Interrogative, Imperative, Optative, Exclamatory, or Conditional.
1. Assertive or Declarative :
(a) Affirmative : as, I am writing.
(6) Negative : as, I am not writing.
6. Conditional : as, If he should grieve, ....... Obs.-The grammatical construction is the same in all these different forms, and, in analysis, all sentences are reduced, as far as possible, to the assertive form : thus, Whither goest thou?
= thou goest whither ?
= (you) call my men.
How are the mighty fallen! = the mighty are fallen how ! 3. Sentences are of three kinds, Simple, Complex, and Compound.
4. A Simple Sentence contains one subject and one finite verb : as, The wind moans.
Explanatim.-Here there is one subject or thing spoken of, wind, and one finite verb, or verb which has number and person, moans; hence “The wind moans" is a simple sentence.
5. A Complex Sentence not only contains a principal subject and its verb, but has other dependent or subordinate sentences, which have subjects and verbs of their own: as,
I dreamed that, as I wandered by the way,
Explanation.- Besides the principal subject I and its verb dreamed we have here two dependent sentences with subjects (I and winter) and verbs (wandered and was changed) of their own. Hence the whole sentence is called Complex, and may be divided thus:I dreamed
.. Principal sentence. B) [that] bare winter suddenly was changed to spring... Subordinate sentence. (c) (as) I wandered by the way ... ... ... ... Subordinate sentence. 6. A Compound Sentence consists of two or more principal or independent sentences connected by a co-ordinative conjunction: as,
A sensitive plant in a garden grew,
And the young winds fed it with silver dew. Explanation. We have here two principal or independent sentences joined by the conjunction and, which is called co-ordinative, because it joins sentences of equal value or importance. Hence the whole sentence is called Compound, and may be divided thus :
(a) A sensitive plant in a garden grew,
(V) (And] the young winds fed it with silver dew. • 7. To Analyse a sentence is to take it to pieces in order to show the parts of which it is made up. 8. Every sentence consists of two parts :1. Subject, which expresses the thing about which we
were built. Flowers
EXERCISE 1. Say, respecting each of the following sentences, whether it is asser. tive, interrogative, imperative, optative, or exclamatory :
1. I shrink with pain. 2. My happy father died. 3. Go, damsel, quickly. 4. What now is left ? 5. Fear not. 6. May good fortune come to thee! 7. What aileth thee now? 8. Give ear unto my speech. 9. May heaven prosper thee! 10. The ripest fruit first falls. 11. How long shall I be patient? 12. How mighty, how majestic are thy works! 13. What a piece of work is man! 14. We will not stay. 15. May we be happy? 16. Where is the scribe? 17. She held aloft a snowy scarf. 18. Speak unto thy servants. 19. Art thou not void of guile? 20. God save the king. 21. I will not send them. 22. What a slave art thou ! 23. The lion will not touch the true prince. 24. How young art thou in this old age of time! 25. He chanced to meet a dwarf.
EXERCISE 2. Attach a predicate to each of the following subjects :The rose, the chain, the mother, the trumpet, the parrot, the moon,