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440. Who, whose, whom. 1. Noun sent. : (1) He, seeing me free from my chains, asked me

with an insolent air, who had released me : (2) Remember, then, whose cause you have in hand. 2. Adj. sent. : (1) Every soldier, who had before been wandering

in confusion, fell into the ranks : (2) You have often heard me mention this nobleman whom I have long revered for his

humanity. 3. Cop. co-ord. sent. : The child ran to his mother, who (= and

she) immediately caught him up and soothed and caressed him.

441. Whoever. 1. Noun sent. : Whoever shall have worked in a prison shall re

ceive a draft of one louis, payable by our cashier. 2. Adv. sent. of cause (concession) : I think myself beholden, who

ever shows me my mistakes.

442. Whoso.
1. Noun sent. :

Whoso therefore will glory win,

With learning first must needs begin. 2. Adv. sent. of cause (concession) : Praise whoso list, yet I will

him dispraise.

443. Whosoever, whosesoever, whomsoever. 1. Noun sent. : (1) Whosoever seeketh, knoweth that which he

seeketh for in a general notion : else how shall he know it when he hath found it? (2) Whomsoever their eye, speech, or breath

would reach, were sure to fall sick, and pine away. 2. Adv. sent. of cause (concession) ; I am resolved upon the enter

prise, whosoever may oppose me.

444. Why.

1. Noun sent. : Say why bareheaded you are come.
2. Adj. sent. : There seems to be no reason why he should confine

himself to one tree alone for food. 06. Why that is sometimes found in old writers : as, In writing this book, some man will marvel perchance, why (it is the case] that I, being an imperfect shooter, should take in hand to write of making a perfect archer.

445. With that. Cop. co-ord. sent. :

Her cheeks were like the roses red,

But not a word she said:

With that the shepherd 'gan to frown,
Obs. With that is an extension : the true connective is and (understood).

446. Without Adv. sent. of cause (condition): Captain, without (= unless) the

manner of your hurt be much material to this business, we'll

hear't some other time. Obs. The use of without as a conjunction is incorrect. 447. Yea. Cop. co-ord. sent. : Fill'd with the thought of thee, this heart was

proud, yea, mine eye swam with tears. Obs. Yea is really an adverb (or, as some say, an interjection): and (understood) is the true connective. And is sometimes expressed : e.g., Those of our people who were captured were carried before the Emperor Alexis ; yea, and they were bound with chains. 448. Yet. Advers. co-ord. sent. : He is not very tall, yet for his years he is

tall. 449. Yet nevertheless. Advers. co-ord. sent. : I have with greater violence been perse

cuted; yet nevertheless I do declare, that no subject whatever

can or ought to take upon him acts of indemnity.
Obs. Nevertheless may be put in the extension.
450. Yet notwithstanding.
Advers. co-ord. sent. :

He hath a tear for pity, and a hand
Open as day, for melting charity :

Yet notwithstanding, being incensed, he's flint.
Obs. Notwithstanding may be put in the extension.
451 Yet still
Advers. co-ord. sent. : It was to be no separate commonwealth, but

a member of the undivided English kingdom, yet still [it was to be]

a city that was to remain the undisputed head of its own district. Obs. Still may be put in the extension.

EXERCISE 49.
Analyse the following:-

A. 1. Art thou a serving man? then serve again. 2. Below us we could see the dark tower of the church gleaming gray on the one side ; then a mass of houses in deep shadow with a radiance shining from their tiles and slates ; then the gray road down the hill. 3. Some waded into the sea as far as they could. 4. As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us. 5. Then he would scoff at learning, and eke scorn the sectaries thereof. 6. The whole house he overlaid with gold until he had finished all the house : also the whole altar that was by the oracle he overlaid with gold. 7. He made haste to Bristol that all things might be ready against the prince came thither. 8. We choose them to our hurt and hindrance, and yet delight in the purchase. 9. Diogenes was the greatest man of antiquity, only that he wanted decency. 10. If this party spirit has so ill an effect on our morals, it has likewise a very great one upon our judgments. 11. I am accused of being a notorious criminal ; but never. theless, you are contented to let me escape with impunity. 12. The surprise might shock her too much, considering that she believed him dead. 13. Taprobane includes much of what belongs to Ceylon, but also more and also less. 14. He showed me a vast number of flies most beautifully coloured, wherewith he fed his spiders. 15. And it be any way, it must be with valour. 16. These ornaments consisted partly in golden belts, or rings, and partly in shells and little jingling chains. 17. I would not yet be of such wintry bareness, but that some leaf of your regard should hang upon my naked branches. 18. Many of the ornaments are turned in a turniny-lathe for a mere trifle ; consequently, the poorest people continue to have ornamented houses. 19. Being we are now within sight of Tottenham, I will give you a little direction how to colour the hair of which you make your lines. 20. Madam, a day may sink or save a realm. 21. I'll do my best, my lord ; but yet the Legate is here as Pope and Master of the Church. 22. He was so bald that he had only a small tuft of hair remaining on the back part of his head : for which reason he was obliged to cover his head in a fine woollen cap with long ears. 23. Just as I was about to depart, a page entered my chamber. 24. Some of the Franks landed on the islands, others on the mainland in Asia, near Chalcedonia. 25. In the vine were three branches, and it was as though it budded. 26. As sure ag we are here, he is enchanted. 27. So please your grace, we'll take her from the sheriff. 28. My opinion on the matter was asked: so I gave it them. 29. The one coveteth that he may have, the other coveteth that he may spend it. 30. This passage is a copy of that in Virgil, wherein the Poet tells us, that the sword of Æneas, which was given him by a deity, broke into pieces the sword of Turnus, which came from a mortal forge.

B.
1. Tell me where is fancy bred

Or in the heart, or in the head.
2. I never lay my head upon the pillow

But that I think, “Wilt thou lie there to-morrow ?
3. I never was on English ground,

Ne ever saw it with mine eye. 4. In yon palace lives fair Zaida,

Whom he loves with flame so pure.
5. Now hearken what oath he sware,

Or they to the battle went there.
6. Nothing but drought and dearth, but bush and brake,

Which way soe'er I look, I see.
7. Though much I want that most would have,

Yet still my mind forbids to crave.
8. “If it be good,” quoth he, “ that you desire,

Then will I do it for the virtue's sake.”
9. You won it, wore it, kept it, gave it me:

Then plain and right must my possession be.
10. The boy stood on the burning deck,
Whence all but he had fled.

12.

11. Lowliness is young ambition's ladder,
Whereto the climber upward turns his face.

Albeit you have deserv'd
High commendation, true applause, and love ;
Yet such is now the duke's condition

That he misconstrues all that you have done. 13. Yet shalt thou flow as glad and bright,

As when thou met'st my infant sight. 14. His harp he taketh in hand to be his guide,

Wherewith he offereth plaints, his soul to save. 15. The look with which they looked on me,

Had never passed away. 16. The long-remembered beggar was his guest,

Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. 17. Life mocks the idle hate

Of his arch-enemy Death-yea, seats himself

Upon the tyrant's throne-the sepulchre.
18. Then down she stricken fell with clap of thunder,

That with great noise I wak'd in sudden wonder.
When we had thus confest so foul a treason,

That we deserved we suffered by the law.
20. Tyrants, that make men subject to their law,

I will suppress, that they no more may reign. 21. The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun,

The higher he's a-getting,
The sooner will his race be run,

And nearer he's to setting.
22. His bark is stoutly timbered, and his pilot

Of very expert and approved allowance :.
Therefore my hopes, not surfeited to death,

Stand in bold cure.
23. Murder, though it have no tongue, will speak

With most miraculous organ. 24. We'll mourn till we too go as he has gone,

And tread the dreary path to that dark world unknown. 25. I thither went, where I did long conceal

Myself, till that the dwarf did me reveal. 26. So did he eke long after this remain,

Until that, (whether wicked fate so framed
Or fault of men,) he broke his iron chain,

And got into the world at liberty again.
27. So soon as on them blows the northern wind,

They tarry not, but fit and fall away. 28. Since the lovely are sleeping,

Go, sleep thou with them. 29. What wrong then is it, if that, when they die, They turn to that whereof they first were made ?

Give me that man
That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him.
In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart
As I do thee,

30.

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III.

CHAPTER IX.-SPECIMEN ANALYSIS.
I. The sounds that round about me rise

Are what none other hears ;
I see what meets no other eyes,
Though mine are dim with tears. H. Taylor.

Can that be Joy!
Who with a sunbeam for her guide,
Smoothly skims the meadows wide,
While faith, from yonder opening cloud,
To hill and vale proclaims aloud,
Whate'er the weak may dread, the wicked dare,
Thy lot, O man, is good, thy portion fair ! Wordsworth.
The western wave was all a-flame,
The day was well-nigh done,
Almost upon the western wave
Rested the broad bright sun,
When that strange ship drove suddenly

Betwixt us and the sun.
IV. Mournfully ! O! mournfully

This midnight wind doth sigh,
Like some sweet plaintive melody

Of ages long gone by :
It speaks a tale of other years-

Of hopes that bloomed to die-
Of sunny smiles that set in tears,

And loves that mouldering lie. Motherwell.
V. Too late I stayed— forgive the crime;

Unheeded few the hours ;
How noiseless falls the foot of time

That only treads on flowers !
What eye with clear account remarks

The ebbing of the glass,
When all its sands are diamond sparks,

That dazzle as they pass ?
Oh ! who to sober measurement

Time's happy swiftness brings,
When birds of Paradise have lent

Their plumage for his wings! Rt. Hon. W. R. Spenser. VI. The glories of our blood and state

Are shadows, not substantial things :
There is no armour against fate :
Death lays his icy hands on kings :

Sceptre and crown

Must tumble down
And in the dust be equal made

With the poor crooked scythe and spade. Shirley.
VII.

Nature never did betray
The heart that loved her ; 'tis her privilege,

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