the teeth, the heart, the owl, the frog, the flood, the nettle, the slave, the sky, the orphan, the storm, the rock, the shadow, the lawyer, the thunder, the fountain, the shield, the boat, the spear, the rainbow, the feather, the honey, the fox, the hedgehog, the ocean.

EXERCISE 3. Put a subject before each of the following predicates :Walks, roams, was ended, fades, weeps, mourns, reads, thinks, chide, cures, faints, quakes, answered, was grieved, smiles, wanders, dig, appears, is frightened, teach, strikes, sinks, falls, visit, escaped, fled, blew, agree, was drowned, is shattered.

EXERCISE 4. Divide each sentence into subject and predicate :1. The ivy clings. 2. Worms crawl. 3. The panther leaps. 4. The woman scolded. 5. The tears fell. 6. Whispers were heard. 7. The bird hopped. 8. The parrot laughs. 9. The rain is falling. 10. The shop was shut. 11. Sounds were heard. 12. The storm increases. 13. The giant tumbled. 14. The shield is pierced. 15. The judges rose. 16. The snow falls. 17. The damsel vanished. 18. The substance melted. 19. The boat is launched. 20. The plant grew.

QUESTIONS ON $S 1-8. 1. What is a sentence? 2. What forms may a sentence assume? 3. To which form are sentences reduced in analysis ? 4. What are the three kinds of sentences ? 5. What is a simple sentence? 6. What is a complex sentence? 7. What is a compound sen tence? 8. What is meant by analysing a sentence? 9. Of what parts does every sentence consist? 10. What is the subject? ll. What is the predicate?


1. Simple Subject. 9. Subjects are of two kinds, Simple and Enlarged.

10. The Simple Subject is either a noun, or a word or phrase equivalent to a noun, in the nominative case. Thus, it may be :

1. A noun : as, Flowers fade.
2. A pronoun : as, They wither.
3. An adjective used as a noun, or with a noun understood :

as, The Beautiful wins admiration ; The good [men]

die first. 4. (a) A verb in the infinitive mood : as, To err is human. (b) An infinitive phrase : as, To walk in the fields is

pleasant. 5. (a) A verbal or participial noun :* as, Reading is useful. (6) A participialt phrase : as, Reading good books is useful. • Or gerunda

Or gerundial.

(c) A participle with a noun understood : as, Around lay

the dying and the dead. 6. A quotation : as, “To arms !" resounded through the

plain. 7. A sentence : as, That the crops will be large is evident. N.B.-When the subject is a sentence, that sentence is a noud-sentence (8 53). “That the crops will be large is evident” is not a simple sentence, but a complex one.

11. The subject usually precedes the predicate: as, I had a dove. The exceptions to this rule are :

1. When the sentence is interrogative : as, Where is your son ?
2. When the sentence is exclamatory : as, How sweet are all things

3. When the sentence is optative, that is, expresses a wish : as,

Long live the king ! When the sentence is imperative : as, Go ye into all the world. 5. When the sentence begins with one of these words, hence, here,

hereafter, herein, now, so, kuch, that, then, thence, there, therein,
the same, these, this, those, thus, wherein, yet, or a phrase : as,
Then began a murder grim and great ; From the heart of the

procession rose a solemn chant.
6. When the subjunctive is used with the sign omitted : as,

Did Charity prevail, the press would prove

A vehicle of virtue, truth, and love. 7. When neither or nor is used for and not, and precedes the verb :

as, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it. 8. When the verbs reply, say, quoth, think, answer, continue, whisper,

mutter, and the like, are used parenthetically : as, Stay, re

plied the captain. 9. When the sentence begins with an emphatic adjective or adverb:

as, Wonderful are thy works ; Down fell the towers. 10. When emphasis requires a change : as, Silver and gold have I

none. 11. In poetry : as,

After him came spurring hard

A gentleman almost forespent with speed. Obs. In analysis, the above examples are reduced to the ordinary assertive form: thus, (1) Your son is where? (2) All things here are how sweet! (3) The king (may) live long ! (4) Ye go into all the world ; (5) A grim and great murder began then; A golemn chant rose from the heart of the procession ; (6) (If] Charity ('id prevail, &c. ; (7) Ye shall not eat of it, neither ye shall touch it; (8) The captain replied, (You) stay; (9) Thy works are wonderful ; The towers fell down ; (10) I have no (= none) silver and gold: (11) A gentleman almost forespent with speed came spurring hard after him.

EXERCISE 5. Mention each subject and say of what it consists :1. Warriors were there. 2. All is vanity. 3. To resist was fatal. 4. The sky is blue. 5. The sun had closed the winter day. 6. I stand beneath the mystic moon. 7. The poor act without aim. 8. To spare

thee now is past my power. 9. Gathering shells was her constant em. ployment. 10. “Stanley !" was the cry. 11. Some alighted on the plant to deposit their eggs. 12. The air was calm. 13. How beautiful is night! 14. They chant their artless notes in simple guise. 15. The boasting were all exposed. 16. Some lightly o'er the current skim. 17. To be king stands not within the prospect of belief. 18. The gull lies asleep. 19. She was a great lady. 20. To relieve the wretched was his pride. 21. How low, how little are the proud! 22. Succouring the miserable was his sole delight. 23. “We shall meet again," were the palmer's last words. 24. The partridge bursts away on whirring wings. 25. They were not men of letters. 26. None hath seen its secret fountain. 27. The laughing please us most. 28. “Come at once !" was the message. 29. Recovering the lost lamb was a work of much difficulty. 30. He seemed some seventy winters old.

2. Enlarged Subject. 12. The simple subject is enlarged when it has one or more qualifying words or phrases added to it. 13. The simple subject may be enlarged by :1. An adjective: as, The mother weeps ; The wintry hedge

: was black. 2. A noun in apposition: as, Cicero, the orator, wrote many

books ; It is wise to be circumspect. 3. A noun or pronoun in the possessive case : as, Timour's

front was covered with a line of Indian elephants;

His designs were lost. 4. (a) An infinitive : as, The time to speak was come. i) An infinitive phrase : as, A desire to excel in music

animated him. 5. A prepositional phrase : as, The tidings of misfortune fly

with a rapid wing. 6. (a) A participle : as, The sailor, diving, recovered the

treasure. (6) A participial phrase : as, The dog, seizing the man by

the collar, dragged him out; United with the pope, Frederic continued his march; Having wandered far,

he sat down to rest. 7. A sentence : as,

The breath whose might I have invoked in song

Descends on me.
N.B.-A sentence of this kind is called an adjective sentence

(s 57). Obs. 1. An or a and the are, by some, treated not as enlargements but as parts of the simple subject.

Obs. 2. When it precedes a verb as subject, and a phrase or sentence follows explaining it, this phrase or sentence is in apposition: as, It is wise to be circumspect = It, viz., to be circumspect, is wise. Somne writers reject the it in analysis, and give to be circumspect as the real subject.

Ovs. 8. It is sometimes said that an adverb may form an enlargement : as, The castle here is very old. This is equivalent to “The castle (which is) here is very old." (Parsing, pp. 142, 143.) Obs. 4. Enlargements of the subject are also called Attributes and Adjuncts.

14. The above methods of enlarging the subject may be repeated or combined : as,

Dear, gentle, patient, noble Nell was dead.
Every kind of industry has been developed with wonderful rapidity

in the United States.
No trees of any magnitude are to be seen.
Our neighbour's son, having ventured too near the river's edge, fell
into the stream.

Point out the enlargements of the subject and say of what they

consist :1. Malignant Fate sat by. 2. We men must vanish. 3. His listening brethren stood around. 4. The endless sound of flowing water soothes him. 5. Seeing herself cut off from the hope of succour, she resolved to fly. 6. Sandals bound with thongs protected the feet. 7. What female heart can gold despise? 8. The trumpet's loud clangour excites us to arms. 9. Elizabeth herself was by no means exempt from these feelings. 10. Slow melting strains their Queen's approach declare. 11. Their pretension to be leaders is unwarranted. 12. The seat of Chaucer's nativity was the city of London. 13. It is impossible not to wish success to such a man. 14. There lay her shining eggs. 15. The oak’s tender leaf was of emerald and gold. 16. A desire to profit by his friend's misfortunes urged him on. 17. The watchman on the battlements partakes the stillness of the solemn hour. 18. The moon, half extinguished, her crescent displays. 19. The merry ploughboy cheers his team. 20. It was refreshing to walk in the cool evening air. 21. Your generous qualities have won due praise. 22. His father Nabal was one of the most powerful of the Moorish princes. 23. The first hours of last night were rough with storms. 24. Musing on worlds beyond the grave, he stands. 25. The mild southern breeze brought a shower from the hill. 26. His son John sustained the same contest. 27. True sympathy the sailor's looks expressed. 28. The great sun, scattering clouds with a resistless smile, came forth to do thee homage. 29. Our English archers bent their bows.

30. The luscious clusters of the vine
Upon my mouth do crush their wine.

QUESTIONS ON $S 9–14. 1. What is a simple subject? 2. Of what kinds of words may a simple subject consist? 3. What is the usual place of the subject? 4. When does the subject follow the predicate? 5. How is the simple subject enlarged ? 6. What kinds of words are used as enlargements? 7. Which adjectives are sometimes treated as parts of the simple subject? 8. Explain the construction of the sentence “It is wise to be circumspect." 9. Explain the sentence “The castle here is very old.” 10. Show how the subject may have several enlargements.


15. The Predicate consists of :1. A finite verb: as, Hope remains ; The king was slain;

The messenger may have been deceived. Obs. A finite verb is a verb which has number and person. Infinitives and participles, therefore, cannot of themselves form a predicate.

2. The verb to be followed by :

a. An adjective: as, Food is necessary.
b. A noun in the nominative case : as, Thou art the man.
C. A pronoun in the nominative case : as, It is 1.
d. A participial* phrase : as, Procrastination is putting

off from time to time.
e. An infinitive : as, To labour is to worship.
f. An adverb: as, The shepherd is here.

g. A phrase : as, Goliath was of gigantic stature.
3. Any copulative verb followed by:-

a. An adjective: as, The brave man turned pale.
b. A noun in the nominative case : as, Elizabeth became

C. A pronoun in the nominative case : as, He seems him-

self again. d. A phrase : as, The matter was deemed of great im

portance. 16. The verb to be cannot by itself form a predicate unless it means “ to exist”: as, God is, i.e., God exists. 17. The predicate denotes :(1) What a person or thing is or becomes : as, The swallows

are asleep; My eyes grow dim ; It became a mirror. (2) What a person or thing does : as, The owls hoot ; The

ring-dove laments. (3) What is done to a person or thing: as, His shield was

cleft ; The maid was slain. 18. The Copulative Verbs are: To be, to appear, to become, to be born, to be bred, to begin (intrans.), to come (especially in phrase to come off ), to commence (intrans.), to continue (intrans.), to die, to expire, to fall, to go, to grow (intrans.), to lie, to look, to prove (intrans.), to reign, to remain, to return (intrans.), to rise, to seem, to sit, to stand (intrans.), to turn (especially in phrase to turn out), to wander,

* Or gerundial.

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