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EXERCISE 46. Mention the illative and causative co-ordinate sentences :1. He is not here, for he is risen. 2. Into her thoughts of him time entered not, for it was not. 3. I am young, and ye are old, wherefore I was afraid, and durst not show you mine opinion. 4. Love is your master, for he masters you. 5. The sluggard will not plow by reason of the cold ; therefore shall he beg in harvest and have nothing. 6. My hard fortunes deserve not scorn; for I was never proud. 7. They dared not trust the people; so he might not speak aloud. 8. I am not acquainted with the merchant in question ; therefore I can say neither good nor ill of him. 9. Boast not thyself of to-morrow, for thou knowest not what a day may bring forth. 10. I will speak out, for I dare not lie. 11. Sir, I love you, and therefore will not leave you. 12. Cast thy bread upon the waters ; for thou shalt find it after many days. 13. It was now too late, being four o'clock in the afternoon, to think of sending our boats ashore; accordingly we postponed it till morning. 14. The people are not devoid of industry; for I remarked that their cottages were of a tolerable size, and very well built. 15. The power of Fortune is confessed only by the miserable, for the happy impute all their success to prudence and merit. 16. My lute! be still, for I have done. 17. It was no dream ; for I lay broad awaking. 18. That which is past and gone is irrecoverable, and therefore they do but trifle with themselves that labour in past matters. 19. He must soon disperse his followers, for this army is too much broken to rally again. 20. Aloud she shrieked! for Hermes reappeared. 21. Her husband coming home, not having great love towards her, accused her of the murder, and so she was taken and brought to Cambridge. 22. In Normandy little or no wine at all is produced ; therefore the common drink of that country is cider. 23. His (the busy-body's) estate is too narrow for his mind; and, therefore, he is fain to make himself room in others' affairs. 24. The figure was really hideous ; hence it was a terror to children. 25. I hope we shall have another good day tomorrow, for the clouds are red in the west. 26. The larger the circle [is], the nearer the clouds (are), and, consequently, the more ready [they are] to fall. 27. These congregatings usually begin to take place about the first week in August; and therefore we may conclude that by that time the first flight is pretty well over.

28. My head is twice as big as yours,

They therefore needs must fit.
29. Yet once again I talk to thee,

For thou art worthy.
30. Our tears from passion and from reason came,

And, therefore, shalt thou be an honoured name.

EXERCISE 47. Analyse :1. I am very sick ; [therefore] lead me unto my bed. 2. In a word, man knows himself to be miserable ; he is therefore exceedingly miserable, because he knows that he is so. 3. Ah ! say not so ; for I will haunt thee too. 4. Scipio the general said he knew that they both got up the wall together, and so gave the scaling crown to them both. 5. Great is their business, and therefore great should be their hire. 6. Such a

system was new, and was therefore terrific. 7. He found that many of the lands were forfeited to the lord, and accordingly would have entered on the premises. 8. I stayed but two months with my wife and family ; for my insatiable desire of seeing foreign countries would suffer me to continue no longer. 9. The great oven is not so wide by ten paces as the cupola of St. Paul's : for I measured the latter on purpose after my return. 10. He found himself now not so faint, and seemed inclined to sleep : he therefore enquired for a bed. ll. He could never have any. thing he liked at home, therefore he would stay but little there. 12. The doctrine of moderation was a very unpopular subject in such an assembly ; and accordingly they rejected it as one man. 13. She had lost kindred and home; consequently, she was very wretched. 14. Thou stoppest short of the duties of a king, and therefore they say thou art unfit to be a monarch. 15. We will cavil not about their lives ; so let them mend them. 16. Our law forbids at their religious rites my presence ; for that cause I cannot come. 17. Thy son is rather slaying them ; [for] that outcry from slaughter of one foe could not ascend. 18. Throw physic to the dogs, [for) I'll none of it. 19. Life is too short to be long about the forms of it-80 I instantly stepped in. 20. I had got a riddle to amuse me for the rest of the evening, so I walked upstairs to my chamber.

21. In arguing too, the parson owned his skill,

For e'en though vanquished, he could argue still.
22. This day beyond its term my fate extends,

For life is ended when our honour ends.
23. No place from me my grief away can take;

Wherefore with tears, my bed, I thee forsake.
24. Wise men's words are well kept in :

For he will no song begin

Ere he have tuned his pipe.
He wants the natural touch ; for the poor wren,
The most diminutive of birds, will fight,

Her young ones in her nest, against the owl.
26. Him well behoved so ; for his three foes

Sought to encompass him on every side.
Immodest words admit of no defence ;
For want of decency is want of sense.
Never saw I May so fair :

Therefore dancing will we go.
29. Weep no more, lady, weep no more ;

Thy sorrow is in vain :
For violets plucked, the sweetest shower

Will ne'er make grow again.
30. They err who say thy song is sad :

To me it speaks of mirth. 93. Compound Sentences are contracted when the coordinate sentences have :1. The same subject : as, The moon rose and threw her silvery light upon the sea =

The moon rose
[and] the moon threw her silvery light upon the sea.


2. The same predicate ; as, The wind and the waves were still

The winds were still
[and] the waves were still..
3. The same complementary nominative : as, He neither is nor can

be a poet =
(neither] he is a poet

(nor] he can be a poet.
4. The same object :-
a. Direct : as, John loves and William dislikes the sea =

John loves the sea
[and] William dislikes the sea.
b. Indirect : as, John lends and William gives him a knife-

John lends (to) him a knife
[and] William gives (to) him a knife.
5. The same extension of the predicate : as, during the day-time
owls sleep and men work =

Owls sleep during the day-time

[and] men work during the day-time. Obs. 1. Several contractions may occur in the same sentence: as, Such birds as were to search and gather their food, whether herbs or insects, in the bottom of pools and deep waters, have long necks for that purpose. The above is equivalent to eight sentences: thus,

(1) Such birds have long necks for that purpose
2) as (the birds are]
3) (which] were to search their food in the bottom of pools
(4) and (which were to search their food in the bottom of] deep waters.
(5) and (which were to gather their food in the bottom of pools.
(6) and (which were to gather their food in the bottom of] deep waters
(7) whether (their food was) herbs

(8) or (their food was) insects. Obs. 2. It is sometimes difficult to show intelligibly the sentences which a conjunction connects. When this is the case, the student may group the words apparently joined by the conjunction, and treat them as a compound.

V. Connectives of Co-ordinate Sentences. 94. The following is a table of connectives of co-ordinate sentences :

| And, also, besides, further, furthermore,

likewise, moreover, neither (= and

not), nor (= and not). · I. Copulative.

But also, but likewise, as well—as,

both — and, not merely - but, not


( Either, or; neither, nor. II. Disjunctive. Else (=or), otherwise (= or), in other

words. But, however, nevertheless, notwith

standing, only, still, yet. III. Adversative. Indeed—but, now—then, at one time

at another time, on the one handon the other.

IV. Illa- | Illative.


| Accordingly, consequently, hence, so, I then, thence, therefore, thereupon,

thus, whence, wherefore. | And so, and therefore, and for, on this

account, for this reason. For.

i Causative.

Obs. Co-ordinate sentences are often separated by a full stop. The connective is then placed at the beginning of the second co-ordinate sentence : as, I love to convey the news to my friends before it is faded. Accordingly, my expenses in coach-hire make no small article.

QUESTIONS ON SS 80–94. 1. Name the four classes of co-ordinate sentences. 2. What are copulative co-ordinate sentences ? 3. Name the connectives of copulative co-ordinate sentences. 4. When is nor copulative? 5. When is neither copulative? 6. When does the relative join copulative co-ordinate sentences ? 7. When which relates to an entire sentence, what does it join? 8. When do the pronominal words when, where, &c., join copulative co-ordinate sentences? 9. Give an example of copulative co-ordinate sentences with the connective omitted. 10. What are disjunctive co-ordinate sentences ? 11. Why are they also called alternative? 12. Name the connectives of disjunctive co-ordinate sentences. 13. When are else and otherwise connectives of disjunctive co-ordinate sentences ? 14. What phrase sometimes connects disjunctive co-ordinate sentences ? 15. What are adversativa co-ordinate sentences ? 16. Name the connectives of adversative co-ordinate sentences. 17. Give an example of adversative coordinate sentences with the connective omitted. 18. What are illative co-ordinate sentences ? 19. When are they called causative? 20. Show how to distinguish between causative co-ordinate sentences and adverbial sentences of cause. 21. Name the connectives of illative and causative co-ordinate sentences. 22. When the connective consists of and and a second word, of what part of speech is the second word ? 23. Give an example of illative co-ordinate sentences with the connective omitted, 24. In what ways may compound sentences be contracted?

When are they canes and adverbial sentenced 22. When the con


1. She walks the waters like a thing of life,
And seems to dare the elements to strife.

Thus on I thought
Until my head was dizzy and distraught.
Moreover, through the dancing poppies stole

A breeze most softly lulling to my soul.
3. Tell me not in mournful numbers,

“Life is but an empty dream !" For the soul is dead that slumbers,

And things are not what they seem. 4. Experience must by fools be bought,

Else they'll not think they need it.
5. My life is full of weary days,

But good things have not kept aloof,
Nor wandered into other ways:

I have not lacked thy mild reproof,
Nor golden largess of thy praise.
6. He that has light within his own clear breast,

May sit in the centre, and enjoy bright day :
But he that hides a dark soul, and foul thoughts,
Benighted walks under the mid-day sun;
Himself is his own dungeon.

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