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beautiful panorama that was spread before us. Far away in the distance the Cordilleras reared their snow-capped heads towards the sky; nearer to the foreground lay rows of pointed hills, at the foot of which a fertile plain sloped gently towards the sea-shore, where, at the farther extremity of this verdant slope, was to be seen Lima with its white spires, and at the nearest point were situated the houses and fortress of Callao, almost hidden from view by the masts of the numerous ships which crowded the port. The harbour is well protected, on the north and east by the shore, on the south-east by a long projecting tongue of land, and on the south by the hilly island of San Lorenzo ; it is only open to the sea on the west.

On landing at Callao, one is struck with the singular uniform-blue striped linen-of the Peruvian soldiers, many of whom are to be seen in and near the custom-house, and with the heaps of corn piled up without any covering in the open air. But it never rains here. The dew, which falls from eleven o'clock at night till about eleven o'clock in the morning, suffices to give moisture and nourishment to vegetation. A tramway goes direct from the pier to the railway station, which is situated at no great distance from the landing-place; and by this railway goods are transported in less than twenty minutes to Lima, from whence they are sent to different parts of the country. There is also a communication by water between the river Rimar and the harbour. The town itself, as the seaport of the capital of Peru, and next to Valparaiso the most commercial place on the west coast of South America, is, like its harbour, full of bustle and animation. The principal street runs parallel to the shore, with substantial, but by no means elegant, houses and shops. In the centre is a market-place, with a bubbling fountain, and a miserablelooking church, constructed of wood and clay. Other streets lead from the principal one, and farther


the town is the market for fruit, butcher's meat, and many other articles, which are displayed under awnings of sail-cloth, or rushes; white people, negroes, and Indians mingle here, and the noise is almost beyond bearing.

On the outskirts of the town, where the poorer class dwell, the habitations are wretched in the extreme. Here are to be seen huts composed of reeds, formed into walls

by means of being attached to bamboo stems driven into the


These frail walls are sometimes smeared over on the outside with clay mixed with lime, so that they become firmer; and for a roof the hut has only a sort of mat, on which they strew sand or gravel, for, as it has already been mentioned, the absence of rain renders any waterproof covering scarcely necessary.

The whole abode is merely a room without windows, without flooring, without any furni- . ture except a large bed, on which, however, excellent bedclothes are often found. Everything here betokens either great poverty, or a great want of the necessaries of life; and in a country like this, where wages are very high, and people live principally upon fruit, one is surprised that so many needful things are dispensed with.

In the middle of the last century the old town of Callao was entirely destroyed by an earthquake. It was situated south of the present town, which at that time was one of two Indian settlements lying just under the walls of the old Callao. It was a fine city, filled with handsome churches and palaces. The heaving of the ground during the earthquake overthrew many of the houses, and the sea retired so far that the greatest part of the harbour was left dry land. But it rolled in again at length like one vast wave, and on its fearful onward course it overwhelmed

everything that came in its way: human beings and every living creature perished, the remaining buildings were swept off, and not a vestige of the once flourishing city remained. The sea dashed on as far as Bellavista, a small town in the interior, where an iron cross now recals the memory of that awful inundation. No traces of the old Callao are now to be seen, but in very calı weather pieces of wall and the ruins of houses are visible beneath the water on the coast.

The present Callao derives its consequence partly from its being the greatest storehouse of Peru, and the port of Lima, partly from its fortress, San Filippe, which stands at its southern extremity. This place must have been very strong formerly, for it held out long against all the attacks of the insurgents during the War of Independence; and it was the heroic assault and capture of this stronghold that, in 1826, wrested Peru from the Spanish yoke. The greater part of this fortress is now converted into a depôt for goods, and its military importance is far less than it used to be.

Lima, the capital of Peru, was founded in 1535 by Francisco Pizarro, and was at first named CIUDAD DE LOS REYES. It lies at a little distance from Callao, at the entrance to the mountain pass, which forms, at an elevation of 500 feet above the level of the sea, the limit to the beforementioned sloping land. Formerly omnibuses and diligences travelled regularly between the two towns; but the great traffic has already called into existence a railroad, and now one goes with ease in twenty minutes from the one place to the other. The railway station at Callao has none of that comfort and luxury which one is accustomed to meet on the continent of Europe. A roof of rushes, upheld by some bamboo-trees, forms the little shed where the tickets are sold. But the carriages and engines are excellent, and are all of English workmanship. The inclined plane over which one travels has two very

different aspects. That portion which lies to the north of the railway is extremely fertile

, abounding in rows of willow-trees, and rich in various kinds of vegetation. That portion, on the contrary, which lies close to the ancient Callao and the sea-shore is a mere waste, the barren surface of which is only diversified by half dried-up pools of water, whose white margins extend very far. Everything around conveys the idea of extreme indolence in agricultural affairs. The railway goes straight into the town. The station here is of a very different description to that of Callao, and in turning a corner the stranger finds himself at once in one of the principal streets.

A stranger is much struck with the large balconies and their greenpainted lattices, that hang like gigantic cages from the walls of every house. In them the ladies spend all the cooler hours of the day. The windows towards the street are closely jalousied. Massive gateways lead to a court-yard surrounded by buildings, the walls of which are covered with fresco paintings, representing scenes from the Bible, or from the Grecian and Roman histories, and occasionally from the ancient history of Peru. This first court is generally ornamented with trees and plants growing in tubs and flower-plots; and farther back are two or three other court-yards, devoted to household purposes. One or two


handsome staircases lead to the upper stories, which are often built like a gallery, with curtains falling in heavy folds. The rooms are elegantly furnished, and there is no want of mirrors, paintings, &c.

The lowest stories of the houses are almost all used as shops, in which the newest and richest importations from Paris and London are to be found. I have nowhere in South America seen such splendid shops. Lima deserves, in this respect, its name of “ Little Paris.” On one side of the great market-place stand the cathedral and the palace of the archbishop; on another side is situated the government house, while the other two sides are filled with private dwellings, having their lowest stories converted into shops and gay

bazaars. The cathedral is a fine edifice, built in the Moorish style, its façade painted and highly embellished, and altogether wearing an imposing appearance. The interior is quite in keeping with the exterior. The high altar is very costly; it is encircled by twenty-four columns, which were originally of solid silver, but these found their way to the state treasury, and from thence into the pockets of the government officials and their partisans, and in their place are now twenty-four wooden columns, covered with plates of silver. The bishop's pulpit, its canopy, and the chairs for the other dignitaries of the church, are all of beautifully carved wood. The walls of the side chapels are covered with paintings by Italian masters, and the whole cathedral is filled with gifts from the pious, consisting of pictures, sculptures, and various expensive works of art. There is perhaps no city in America which has so many churches as Lima. There are said to be sixty, besides monasteries and convents. The observations which I have made with regard to the state of religion in other parts of South America also apply in their fullest extent to Lima.

In the centre of the market-place is a handsome but somewhat dilapidated fountain, with numerous jets of water, and surmounted by a statue of Fame. Around this the populace throng of an evening, smoking and chattering together. Proceeding on towards the bridge over the river Rimar, a lovely view presents itself: the distant hills towering one above the other until they seem to touch the skies—the wild mountain streams dashing over their rocky beds, and forming here and there a foaming cataract—the painted houses on one side of the river, and the verdant plain that stretches to the shore-all this is beautiful. The bridge is a favourite lounging-place, where, seated on stone benches, the ladies, as well as the gentlemen, enjoy their cigars. Continuing one's walk in the same direction, one comes to the suburb called Macambo. No more shops are to be seen here, and one only finds the dwellings of the lowest classes. Although these are not merely huts made of rushes, as at Callao, still they are ill-constructed and dirty enough to evince the poverty of their inhabitants. Lima is quite a Spanish town, but the Spanish style of building is modified to suit a place where earthquakes so often occur. The streets all bear names which sound unpleasantly to the ears of Protestants-viz., " Calle de Jesus Maria-Calle de Jesus Nazareno," &c, There are a great many public buildings besides the churches in Lima, but they have all seen their best days, and seem now only decaying evidences of past prosperity.

The population of Lima, which formerly amounted to 100,000, is now reduced to 40,000, a fact which speaks volumes as to its present condition. It could not be otherwise in a place where internal disturbance,


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like earthquakes, have destroyed all order, and where there is so little security that, between Lima and Callao, no one after nightfall is safe from robbers. _Besides the white inhabitants—the descendants of the Spaniards and the European settlers—the population consists of such a multitude of negroes and Indians, that with the exception of Brazil, no equal number are to be found in any other part of South America. The offspring of the whites and the Indians are called Cholos, of the Indians and the negroes Sambos, and of the whites and negroes Mulattos. The Spaniards have the usual dark complexions, black hair, fine sparkling eyes, and peculiarly proud bearing of their European brethren. The only thing remarkable in their dress is the so-called Almaviva cloak, in which they all, without any exception, wrap themselves up to the eyes, winter and

, summer, like banditti. The ladies are entirely guided in their apparel by the Parisian fashion-books. They dress tastefully and expensively, but have almost entirely discarded the picturesque costume which not many years ago formed one of the most striking peculiarities of Lima.

This consisted in a “saya” and “manto;" the saya was a long silk robe that descended almost to the beautiful little feet, so that the wearer could only take very short steps; it was more like a case than anything else. The manto was a dark silk cloak attached to the saya, enveloping the head and shoulders, and concealing all but one eye and one hand, the latter of which was generally laden with costly jewels. Above all was thrown a splendid shawl, which was worn so as almost to touch the ground. This dress, in which the wearer could not be recognised even by her nearest relations, enabled her to visit every place of amusement, and to engage in any intrigue, and imparted to society a sort of masquerade character, which veiled many an adventure, -some doubtless of an equivocal, but others only of a romantic nature. The day of adventures, however, of little gallantries and love intrigues, is gone

for ever.

Publicity, which, like a great subjugating power, is making the round of the world, has forced its way even into far Peru, and has wrought its accustomed changes there.

One meets occasionally with some traces of the old Peruvians and the race of the Incas. In the neighbourhood of Lima, Indian temples have been found, but entirely in ruins. Ancient relics are still frequently dug up, and the Museum at Lima, which has also many objects interesting to the natural historian, possesses a good collection of them.

On the last day of our sojourn here I visited the island of San Lorenzo. It is a bare rock, with deep layers of sand upon the surface at the top. No plants grow there, with the exception of an anemone, and a juicy herb which here and there raises its solitary head amidst this desert. When I climbed to the summit of the hill I was so fortunate as to have clear weather, and consequently a delightful view. In the distance the Cordilleras and lower ranges of mountains, before me the sea, the coast, and Lima with its numerous spires, and at my feet these masses of rock that disclose the history of a revolution brought about by a greater power than mankind's limited and selfish will. I have seen many fine views at home and abroad, but few that could compare with this one in grandeur and beauty.

Two things on the island particularly attracted my attention. At the base of the hill I observed several large apertures, farther up several smaller ones, and between the two sets of holes, little lines of commu

nication. The larger hole I found to contain birds-nests, the lesser serving as a sort of window to the dark interior of the rocky habitations of the feathered tribes. I also remarked towards the summit of the hill, every here and there, channels scooped out in the rock, like conduits for water, and in which I expected to see water, but on closer examination I discovered that these little hollow paths were filled inch-thick with white snails, which are found in frightful quantities among the layers of sand. On the side of the island nearest to Callao we saw some miserable fishermen's huts; and behind these, in the midst of sand, was a churchyard, where several English and American sailors had found their last restingplace.

It is well known that Peru is perhaps more favoured by nature than any

other country in South America. . Besides its vast herds of cattle, its rich vegetation, the mines yield, or would yield, enormous wealth. At the end of the last century 670 gold and silver mines were in full operation, and 578 had been commenced to be worked. Spain drew from the district of Potosi alone six millions of piastres annually. The returns are now far different. Exhaustion after the fierce civil war, insecurity, and indifference to the future, have succeeded to the universal disquiet and constant commotions that so long disturbed this unhappy land. The victory of AYACUCHO, which was won in 1824 by General Suere, put an end to the revolutionary war against Spain, and placed Peru, with the exception of Callao, in the hands of the patriots. But since that period the country has been a prey to repeated 'insurrections, not unfrequently led by subaltern officers, and persons of a similar grade. No president has almost ever been elected without violent party strife and civil warfare. Three or four pretenders to the supreme power have often been known to spring up at the same time, each of whom had gathered a crowd of followers, many of them wild adventurers ; each party plundered and murdered, and were in turn routed and dispersed. Yet, as they were permitted to remain undisturbed in the country, they were ready at the first opportunity to react the same scenes. Thus the history of Peru for the last twenty years is but a record of a series of outrages which, having impoverished the country and broken the spirit of the people, has left them in such dejection, or despair, that they have become totally indifferent to the prosperity of their native land, and do not care to exert themselves in her cause.

Even now one does not see any probable termination to this unhappy state of things, for at this moment another revolution appears ready to break out. Peru, which formerly was proverbial for its gold, its importance, and its flourishing condition, is now, like many other decayed states, but a shadow—a ghost of the past.

We left Callao on the 18th of March, and shaped our course to Guyaquil. We glanced at Payta, in Upper Peru, whose coast presented the appearance of a sea-washed calcareous hill, without any trace of vegetation ; passed the rocky island of Santa Clara, in the bay of Guyaquil, on which there stands a lighthouse; and, on the 25th of the same month, anchored close to a small town on the east side of the island of Puna, which lies farther up the bay. It was an enchanting spot. In the midst of a thick and leafy grove, fragrant with the perfume of the most beautiful flowers, and watered by a rivulet whose banks were adorned with rows of an American plant, from which green tendrils fell into the stream, floating on it in circles like emerald coropets, lay a small town, or village,


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