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Jordan, and “circumstances” adds the doctor, in a foot-note, “ render it proper to say here, that Mr. Van de Velde accompanied us at our invitation. He had nothing whatever to do either with the plan, the arrange

expense, or the results of the excursion.” The object of the expedition was, we are informed, to ascertain the distance between the ruins called Tubukat Fahil, described by Irby and Mangles as Jabesh Gilead, and thus determine whether the former are the remains of Pella. We accordingly turned to the pages of Van de Velde to ascertain the origin of this insinuation against a fellow-traveller, and we find that Mr. Van de Velde, in a letter dated Beisan, May 16th, says that the first thing he intimated to Dr. Eli Smith at their meeting at Nabulus was his intention to seek for the ruins of Pella. The result of the united labours was to identify ruins called ed Deir, or “ the Monastery," with Jabesh Gilead; and as to Pella, Dr. Robinson says, “ After completing our examination of the remains (at Tubukat Fahil, the terrace of Fahil'), I ventured to express to my companions on the spot the opinion, in which they concurred, that we were standing amid the ruins of the long-sought Pella. It is at such moments that the traveller has his reward.” Upon this subject Mr. Van de Velde says, “ On rounding a hill, we saw

a the ruins of Pella at half an hour's distance to the south, and at once bent our steps towards them. We found ourselves among the veritable remains of an ancient and important city.” This is very irreverent to the learned professor's subsequent pronunciamento, in which his companions concurred, that they were standing amid the ruins of the long-sought

but the fact is, that they all appear to have entertained that opinion previously; and so it appears did also Kiepert, the map-maker of Berlin, who, according to Van de Velde, and by Robinson's own admission, proposed to identify the Tubukat Fahil with Pella in 1842.

Capernaum is still a disputed site. Dr. Robinson placed it in his former travels at Khan Minyeh ; Dr. Wilson and Ritter identified it with Tell Hum. In this present work, the doctor, revisiting the spot, adduces further evidence in support of his first conclusion. It is important to remark on this discussion, that Quarresmius expressly states, that in his day the place called by the Arabs Minyeh, was regarded as marking the site of Capernaum. Elucid. T. S. ii. p. 864.)

On his way from Hasbeiya, where the Americans have a missionary establishment, to Banias, Dr. Robinson visited Tell el Kady, which has been erroneously supposed to be the crater of an extinct volcano, and of the identity of which with Dan, the warlike colony of the Danites, “from Dan to Beersheba” denoting the whole length of the Promised Land, the doctor says there can be no question. This is, however, not a novel identification. Near to it is Difneh, probably the site of an ancient Daphne, mentioned by Josephus as near the source of the Lesser Jordan and the Temple of the Golden Calf.

The route from Banias to Damascus afforded much that was interesting in description, but little that is novel in sites. There were the lower ridges of Lebanon to cross ; the temples of Thelthatha, of Rukhleh, and of Ashayir to measure; the valley of Wady et Teim to explore; the Jebel es Sheikh to ascend; and the approach to the city to describe. Damascus itself, of which, till the publication of the Rev. Mr. Porter's book, lately reviewed in these pages, we knew but very little indeed, is now doubly described, so much so as to leave in reality little to desire.


On leaving Damascus, Dr. Robinson visited the ruins of Abila, which have acquired some notoriety, from the recent attempt made by M. de Saulcy to claim the site as a discovery of his own. The delusion, in


, itself of no importance whatsoever, obtained such from its having been argued that it was no delusion at all, and that the learned academician was as well aware of the site as others. Certain it is that the very inscription, which he believed never to have been published, appears in Dr. Wilson's book, as also in the Journal des Savans for March, 1827. The historical notices marshalled forth by Dr. Robinson would make of it one of the most marked places in the country in which it occurs.

The great point, and indeed the only site of importance discovered on the road from Damascus to Baalbek, was Chalcis, under Lebanon, which the doctor identifies with the ruins at Anjar. It is questionable even if this can be called a discovery, for a writer in the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (art. Chalcis), after discussing the evidence in favour of there being two cities of that name, one of which is the wellknown Kinnisnir, south of Aleppo, suggests that the second may be perhaps at Majdel Anjar, where Abu-l-feda (Tab. Syriæ, p. 20) speaks of great ruins of hewn stones. This, however, apparently from Robinson himself (Biblioth. Sacr. vol. v. p. 90). At all events, we are indebted to the doctor for a minute description of the locality, of its great fountain and its intermitting spring, and also of the existing ruins.

On the way from Baalbek to El Husn, the position of a few unimportant sites marked in the Antonine Itinerary were also determined ; the sources of the Orontes were examined ; the site of ancient Ribleh, by some confounded with Antioch, was established; and some details, but not from personal examination, are given of the cities in Colo-Syria. Dr. Robinson is in error, however, when he says the first to discover and describe the extensive ruins of Apamea was Mr. Thomson, in 1846—a minute description of the existing ruins will be found in Ainsworth's Magazine, vol. vi., for 1844.

Lastly, it is suggested that the well-known fortress, El Husn, may be the Mamonga of Ptolemy; the entrance into Hamath is identified with the great depression between Lebanon and the Nusairiyeh mountains ; Jisr el Abyad is supposed to represent Eleutherus; Arka and its tell

, ancient Arca, seat of the Arkites; and Afka with Apheca, with its adjacent temple to Venus. These constitute, we believe, apart from the


valuable and interesting descriptions of known sites, the chief new points determined by Dr. Robinson in this his last journey. Few, it will be seen, are of much real importance to Biblical geography, although some, as Dothan, Cana, Emmaus, and a few others, possess high claims to interest. sites determined amount, we believe, to some fifty-a noble monument to the perseverance and laborious travel of one man. But we do not hesitate to say that, when the same system of exploration shall have been introduced into the Holy Land that has been practised in Assyria and in Chaldea, and the numerous tells shall have been excavated and laid bare, a new era in Biblical archæology will be established. The success that attended

the Rev. Mr. Porter's first attempts at such a mode of exploration at Tell al Salahiyah, near Damascus, is sufficient to attest this great fact.





of childhood is


retentive. I can even now recal, at any moment I please, the gardener at Mellingsta, Master Peter (I have forgotten his surname), in his white nightcap and his threadbare coat, just as he used to wander about the garden, or gaze in at the windows of the hot-house, to see if there were any melons or grapes. Master Peter was a person who particularly attracted my attention during my childhood; he was, I must tell you, the first scholar I had ever met. Pray do not laugh at the appellation scholar being applied to an old domestic; would that all learned men had as little pretence about them as he had, and that they studied the face of nature with as honest and unprejudiced a spirit as he did.

His small neat cottage was situated in the garden, and looked upon the high road; and whenever Master Peter happened to see any poor boy loitering on the road, he used to tap on the narrow window-frames to call him, and welcomed the little wayfarer under his hospitable though homely roof. If the child were a beggar, he would give him food ; if he were not hungry, he would treat his little guest to fruit, present him with flowers, and display to him the numerous curiosities which he had gathered during a long life, and had arranged in his study as, with a sort of childish pride, he named a small room with the windows facing the road. Here he had his scanty library, among which was conspicuous Euler's Letters in a gilded binding, an invaluable acquisition from the auction of a deceased nobleman ; then came Cavallo on Eti. quette, Thunberg's Travels, and Hoffberg's Flora—every one books that Master Peter considered classical.

Master Peter was an indefatigable observer of meteorological changes. He had found it necessary, in pursuing his calling, to study the weather, and to make himself acquainted with all its prognostics and signs; it was necessary he should know whether he ought to place mats over the hothouses, or whether he should water the cucumber-beds; hence his knowledge of the weather was for him indispensable. No one knew better than he how to discern the skies; no one understood better the difference between the pale red hue which betokens an approaching storm, and the more decided purple which announces fine weather. He also possessed instruments to facilitate his favourite study. He was the owner of a thermometer and a barometer, and considered so weatherwise in the neighbourhood, that he was looked upon as an oracle throughout the parish, the peasantry leaving their corn with perfect confidence in stacks upon the fields, as long as Master Peter did not prophesy rain ; but if, after church on Sunday, Master Peter said, “We shall have rain before the week is out,” far and near one saw the harvest being gathered in.

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* “Uncle Adam” is the nom de plume of a popular Swedish author.


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Mellingsta was an ancient baronial castle, one of those massive buildings which bear witness to a period long gone by; a time one loves to dwell upon, owing to its numerous and great recollections, which float before us in mysterious obscurity. It was a relic of the epoch when the nobility were at the height of their glory, when wealth, honour, and education were still their especial prerogative ; when as yet the prosaic middle classes had not forced themselves forward, and obliterated the poetry of chivalry. It is sad to mark the changes of time. To a simple, fervent mind it must be somewhat distressing to see a great historical name eclipsed by a name of yesterday; yet this must sometimes happen, for the energetic power, ever pressing forward, does not lie in individuals, but in the whole human race.

Mellingsta was built in the olden style, although it had undergone many alterations. It was a three-story house, with high windows, which of old used to be arched, but which more recently had been changed, as a semicircle over each window clearly proved. A round tower, which rose somewhat above the pointed roof, stood forth like a colossal pillar; within this tower a spiral staircase led to each floor; the steps were worn away, which one generation after another had ascended and descended. Behind this large gloomy building was an extensive garden with its straight alleys, and quite in the background lay the small cottage in which Master Peter dwelt. But even here the pointed black roof of the castle was visible, and likewise one of its greatest peculiarities, namely, a bell, which hung beneath a dark green copper covering. This bell had no other inscription than Ave Maria,” most probably traced by the hand of some monk; for the bell was believed to have been carried off from a monastery by one of the ancestors of the baronial family during the time of the Reformation. Even in my childhood that bell hung there. It was never used, for no bell-rope was attached to it ; but tradition relates that it rings of itself at midnight when any great misfortune is about to take place in the family. Further, it is told that several of the former proprietors of the castle, not liking this evil-prophesying bell, determined to take it down and have it melted; but when people were sent up to remove it, one of the men was always hurled down by an invisible power, and hence no soul now dared to make any further attempt to dislodge it. The bell, therefore, still hung in its old place, and was regarded by the surrounding peasantry with a mysterious dread.

Even Master Peter could not free himself of this popular belief; on the contrary, he had carefully noted down how often he had heard the hollow tones, and added an account of the misfortune which immediately after, or at the same moment, had overtaken the family. Now this one, now that one had died, now one of the family estates had been laid waste by lightning, now a member of the noble race had fallen into disgrace with some high personage-an event which was always deeply lamented in those old aristocratic families.

In the evenings, when Master Peter was making his daily observations on the weather, if by chance he cast his eyes in the direction of the castle, and beheld the bell, which hung in its elevated position, silent, like inserutable fate, with its motionless iron tongue suspended from its wide and gaping throat, the old man's brow would contract, and he would turn quickly away.


watched the play of his countenance at such a moment, you would see an expression of pain pass over his features, and at the same moment you would hear a deep-drawn sigh. There was something in all this which naturally attracted the attention of us children. His usual mild, cheerful expression changed so suddenly. Children are faithful and sharp-sighted physiognomists ; they understand better than grown-up people the workings of the soul portrayed upon the features, and they draw their own little conclusions. Hence we settled in our own minds that Master Peter was afraid of the bell, that he feared he might suddenly see its ponderous tongue set in motion by an invisible hand, and hear its ominous and dreaded toll. We ourselves were in fear lest this might take place, and we could scarcely look up to where the bell was hanging without shuddering. But we were mistaken. Master Peter had other causes for pain, which were awakened afresh whenever he cast his eyes upon this fatal bell.

The good man had not always lived like a hermit. Many years ago he had an amiable wife, who superintended his limited household, and helped him in his work. She was a charming person-just such a benevolent, kind-hearted creature as himself. They lived happily together, and if they ever did disagree, it was never very seriously; they were both too good and sensible for that. Thus they spent many peaceful years, but at length cruel death robbed the poor gardener of his sweet wife, and all that now remained to him was a son, to whom he gave a good education to fit him for one of the learned professions.

His son did not disappoint his ambitious hopes; but, alas! the mother died on the very day on which the son, amidst the sound of music and the din of cannon, received the wreath of laurels. *

Johannes—so the son was called--returned home to his father. That was a day of mingled joy and sadness to the old man. His son accompanied him to the village churchyard to pay a first visit to his beloved mother's grave. There they sat recalling the time when Johannes was a child, and used to help his father with his instruments and his humble researches. Now the youth had outstripped the old man in the career of learning, but the parent felt no envy at this ; on the contrary, he was proud that he possessed a son who excelled himself—all his ambition was eentred in him ; Johannes was more than himself-he was the joy and pride of his old age.

They had sat thus a long time absorbed in the recollections of the past, when they were suddenly aroused from their meditations by a cheerful “Good evening !" Master Peter sprang up and bowed low. Johannes, however, merely smiled and offered his hand familiarly to the new comer as he said, “Good evening ! dear Johanna."

“Of what are you thinking ?” exclaimed the father. “ It is the daughter of our noble lord; it is the Lady Johanna —”

“No, no,” said the young girl, seizing the proffered hand of the son“no, no, Master Peter! Johannes knew me in times gone by, when we used to play with each other. He is quite right.”

* Every three years, in Sweden, a public examination is held, when those who have distinguished themselves at college receive the title of Master of Arts, the badge of which is a wreath of laurel.


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