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Sylvain), and a nose--oh, most abominable nose! Language is not vituperatious enough to describe the effect of its downward elongation :" and again, in a subsequent letter: “We dine with Mary Wollstonecroft* (now Godwin) to-morrow [1797). Oh, he has a foul nose, and I never see it without longing to cut it off.”+-But here is a digression which admits of no excuse, and for which, therefore, we can plead none. This comes of being personal. We lose our way by forgetting the homely direction “ follow your nose,” and following instead another person's.

To return. Bailly's complexion was brown, and the expression of his face severe and (some would think) forbidding. His tout ensemble, in short, as his friend already quoted expresses it, lui donnait pas une figure aimable.”But the same authority assures us there was nothing austere or sombre in his aspect, nothing to belie what he actually possessed, a fund of wise and lasting enjoyment, the result of a refined reason and a tranquil conscience.

His benevolent disposition, as a practical philanthropist, was recognised in the highest quarters on the occasion of his drawing up a Report (in 1786) on the Hôtel-Dieu, and on the question of hospital reform. The queen, we are told, read this Report with marked emotion. She there traced out in detail a circumstantial tableau of the varieties of suffering humanity in the heart of the capital. With the Report in her hand, she could, if it (painfully) pleased her, study at leisure, on a rose-bank in Little Trianon, the straits and struggles of her bedridden subjects—how the sick folk lay two in a bed, four in a bed, nay six in a bed, at the hospitals in Paris.

Another Report from the same pen had previously excited considerable attention. In 1784, Bailly compiled a “Rapport” on Animal Magnetism or Mesmerism-wherein he spoke in the name of a Commission composed of Franklin, Lavoisier, and several leading members of the medical Faculty of Paris—and displayed his characteristic sagacity and moderation; proving, says M. Sainte Beuve, that from the moment he took up

question of actual and practical interest, hypotheses lost all hold upon his imagination : he neither denies certain extraordinary facts, nor charges himself with the explanation of them ; but he repels and refutes that premature and interested explanation which there was nothing to justify in the eye of sound philosophy. These two Reports went far to ex

end the author's repute. Madame, the wife of the Comte de Provence, wished to make him Secretary of her Cabinet. Pensioned by the Court, had in honour by Academies, consulted by ministers on topics of public interest, Bailly was in want of nothing that could satisfy the largest and most legitimate ambition of a respectable savant, when the Revolution of '89 broke out. A little before that date he had (in 1787) provided for his domestic happiness by wedding a woman once possessed of great beauty, and still retaining something of it—a widow, and the intimate friend of

-a his mother. He saw in her, a widow, and past the bloom of youth, what he had seen when, by his mother's side, she was younger by many summers, in her own radiant spring. But 1787 was dangerously close to 1789. And Bailly the newly-married man was soon to exchange home joys for the National Assembly, and the Hôtel de Ville, and the Champ de Mars. * Sic in orig.

† Southey's Life and Correspondence. I. 306-7. $ Mérard de Saint Just.

Ś Sainte Beure.


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His fate is second to hardly any, among the victims of the Revolution they had hailed, in its dark and dreary character. Lingeringly dragged through the streets to the Champ de Mars, whither the guillotine had been transported, “ for this occasion only,” from the Place de la Concorde, that the bloodshed on that Campus Martius under Bailly's red flag might be now avenged by his own,--bare-headed, his hair cropped, his hands roughly corded behind his back, without screen or shelter from the cold rain that was falling, and snow mingled with the rain,—the mob so more than commonly brutal that the very executioners cried shame on them some spitting in the ex-mayor's face, others dipping the red flag they had provided (bloody memento of that same Campus Martius) in the gutters, and whipping the drenched ensign across Bailly's eyes, others cheering such spirited performance from hour to hour (for the procession was a three hours' business) with all the manifestations peculiar to a

screaming farce"—their victim compelled to “describe the circle” of the Champ de Mars on foot, and ordered to lick its soil desecrated, or consecrated, que voulez-vous ? by insurrectionists' blood-the guillotine after all removed from this soil, as too holy a foundation, taken dowa bit by bit, and reconstructed by the river-side, on a dungheap collected from Lutetian sewers—the veteran made to carry some of the heaviest beams himself, urged on by thrusts and blows liberally and impartially administered, fainting under his burden, welcomed on “coming-to" again with a hurricane of laughter, and for another hour allowed to hold Death at arm's length, while the scaffold was re-erected, on its new inodorous site. Trembling with cold, he condescended to explain, with frost and snow to back him, that 'twas not from cowardice. Five hours' exposure of that kind might make an old man shake a little, and would hardly aggravate the dread of that swift minister, the axe, whose cruelty was tender

mercy beside the doings of these men of steel. Few victims, says the most popular historian of these times, ever met with viler executioners, few executioners with so exalted a victim. His death, says Sainte Beuve, “ reflects as much honour as shame on the human race.” Lamartine had already expressed the same sentiment, in his own ampler style: “One blushed to be a man on beholding these people. One gloried in the title while contemplating this man.” So much for Freedom in masquerade both hands full—“ in her right a civic wreath, in her left a human head,” as that weird stranger in the Vision of Sin says; and with hi

66 think we know the hue of that cap upon her brows."

Let her go! her thirst she slakes

Where the bloody conduit runs :
Then her sweetest meal she makes

On the first-born of her sons.* There are those who cast doubts on the details connected with Bailly's death-march. Mr. Croker, f for instance, wishes the anecdote about the trembling with cold “could be well authenticated,” but puts the query, in such a tumult who could hear? and of such a mob who would repeat an expression of this nature ? Sainte Beuve, in his monograph on Sylvain Bailly, dismisses scepticism with a taunt: “Il y a des gens qui lui disputent ce mot [« C'est de froid']. On dirait qu'ils ont intérêt vraiment à ce qu'il y ait un mot touchant et sublime de moins dans le monde.”+

Tennyson. † Quarterly Review, xxvi. 239. $ Causeries du Lundi, t. X.

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our own,

It is very gratifying to find that those clouds which threatened Europe with a portentous crop of thunderbolts and shells have been dissipated by the practical common sense of the plenipotentiaries at the second congress. Bolgrad and the Isle of Serpents are no longer stereotyped words in our papers; and, in fact, all those questions which pessimists regarded as perilous to the security of Europe have been dissipated by the enchanter's wand. It is evident that the nations are fully impressed with the blessings of peace, and are striving their utmost to return to the paths of conciliation and amity. The Greek question has been settled without reference to a congress: the Montenegrin is in a fair way of adjustment: and even the Neufchâtel business, which promised a most fertile

crop of laurels for one side or the other, has been shelved by the united good sense and humour of European nations. It is most gratifying to find such a temper existing, for it is one of the best guarantees of peace we could demand; and we fancy that the burst of mingled derision and sorrow with which King Clicquot's fiery appeal to his cosovereigns was received, was the swan's song of those judgments by the sword which disgraced the last century, and have hardly been justified in

With such flattering prospects for the maintenance of peace in Europe, we may approach the subject of the Danubian Principalities with an easy mind; for, although an apparent coldness may exist at the present time between Austria and France on this subject, we feel sure that it is not one which can cause an embroglio in Europe. As the matter stands at present, the Great Powers are arrayed against each other : England and Austria desire that the Principalities should remain separated, under the reasonable supposition that the internal weakness of such a united kingdom would form but a poor bulwark against Russian aggression in Turkey : while, on the other hand, France and Russia—and we suppose Prussia must be added, although no formal adhesion has been given by that power--prefer the amalgamation of the Principalities for reasons best known to themselves. The arguments on either side are founded on such good grounds, that we shall not attempt to decide when such learned pundits disagree: we will, therefore, merely confine ourselves to an examination of M. Ubicini's new volume, which may fairly be regarded as supplementary to his celebrated work on Turkey.*

Roumania has been for ages the battle-ground of the eastern nations of Europe. Among the ancients it was known by the generic name of Dacia. At the present time it is divided between Turkey, Russia, and Austria, but is inhabited by a compact and homogeneous population, whose features, languages, monuments, customs, and even name, denote a Latin origin. In fact, the name of Wallachs, given by geographers to the inhabitants of this country, does not exist in their national idiom. They call themselves Roumans (Roumoun) in remem

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* L'Univers : Provinces Danubiennes et Roumaines, Valachie, Moldavie, &c. Par M. Ubicini. Paris : Firmin Didot, frères.

race, and

brance of their ancestors, whom Trajan brought from Italy and other parts of the empire to repeople Dacia, after the dispersion of the native

gave their country the name of the Roman Land (Tsara Romanesca). The learned men called it Roumania. The name of Wallachs is' borrowed from the Sclavic idiom, which by a process of assimilation common enough among these peoples, translated the word Roman (puasos, strong, or powerful), by Vlak, or Vloky, signifying the same thing in their language, just as they transformed theology into begoslovia

(discourse on God), geography into zembliopissania (description of the earth), Lætitia or Euphrosyne into Rada (joy), and Theodore into Bogdan (present of God), &c. The Bulgarians, who were the first to arrive from the banks of the Volga, at that portion of the country some called Bulgaria, gave this title to the Roman farmers and shepherds with whom they came in contact. The same title, adopted by all the Sclavonic races, Russians, Poles, Croats, Bohemians, &c., who applied it indifferently to the old Romans and the modern Latin tribes, became the origin of the name of Vlachs or Wallachs, which has since been restricted to the most considerable portion of the inhabitants of Wallachia. But, if Roumania is uniform in language, religion, manners, and geography, it is politically divided into three portions, to only one of which we shall refer in our present paper-namely, Turkish Roumania, better known as the Danubian Principalities.

The total amount of land known as Moldo-Wallachia, comprising the isles of the Danube, is estimated at 5727 square leagues, of which 3820 belong to Wallachia, and 1907 to Moldavia. Wallachia is divided into two parts, which are separated by the course of the Olto: Great Wallachia to the east, Little Wallachia to the west. In the same way Moldavia is divided into the high and low country. The Moldavian territory extends within about 70 deg. of longitude and 35 deg. of latitude. The frontiers of Russia and Austria, on either side, run along the greater portion of its circumference, the Wallachian frontier occupying about thirty leagues. The Danubian frontier, on the side of Turkey, does not exceed four leagues. The climate of Moldo-Wallachia comprises the most opposite extremes. In winter


find the cold of Moscow, in summer the heat of Greece. Properly speaking, there are only two seasons, rapidly following each other. The winter lasts about five months, from November to the end of April. During the four first months the country is almost entirely covered with snow, and sledges are in general use. however, few countries in Europe so well favoured by nature. After leaving the vast and fertile plains to which the Danube serves as a girdle, you enter on the Carpathian side-magnificent pasturages, forests admirably adapted for constructing purposes, and mountains of pure rock-salt, which have never yet been worked. The general scenery is of the most charming character. In this country, plains, woodlands, and forests are collected to form one enchanting landscape. All the productions of Europe may be found there : the olive and the orange are the only European trees which are not favoured by the soil and climate. The numerous vineyards supply an excellent sort of wine, which only requires care to become a worthy rival of the best French sorts.

There are no sterile tracts of country to be found. The rivers bring down nuggets of gold torn from the sides of the mountains. These same mountains

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contain, at the same time, unexplored mines of quicksilver, iron, copper, bitumen, sulphur, coal, &c. Wax, honey, tobacco, butter, cheese, leather, silk, cattle, game, &c. &c., add to the natural abundance of these countries. All descriptions of cereals abound there, and there is no need of artificial means to increase their productiveness. Corn, for instance, yields a crop of sixteen to twenty-five fold; barley, thirty, Indian corn, three hundred. You find in this country entire forests of fruit-trees, such as pears, apricots, and cherries. The greater portion of the mountains resembles the finest of our market-gardens in the variety and richness of the

crops. In the Principalities there are about 3,700,000 hectares cultivated, whose annual produce is estimated at 35001. This is about one twenty-fourth the value of land in England. The greater proportion of the crops is in cereals. It has been estimated during the last few years at Corn

4,500,000 hectolitres Maize

6,000,000 Barley, &c.

1,700,000 To this amount we must add 800,000 hectolitres of potatoes. The latter article of produce has been introduced only very recently into Moldavia, and is almost unknown in Wallachia. Out of this amount, the Principalities export annually nearly 4,000,000 hectolitres of grain, representing an approximative value of 1,250,0001. The other branches of export probably amount to two and a half millions, chiefly in the shape of cattle, horses, sheep, skins, wine, &c. The imports exceed two millions, onethird of which may be referred to Moldavia, and two-thirds to Wallachia. In 1832 the two Principalities contained a population of 3,299,362---as: Wallachia.

2,032,362 souls Moldavia

1,267,000 In 1838 the Wallachian government ordered a fresh census, which furnished 413,000 families, which, at five persons a family, would produce a total of 2,065,000 inhabitants. But this census only took into account the tax-paying classes, omitting all those who were free, such as the boyards, the religious orders, serfs belonging to private persons, whose number could not be estimated at less than 170,000; so that the population at that period must have amounted to 2,235,000 souls. In the same year, Moldavia had 1,419,000 inhabitants, which gives about 3,660,000 for the united Principalities. At the present day this population, owing to the gradual increase since 1839, may be estimated at four millions, of whom 2,500,000 are Wallachian, and 1,500,000 Moldavian. The population of the Principalities is ethnographically divided into two great classes, the Rouman, or native race, and the immigrant races. The first, which originated with a mixture of the ancient Dacians, and the numerous Roman colonists whom Trajan settled in this country, form about nine-tenths of the whole population. The Roumans, who are tall, stout, handsome, and intelligent, with their quaint costume, which we might fancy was borrowed from Trajan's column, remind us irresistibly of the haughty warriors from whom they are descended. But the manly expression which distinguished them is exchanged, in the modern Dacian, for an air of sorrow and resignation, the results of the long career of suffering they have endured. According to Lavallée’s “ History of the Ottoman

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