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De Elect.

et Electi


In procm.

Anno 1226.

Anno 1265.


Lib. iii. Tit.
16. Si

Anno Do-

mini 1308.

Hieron. in
Psalm. xli.

the sacrament, which now they say is Lord and God, they never neither en-
titled by the name of God, nor worshipped it with godly honour, before the
time of Honorius III., nor allowed it any holy-day before the time of Urbanus
If the world had been well assured that the sacrament had been the
Lord and God, it is not likely it should have continued so long without either
godly title or godly honour.

In the end pope Clement the fifth granted out large and liberal indulgences to all that would frequent this new holy-day, to countenance this new religion: "For the first even-song, matins, mass, and latter? even-song, prime, and hours, for every of these times a hundred days of pardon, toties quoties, a pœna et culpa3." Thus the people was well allured, and thus this new holyday and new religion gat great credit.

St Hierome saith: Pagani deos suos digito ostendunt; et ob hoc ingerunt mihi opprobria. Unde sciant, quod ego mente Deum meum reconditum teneo, et per interiorem hominem in ipso habito1: "The heathens point their gods with their finger, and that they say to my reproach. But let them know that I have my God hidden in my heart, and that by my inward man I dwell in him.”


Certainly, if the sacrament could speak unto M. Harding, thus it would speak: "I am a creature," as St Ambrose teacheth you: I am a fragment or piece of bread," as St Cyril teacheth you: "I am a thing insensible and void of life," as Epiphanius teacheth you: "I am a corporal food, and pass into your bodies, and increase the substance of your flesh, as other meats do," as Origenes and Irenæus have taught you: "I mould and putrify, and am subject to corruption," as your eyes and senses may easily teach you: "I am a sacrament of Christ, I am not Christ I am a creature of God, I am not God: ye do wrong unto me, ye do wrong unto God: the worms of the earth and the birds of the air will condemn your folly: give not this honour unto me: give godly honour unto God." If the sacrament could speak unto M. Harding, thus would it speak; and, being a dumb and a lifeless thing and not able to speak, yet thus it speaketh.

God open the eyes and hearts of all men, that they may see and discern the almighty and everliving God from a corruptible creature that is no God! Amen.

[' Steuchus, 1565, 1609.—The works of Aug. Steuchus are collected in three volumes fol. Venet. 1591; but the editor has not found in them any thing to the purpose of this reference.]

[2 Later, 1565.]

[3 Nos enim Christi fideles ad colendum tantum festum et celebrandum donis volentes spiritualibus animare, omnibus vere pœnitentibus et confessis, qui matutinali officio festi ejusdem in ecclesia, in qua idem celebrabitur, interfuerint, centum: Qui vero missæ, totidem: Qui autem in primis ipsius festi vesperis interfuerint, similiter centum: Qui vero in secundis, totidem: Illis vero, qui Primæ, Tertiæ, et Sexta, Nonæ, ac Completorii officiis interfuerint, pro

qualibet horarum ipsarum quadraginta: Illis autem qui per octavas illius festi matutinalibus, vespertinis, missæ, ac prædictarum horarum officiis interfuerint, centum dies singulis octavarum ipsarum diebus de omnipotentis Dei misericordia, ac beatorum apostolorum ejus Petri et Pauli auctoritate confisi de injunctis sibi pœnitentiis relaxamus.-Clemens V. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Clement. Lib. 111. Tit. xvi. cols. 248, 9. See also ibid. col. 241.]

[ Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Breviar. in Psalt. Psal. xli. Tom. II. Append. col. 232; where mihi improperia, quia ego, and cum ipso.]

[5 Lay, 1565.]

[ Are, 1611.]




OR that the people was then taught to believe that the body of Christ remaineth in the sacrament as long as the accidents of the bread remain there without corruption.



These five articles here following are school points, the discussion whereof is more curious than necessary. Whether the faithful people were then, that is to say, for the space of six hundred years after Christ, taught to believe concerning this blessed sacrament precisely according to the purport of all these articles, or no, I know not. Verily, I think they were taught the truth of this matter simply and plainly, yet so as nothing was hidden from them that in those quiet times (quiet, I mean, touching this point of faith) was thought necessary for them to know. If sithence there hath been more taught, or rather if the truth hath in some other form of words been declared for a more evidence and clearness in this behalf to be had, truth itself always remaining one; this hath proceeded of the diligence and earnest care of the church to repress the pertinacy of heretics, who have within these last six hundred years impugned the truth herein, and to meet with their perverse and froward objections; as hath been thought necessary to find out such wedges as might best serve to rive such knotty blocks.


M. Harding passeth lightly over these articles following, as being only (as he saith) certain unnecessary school points, to be debated privately among the learned, and nothing pertaining to the simple capacity of the people. Which thing may the better appear by that he is not able to avouch any of the same by the authority of any ancient learned father.

It is true that the doctrine of the church touching the sacrament in the old time was delivered simply and plainly unto the people. But M. Harding himself well knoweth that doctrine was nothing like unto this doctrine.

St Augustine taught the people thus: Christus in cœna figuram corporis sui August. in commendavit: "Christ at his supper gave a figure of his body."

St Ambrose saith unto the people: Post consecrationem corpus [Christi] significatur: "After consecration the body of Christ is signified."

Psalm. iii.

Ambros. de

illis qui init. Myst. cap. ix.

St Chrysostom saith unto the people: Si mortuus Christus non est, cujus sym- Chrysost. in bolum ac signum hoc sacrificium est?? "If Christ died not, whose sign and whose 83. token is this sacrifice?" And, to leave infinite other like authorities to like purpose, St Augustine thus taught the people: Non hoc corpus, quod videtis, manducaturi August. in estis; nec bibituri illum sanguinem, quem fusuri sunt, qui me crucifigent 10: "Ye shall not eat (with your bodily mouths) this body that you see, nor shall you drink that blood which they shall shed that shall crucify me."

[ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Psalm. iii. Enarr. 1. Tom. IV. col. 7. See before, page 447.] [ Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Lib. de Myst. cap. ix. 54. Tom. II. col. 339.]

[Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Matt. Hom. lxxxii. Tom. VII. p. 783.]

[10 August. Op. In Psalm. xcviii. Enarr. 9. Tom. IV. col. 1066. See before, page 451.]


Orig. in

Levit. Hom.


Lib. i.

And whereas Christ saith, "Unless ye eat my flesh, and drink my blood, ye shall have no life in you;" the old learned father Origen thereupon thus taught the people: Si secundum literam accipias hæc verba, illa litera occidit1: "If ye take these words according to the letter, this letter killeth.”

And touching Christ's body itself the holy bishop and martyr Vigilius taught Vigil. contr. the people in this sort: [Caro Christi], cum esset in terra, non erat .......in cœlo : et nunc, quia est in cœlo, non est utique in terra2: "The flesh of Christ, when it was in earth, was not in heaven; and now, because it is in heaven, doubtless it is not in earth."

St Augustine said thus unto the people: "The body wherein Christ rose De Consecr. again must needs be in one place:" Corpus,... in quo resurrexit, [in] uno loco esse

Dist. 2.


Cyril. in

Johan. Lib.


Cyrillus said unto the people: Christus non poterat in carne versari cum apoxi. cap. iii. stolis, postquam ascendisset ad Patrem1: "Christ could not be conversant together with his disciples in his flesh after he had ascended unto his Father."

August. in Johan.

Touching the eating of Christ's body St Augustine taught the people in this wise: Crede, et manducasti5. Credere in Christum, hoc est manducare panem Tractat. 26. vivum: "Believe in Christ, and thou hast eaten Christ. For believing in Christ is the eating of the bread of life."

De Consecr.

Dist. 2.

Ut quid.

August. in
Tractat. 50.

Gelas. contr.

Chrysost. ad

Dial. 1.

August. in
Serm. ad

Bed. in 1 ad
Cor. x.

Likewise again: Quomodo in cœlum manum mittam, ut ibi sedentem teneam ? Fidem mitte, et tenuisti: Thou wilt say: "How shall I reach my hand into heaven, that I may hold Christ sitting there?" I answer thee: "Reach up thy faith, and so thou holdest him."

Thus was the people then taught simply and plainly, and that not only in the schools, but also openly in the church; neither only in one place, but at Hippo in Africa, at Constantinople in Thracia, at Alexandria in Egypt, at Millain in Italy, and so in all places and in all churches throughout the world; and this was then thought to be the catholic doctrine of the sacraments. Transubstantiation, real presence, concomitantia, accidents without subjects, natural bodies without natural places, quantum sine modo quanti, holy forms and holy shews, were not yet known nor heard of.

At the last, as M. Harding saith, there sprang up certain strange heretics, that said, that like as the nature and substance of water remaineth in the sacrament of baptism, even so the nature and substance of bread and wine remaineth still in the sacrament of Christ's body. But if this, according to M. Harding's judgment, be an heresy, then must all the old fathers and doctors of the church be condemned for heretics.

For Gelasius saith: "There remaineth still in the sacrament the nature or substance of bread and wines."

Chrysostom saith: "The nature of bread remaineth in the sacrament as


Theodoretus saith: "The bread remaineth in his former nature and substance: In priori natura et substantia 10.

St Augustine saith: Quod videtis panis est11: "The thing that ye see is bread." He saith not, It seemeth bread, but it is no bread: it is only the

[ Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. vii. Tom. II. p. 225. See before, page 456, note 3.]

[2 Vigil. adv. Eutych. in Cassandr. Op. Par. 1616. Lib. iv. p. 546. See before, page 497, note 18.] [3 August. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 44. col. 1935.]

[ Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. Lib. XI. cap. ii. Tom. IV. p. 933. 495, note 7.]

Comm. in Joan.
See before, page

[5 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Johan. Evang. cap. vi. Tractat. xxv. 12. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 489.]

[" Id. ibid. Tractat. xxvi. 1. col. 494. See before, page 452, note 4. Conf. in Corp. Jur.

Canon. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 47. col. 1936.]

[ Id. ibid. cap. xi. Tractat. 1. 4. col. 630.]

[ Gelas. Episc. Rom. adv. Eutych. et Nestor. in Magn. Biblioth. Vet. Patr. Col. Agrip. 1618-22. Tom. V. Pars III. p. 671. See before, page 11, note 11.] [ Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Epist. ad Cæsar. Monach. Tom. III. p. 744. See before, page 545, note 12.]

[10 Theodor. Op. Lut. Par. 1642-84. Tom. IV. Inconfus. Dial. ii. p. 85.]

[11 Ven. Bed. Op. Col. Agrip. 1612. Ad Cor. 1. cap. x. Tom. VI. col. 365.

August. Op. Serm. cclxxii. ad Infant. Tom. V. col. 1103.]

accident, the form, and the shew of bread; but, Panis est: "It is indeed and verily very bread.”

But, I trow, both these and all other like ancient learned fathers must, by M. Harding's decree, be taken for new masters and condemned for heretics. This is that knotty great block, which to rive and rend 12 up M. Harding hath devised a jolly substantial strong iron wedge made of accidents. God knoweth, a simple and a childish instrument; and yet much like to the rest of his tools. Howbeit, God be thanked, the church of God was able to confound and to cleave asunder all manner heresies twelve hundred years together without any of these wedges.

[blocks in formation]

Yet this matter hath not so much been taught in open audience of the people as debated privately between learned men in schools, and so of them set forth in their private writings; wherein if some perhaps through contention of wits have been either over curious or over bold, and have overshot the mark, or not sufficiently confirmed the point they have taken in hand to treat of, or through ignorance or favour of a part have in something swerved from reason or that meaning which holy church holdeth, it is great uncourtesy to lay that to our charge, to abuse their oversights to our discredit, and to reprove the whole church for the insufficiency of a few.



For excuse hereof M. Harding saith, this doctrine served only for the schools, and had no place among the people. But so likewise did the rest of all their doctrine. For it was ever their greatest policy to keep their learning in the schools, and to see that the people should know nothing. St Hierome saith Eadem et in veteri et [in] nova hæresi servatur fides; ut aliud populi Hieron. ad. audiant, aliud prædicent sacerdotes 13: "They keep one faith both in old 14 heresy contr. Error. and in the new. The people hear one thing, and the priests teach another." "Johan. And certainly, as their religion was used, happy was the poor people that knew least of it. St Hilary's words may very aptly be applied unto them: Sanctiores [sunt] aures plebis quam corda sacerdotum 15: "There is more holi- Hilar. contr. ness in the ears of the people than in the hearts of the priests."



Howbeit, contrary to M. Harding's evasion, other doctors of his own form, Antoninus 16, Gabriel 17, and others, seem to publish the same as a general doctrine, Anton. in common not only to the schools, but also to the whole church, and no more sum. Tit. 13. touching the priest than the simplest of the people.

And verily, if the sacrament be God indeed, and that not a God for ever, but only to last for a season, which is the purport of M. Harding's doctrine; why should not all the people understand when it beginneth to be God, how long it continueth God, when it is God, when it is no God, and how long they may adore it without danger, and when they may safely leave off and adore no more? For during the time it is God whoso adoreth it not is wicked and godless, and whoso adoreth it when it is no God committeth idolatry, and adoreth a creature instead of God. Therefore the certainty hereof, notwithstanding M. Harding's contrary judgment, seemeth as necessary for the people as for the priest.

But here it appeareth M. Harding is half ashamed of his own scholastical catholic doctors. For he confesseth that, "either of mere ignorance, or of affection and favour of parts, they have sometime swerved both from common reason and also from the sense of the catholic church." This may stand well for a maxima, as one of the greatest truths of M. Harding's whole book.

[12 Rent, 1565.]

[13 Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Epist. xxxviii. ad Pammach. adv. Error. Johan. Jerosol. Tom. IV. Pars 11. col. 308; where eadem nunc in, and consuetudo servatur.]

[14 The old, 1565, 1609.]

[15 Hilar. Op. Par. 1693. Lib. contr. Auxent. 6.


col. 1266; where corda sunt. Conf. Hieron. Op.
Epist. xxxviii. ad Pammach. adv. Error. Johan.
Jerosol. Tom. IV. Pars II. col 320.]

[16 Anton. Summ. Basil. 1511. Tert. Pars Summ.
Tit. xiii. cap. vi. 13, 14, 16. foll. Q. 2, 3, 4.]

[17 Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515. Lect. lxxxiv. foll. 247, 8.]


iii. Par.

Biel. Lect.


The two

hundred and untruth. For

ancient church.


The two forty-ninth

untruth. For neither the scriptures

nor any of the ancient

Notwithstanding, these doctors, uttering such points of learning, were never thought to publish their own private fantasies, but rather the catholic doctrine of the universal Roman church. Neither was there either bishop, or cardinal, or pope, or council, that ever condemned them for the same.



Now concerning this article, whether we are able to avouch it by such authorities as M. Jewel requireth, or no, it shall not greatly force. The credit of the catholic faith dependeth not of old proofs of a few new controverted1 points that be of less importance. As for the people, they were taught the truth plainly when no heretic had assaulted their faith craftily. (248) The doctrine The doctrine of forty-eighth of the church is this: the body of Christ, after due consecration, re- the church. this is a new maineth so long in the sacrament as the sacrament endureth. The sacrament not the doc endureth so long as the forms of bread and wine continue. These forms contrine of the tinue in their integrity until the other accidents be corrupted and perish. As, if the colour, weight, savour, taste, smell, and other qualities of bread and wine be corrupted and quite altered, then is the form also of the same annihilated and undone. And, to speak of this more particularly, sith that the substance of bread and wine is turned into the substance of the body and blood of Christ, as the (249) scriptures, ancient doctors, the necessary consequent of truth, and determination of holy church leadeth us to believe; if such change of the accidents be made, which should not have sufficed to the corruption of bread and wine, in case of their remainder; for such a change the body and blood of Christ ceaseth doctors, &c. not to be in this sacrament, whether the change be in quality, as if the colour, savour, and smell of bread and wine be a little altered; or in quantity, as if thereof division be made into such portions in which the nature of bread and wine might be reserved. But, if there be made so great a change as the nature of bread and wine should be corrupted, if they were present, then the body and blood of Christ do not remain in this sacrament; as when the colour and savour and other qualities of bread and wine are so far changed as the nature of bread and wine might not bear it; or on the quantity's side, as if the bread be so small crumbed into dust, and the wine dispersed into so small portions, as their forms remain no longer; then remaineth no more the body and blood in this sacrament. Thus the body and blood of Christ remaineth in this sacrament so long as the forms of bread and wine remain: and, when they fail and cease to be any more, then also ceaseth the body and blood of Christ to be in the sacrament, For there must be a convenience and resemblance between the sacraments and the things whereof they be sacraments1; which done away Bonifacium, and lost at the corruptions of the forms and accidents, the sacraments Epist. 235 also be undone and perish, and consequently the inward thing and the heavenly thing in them contained leaveth to be in them.

leadeth us

thus to believe.

In iii. Quæst.

76. Art. 30.


August, ad

I cannot imagine wherefore M. Harding should so often tell us that the people in the primitive church was taught plainly; for as now, in his church of Rome, all things of purpose are drowned in darkness, and the simple people suffered to know nothing, no, not the meaning of the sacraments, which of all other things should be most plain.

For, briefly to open some part of the mysteries, which every of the simple unlearned people may not know, mark, I beseech thee, good christian reader, how plainly they have determined the manner of Christ's being in the sacrament. Thomas of Aquine, the most famous of all the school-doctors, writeth thus: In corpore Christi in sacramento non est distantia partium ab invicem, ut oculi ab oculo, aut capitis a pedibus; sicut est in aliis corporibus organicis. Talis enim

[ Controversed, 1565, 1609, and H. A. 1564.]

[ Ben, 1565, and H. A. 1564.]

[a Those, 1565, 1609, and H. A. 1564.]

[4 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Ad Bonifac. Epist.

xcviii. 9. Tom. II. col. 267. See before, page 503.]

[ This reference is omitted in H. A. 1564. It appears in H.A. 1565.]

[ Corruption, H. A. 1564.]

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