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The Creator of wine it is, that promoteth the wine to be the blood of Christ 9."
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. Bernard was a monk, and lived at Clara Vallis, about the same time that an. Dom. Thomas Becket lived here in England: at which time, as it appeareth by his often complaints, the church of God was miserably defaced. For thus he writeth, namely touching the clergy of Rome: Nihil integri est in clero, sc.11: Bernard. in “ In the whole clergy (wherein he includeth the pope, the cardinals, the bishops, habitat. and all the rest) there is no part left sound.”. “It remaineth now that the man of sin, that is, antichrist, be revealed." “ From the top to the toe there is no health.” “The servants of Christ now serve antichrist.” Therefore Bernard, living in a time of such corruption, and being carried away with the tempest and violence of the same, must needs in these cases bear the less credit. Howbeit in other places he seemeth somewhat to rectify his own meaning. For thus he writeth: Quasi vero [Christus], cum jam ascenderit [in cælum], tangi a Bernard. in Maria aut velit aut possit. Et utique poterit ; sed affectu, non manu ; voto, non Serm. 28. oculo; fide, non sensibus 12: “As though Christ, after he is ascended into heaven, either can or will be touched of Mary. And verily he may be touched; but with love, not with hand; with desire, not with eye; with faith, not with senses."
If M. Harding will press us further with that St Bernard saith, “ The priest holdeth God in his hands;" it may please him to consider that the rigour thereof may be qualified by a convenient exposition. So St Chrysostom saith : Adest sacerdos gestans ... Spiritum sanctum 13 : “ The priest is present bearing the Chrysost. de Holy Ghost.”
And St Gregory saith: [Paulus) prædicando (Deum) infundebat audientibusl4 : Gregor. in “ Paul by his preaching poured God into his hearers.” And again : Latens in xxvii. cap. Pauli pectore, quasi sub tentorio, ibat Deus 15; “God went in Paul's heart, as under a tent.” St Hierome saith: His qui baptizandi sunt ... publice tradimus sanctam Hieron. ad et adorandam Trinitatem 16. “Unto them that are to receive baptism we openly adv. Error. deliver the holy Trinity.” The meaning hereof is this, that he receiveth the Johan. HieroTrinity that receiveth the faith and doctrine of the Trinity.
Now, as St Chrysostom saith, “The priest beareth the Holy Ghost;" as St Gregory saith, “St Paul poured God into his hearers ;” and as St Hierome saith, “We deliver the holy Trinity;" even so it may seem Bernard saith, “ The priest holdeth God in his hand;" that is to say, not really or indeed, but in a certain peculiar manner and form of speech. For by a rhetorical amplification of words he holdeth God that holdeth any thing specially pertaining unto God.
Thus must these and other like words be salved, namely these of Bernard, for that they seem expressly to require the same. For thus they stand, far otherwise than M. Harding hath reported them: Deum suum manu et ore contrectaturi, et colloquentem sibi ipsis audituri17: “To touch God with their hand and with their mouth, and to hear him speaking unto them.” Which latter 18 clause
[9 Mira sunt, fratres, quæ de sacramento isto dicuntur. Fides est necessaria : scientia rationis supervacua... Augustinus contra Felicianum: Hoc fides credat, intelligentia non requirat, ne aut non inventum putet incredibile, aut repertum non credat singulare. [August, Op. Contr. Felic. Arian. De Unit. Trin. cap. viii. Tom. VIII. Append. col. 43. This treatise is really by Vigilius Tapsensis.)...Et ideo credi oportet simpliciter, quod investigari non potest utiliter.... Nolite itaque, nolite quærere quomodo fiat: nolite dubitare, utrum fiat. Deus enim &c. habet &c. Deus et homo est, qui testatur panem veraciter fieri carnem suam. Vas electionis est, qui minatur judicium non dijudicanti tam sanctam carnem. Id ipsum, O Christiane, de vino sentias, id honores in vino. Creator vini est, qui vinum provehit in sanguinem Christi.--Id. ibid. 12. col. 673.)
[10 This, 1565, and H. A. 1564.] :
(" Id. In Psalm. Qui hab. Serm. vi. 7. Vol. I. Tom. III. col. 838. In Convers. S. Paul. Serm. i. 3. col. 956. In Cant. Serm. xxxiii. 15. col. 1393. See before, pages 382, 707.]
[19 Id. in Cant. Serm. xxviii. 9. Vol. I. Tom. IV. col. 1369; where tunc tangi ab ea velit.]
[13 Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. De Sacerdot. Lib. vu. Tom. II. p. 383.]
["4 Gregor. Magni Papæ I. Op. Par. 1705. Moral. Lib. xxvii. in cap. xxxvi. B. Job. 19. Tom. I.col. 861.]
[15 Id. ibid. ; where in ejus pectore.]
[ Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Ad Pammach. Epist. xxxvii. adv. Error. Johan. Jerosol. Tom. IV. Pars 11. cols. 313, 4; where tradamus.)
[17 Bernard. Op. De Excell. Sacram. Serm, 10. Yol. II. Tom. v. col. 672.]
[18 Later, 1565.]
M. Harding, as his manner is, hath purposely dissembled. As the priest heareth Christ speak unto him, so he holdeth Christ in his hand. But the priest heareth not Christ speak verily and indeed, but by a figure: therefore it seemeth it may reasonably be gathered of the same, that he holdeth not Christ in his hand really and indeed, but only by way of a figure.
Thus much touching Bernard. Notwithstanding it is likely, and thought of many, that, as well herein as in other cases of religion, he was led alway? with the errors and ignorance of his time.
Here let our adversaries, touching this article, consider and weigh with themselves, whether they be Lutherans, Zuinglians, or Genevians, what English they
can make of these words used by the fathers, (247) and applied to the sacrament in forty-seventh the places before alleged : Dominus, Christus, divina essentia, Deus, seipsum, Vernot one of all bum Dei, ego, Verbum fænum factum, Deum suum : the number of the like places is applied to that might be alleged to this purpose be in manner infinite. Yet M. Jewel promiseth
to give over and subscribe if any one may be found. Now we shall see what truth is in his word.
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY, I doubt not but, by these few well considered, it may easily appear unto the discreet reader that none of all these ancient fathers, neither Irenæus, nor Origen, nor Cyprian, nor Chrysostom, nor Ambrose, nor Augustine, nor Cyrillus, for ought that may appear by their words, ever called the sacrament either Lord, or Christ, or divine substance, or God, or himself, or the Word of God, or their God; notwithstanding M. Harding hath taken some pains, by guileful translations and unadvised asseverations, to make some appearance of the same.
St Hierome saith : Falsi testes sunt, qui non eodem sensu dicta proferunt, quo xxvi. dicuntur2 : They that report words in other sense than they were spoken are false witnesses."
M. HARDING. THE TENTH DIVISION.
blasphemies against this blessed sacrament shall remain to them that be not blinded : M. Harding with that gross and fond error, *that denieth the inseparability of Christ, but gined this affirmeth in this mystery to be present his flesh only, without blood, soul, and a3 sem er of him. Godhead. Which is confuted by plain scriptures.“ Christ, raised from the dead,
now dieth no more.” Rom. vi. He suffereth himself no more to be “divided." 1 Cor. i.
Every spirit that loseth 4 Jesus, this is antichrist.” 1 John iv. Hereof it followeth that, if Christ be verily under the form of bread in the sacrament, as it is other wheres sufficiently proved, then is he there entire and whole, flesh, blood, and soul, whole Christ, God and man, for the inseparable union of both natures in one person. Which matter is more amply declared in the article of the Adoration of the Sacrament 5.
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. In the end, M. Harding confirmeth this doctrine by the confutation of an error, which, for the novelty and strangeness of it, may easily seem to be his own; and therefore ought of right to be called “M. Harding's error :" for I believe it was never neither defended nor imagined by any other.
He surmiseth there be some that either have said, or else may say, that Christ's flesh is present really in the sacrament; howbeit dead and bloodless, and utterly void both of soul and Godhead. This is a new error, never tamed or touched before this time.
As for us, we do constantly believe and confess that Christ, the very natural Son of God, received our flesh of the blessed virgin, and that, wheresoever that flesh is, there is also both the Godhead and the soul.
[' Away, 1565.]
[ Sed falsus testis est, qui non in eodem sensu dicta intelligit quo dicuntur.- Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. Lib. iv. in Matt, cap. xxvi. Tom.
IV. col. 132.]
[ 1565 and H. A. 1564 omit a.]
Of this undoubted truth M. Harding gathereth an impertinent conclusion. For
The Sathus he reasoneth: “ If Christ be verily under the form of bread in the sacra
crament ment, then is he there entire and whole, God and man.” Indeed, the first being inferior granted, the rest must needs follow. But how is M. Harding so well assured of to God's the first? What old doctor or ancient father ever taught him that Christ's Word. body is really and fleshly present under these forms or fantasies of bread and wine? If the learned fathers say so, it were good to shew it; if they say not so, it is great shame to plead it. Verily, all that M. Harding hath yet said is not able to prove it.
Now, good christian reader, for thy better satisfaction in this case, being so dangerous, wherein whoso erreth is an idolater, and knoweth not God, it may please thee briefly to consider both the ancient godly fathers' undoubted judgment touching this sacrament, and also the ancient order and usage of the same.
First, concerning the judgment of the fathers in this behalf, St Chrysostom saith : In vasis sanctificatis non ... verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis Chrysost. in Christi continetur6 : “ In the holy vessels not the very or true body of Christ, but com.nperf
. the mystery of Christ's body is contained.”
St Augustine saith: Interrogo vos, fratres, ... dicite mihi, quid plus videtur i. Quæst. I. robis, corpus Christi, an verbum Christi ? Si vultis vere respondere, hoc dicere debetis, quod non sit minus verbum Dei, quam corpus Christi?: “I demand of you this question, my brethren, answer me. Whether, think you, is greater, the body of Christ (meaning thereby the sacrament), or the word of Christ? If ye will answer truly, this must ye say, that the word of God is no less than the body of Christ." St Hierome saith: Ego corpus Jesu evangelium puto ... Et quamvis, Hieron. in quod Christus dicit, Qui non manducat meam carnem, &c. possit intelligi de mysterio, tamen rerius corpus Christi et sanguis ejus sermo scripturarum est 8 : “ I take the Verius. body of Jesus to be the gospel. And albeit these words of Christ, 'He that eateth not my flesh, &c.' may be taken of the sacrament, yet in truer sense the word of the scriptures is the body and blood of Christ.”
Likewise saith Origen: Quod si circa corpus Christi servandum tanta utimini Orig, in cautela,...quomodo putatis, minoris esse periculi verbum Dei neglexisse, quam corpus 13. ejus?! “ If ye take such heed in keeping (the sacrament, which is called) the body of Christ, how can you think there is less danger in despising the word of God, than there is in despising (the sacrament that is called) the body of God ?"
If the sacrament were indeed and really the body of Christ, and so our very Lord and God, thus to compare it with a creature, and to make it inferior unto the same, as St Augustine, St Hierome, Origen, and other godly fathers do, it were great blasphemy.
St Augustine saith : Plus est unus Deus, quam unus baptismus. Neque enim August. de est baptismus Deus. Sed ideo magnum aliquid est, quia sacramentum est Dei 10 : contr. Pelu “One God is more than one baptism. For baptism is no God. But yet is baptism a great thing, because it is a sacrament of God.”
Origen, that great learned father, saith : Ille panis, qui sanctificatur per verbum Orig. in Dei et obsecrationem, juxta id quod habet materiale, in ventrem abit, et in secessum x. ejiciturll: “The bread that is sanctified by the word of God and by prayer, touching the material part of it (which is the sacrament) entereth into the belly, and passeth into the draught." These words were horrible to be spoken, if the sacrament indeed were Christ and God.
St Ambrose, expounding these words of Christ, “Give us this day our daily
[ Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Op. Imperf. in Matt. Hom. xi. Tom. VI. p. Ixiii. See before, pages 538, 9.]
[? Interrogo vos, . dicite mihi, quid vobis plus esse videtur, verbum Dei, an corpus Christi ? Si verum vultis respondere, hoc utique dicere &c.August. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Sec. Pars, Caus. 1. Quæst. i. can. 94. col. 540. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Serm. ccc. 2. Tom. V. Append. col. 504.]
[$ Ego &c. Et quando dicit, Qui non come
derit carnem meam &c. licet et in mysterio possit intelligi: tamen &c.—Hieron. Op. Breviar, in Psalt. Psal. cxlvii. Tom. II. Append. col. 504.]
[° Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Exod. Hom. xii. 3. Tom. II. pp. 176, 7; where corpus ejus conservandum, and esse piaculi.]
[° August. Op. Lib. de Unic. Bapt. contr. Petil. cap. v. 8. Tom. IX. col. 531 ; where baptismus Deus est.)
[" Orig. Op. Comm. In Matt. Tom. xi. 14, Tom. III. p. 499.]
iv. cap. iii.
bread," saith thus : Hodie ... dat nobis hunc panem, quem ipse quotidie sacerdos crament a
consecrat suis verbis. ... Possumus et ipsum Dominum accipere, qui ... ait, Ego sum Creature, panis vitæl : “ Even this day Christ giveth us this (daily) bread, (that is, the
sacrament), which he himself, being the priest, doth daily consecrate with his own words. We may take the same daily bread also for our Lord himself, that saith, • I am the bread of life."" Hereby it is plain, that “Christ himself” and “the sacrament" are sundry things; and that neither “ the sacrament” is “ Christ him
self," neither “ Christ himself” is “the sacrament.” Chrysost. in St Chrysostom saith: Habent et hæretici2 in schismate similiter ecclesias, &c.3: Op. Imperf.
“ Heretics 4 in their schism have likewise churches, as well as have the catholics; likewise the holy scriptures, likewise bishops, likewise orders of clerks, likewise baptism, likewise the sacrament of the holy communion), likewise all other things; and, to be short, Christ himself.” Here likewise this holy father St Chrysostom, contrary to M. Harding's fantasy, presupposeth a great difference between
“the sacrament” and “ Christ himself.” But what can be so plain as these Ambros, de words of St Ambrose touching the same ? Venisti ad altare : vidisti sacramenta
posita super altare ; et ipsam quidem miratus es creaturam. Tamen creatura solennis et nota: “ Thou camest to the altar, and sawest the sacrament laid upon the altar; and thou marvelledst at the creature. And yet it is a creature common and known." Here St Ambrose by express words calleth the sacrament
not Lord or God, but a creature. Epiphan. in Therefore Epiphanius thereof writeth thus : Hoc est rotundæ figuræ, et insen
sibile, quantum ad potentiam, &c. ... Dominum vero nostrum novimus totum sensum, totum sensitivum, totum Deum, totum morentem?: “ This thing (that is, the sacrament) is of a round form (for it was a great thick round cake), and, touching any power that is in it, utterly void of sense. But we know that our Lord is whole sense, whole sensible, whole God, whole moving.” In these words between Christ and the sacrament appeareth likewise a great difference.
Justinus Martyr saith: Alimento humido et sicco admonemur, quæ propter nos in Colloq. cum Tryph. Deus Dei Filius perpessus sit8 : “By dry and moist food (whereby he meaneth the
sacrament) we are taught what things God the Son of God hath suffered for us." Cyril. in Cyrillus calleth the sacrament fragmenta panis”, “fragments or pieces of iv. cap. xiv. bread.”
St Augustine calleth it buccellam dominicam 10, “the Lord's morsel."
Certainly it had been horrible wickedness to have called the sacrament by any of these names, either “a creature,” or “a thing insensible and void of life,' or “a food dry and moist,” or “a morsel,” or “a fragment,” or “a piece of bread,” if the holy fathers had been persuaded, as M. Harding beareth us in
hand, that the sacrament was their Lord and God. Lit. Chry.
Chrysostom, in the communion that commonly beareth his name, after the consecration prayeth thus: “We beseech thee, O God, to send down thy Holy Ghost upon these (sacraments or) presents laid before us 11."
And M. Harding himself in his mass in like manner after consecration maketh his prayers unto God in this wise : “Look, O Lord, upon these sacraments with a gracious and a cheerful countenance, and vouchsafe to receive the same as thou didst sometime receive the oblations of Abel thy child, and the sacrifice of our
["Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Lib. de Bened. Patriarch. cap. ix. 38, 9. Tom. I. cols. 524, 5; where eum for hunc panem.]
[? Hæreses, 1565, 1609.]
[? ...omnia... habent et hæreses illæ in schismate: similiter ecclesias, similiter et ipsas scripturas divinas, similiter episcopos, ceterosque ordines clericorum, similiter baptismum, aliter eucharistiam, et cetera omnia, denique ipsum Christum.-Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Op. Imperf. in Matt. ex cap. xxiv. Hom. xlix. Tom. VI.
cciv.] [“ Heresies, 1565, 1609.]
[ Ambros. Op. De Sacram. Lib. iv. cap. ii. 8. Tom. II. cols. 366, 7; where creaturam solemnem et notam.]
[Is it, 1565, 1609.]
[? Epiph. Op. Par. 1622. Ancorat. 57. Tom. II. p. 60.]
[8 Just. Mart. Op. Par. 1742. Dial. cum Tryph. Jud. 117. p. 210.)
[° Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. In Joan. Evang. Lib. iv. cap. ii. p. 360. See before, page 149, note 14.)
[° Non enim buccella Dominica venenum fuit Judæ.--August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Johan. Evang. cap. vi. Tractat. xxvi. 11. Tom. III. Pars u, col. 498.]
και δεόμεθα, και ικετεύομεν, κατάπεμψον το Πνεύμα σου το άγιον εφ' ημάς και επί τα a porcijeva owpa tauta.-Lit. Chrysost. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. Par. 1560. p. 97.]
patriarch Abraham, and the thing that was offered unto thee by the high priest Melchisedech 12."
It were very much for M. Harding to say that he prayeth God that the Holy Ghost may come upon Christ, that 13 God at his request and for his sake will favourably and cheerfully behold his own Son; or so receive him, being our Lord and God, as he sometime received a goat, or wether, or any other like corruptible kind of sacrifice.
Howbeit, if he speak plainly, and dissemble not, as some of his friends are afraid he doth, then is this undoubtedly the very tenor and meaning of his prayer. But if he dissemble, and speak otherwise than he thinketh, and that at the secretest and holiest part of all his mass, then by his own confession, and by the authority of his own mass-book, the sacrament is not Lord and God.
In the council holden at Carthage under St Cyprian, Cæcilius à Bilta saith thus : Antistes diaboli audet eucharistiam facere14 : “A priest of the devil dareth Cypr. in Conto make the sacrament;" which words, by M. Harding's exposition, must needs ad Quirin. sound thus : A priest of the devil dareth to make our Lord and God. Which saying notwithstanding among the priests of M. Harding's side is not so strange. For thus they dare to say without fear or shame: Sacerdos est creator Creatoris Stella Cleric. sui: qui creavit vos, dedit vobis creare se: qui creavit vos absque vobis, creatur a Serm. 111. robis mediantibus vobis15: “ The priest is the creator of his own Creator: he that created you of nought hath given you power to create himself of nought : he that made you without you is made of you by mean of you.” These words sometime had been counted blasphemy: but now they must be taken as good and catholic, as uttered by the patriarchs of that profession.
Thus much of the judgment of the old fathers touching this question.
Now, for the ancient order and usage of the sacrament, it may please thee, good christian reader, to understand, that for the space of six hundred years after Christ it cannot appear that ever any man adored or worshipped the sacrament with godly honour: which is a great token it was not then accounted our Lord and God.
The manner was then in many churches, that all such remanents and portions Hesych. in of the sacrament, as were not received of the people, should be burnt and consumed into ashes 16 : which thing undoubtedly had not been sufferable among christian people, if the holy learned fathers had thought the sacrament had been the very Lord and God.
Yet pope Hildebrand, that forbade priests marriage, took the sacrament Beno Card. and demanded of it certain secret questions of things to come; and, because it would not or could not speak and make him answer, in his fury he threw it into the fire 17.
They have honoured the pope by the name of God, as it appeareth by sundry their decrees and canons; and in their books they have not doubted to write thus: Dominus Deus noster papa 18 : “Our Lord God the pope.” But Extrav. Jo
han. XXII. Cum inter In Gloss.
Dist. 56. ["? Supra quæ propitio ac sereno vultu respicere 1527. Lib. 11. cap. viii. fol. 49. 2.]
deuter. digneris, et accepta habere sicuti accepta habere [17 Johannes Portuensis episcopus ... ait, Tale dignatus es munera pueri tui justi Abel, et sacri- quid fecit Hildebrandus et nos, unde deberemus vivi ficium patriarchæ nostri Abrahæ, et quod tibi obtulit incendi : significans de sacramento corporis Domini, summus sacerdos tuus Melchisedech.-Missal. ad Us. quod Hildebrandus, responsa divina quærens contra ac Consuet. Sar. Par. 1527. Can. Miss. fol. 159.] imperatorem, fertur injecisse igni contradicentibus [13 Or that, 1565.)
cardinalibus qui assistebant ei.- Benon. Card. Vit. ["4 Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. Concil. Carthag. 1. Hildebr. in Fascic. Rer. Expet. et Fug. Lond. 1690. p. 230; where antistites, and audeant.]
Tom. I. p. 79.] [15 Iste qui creavit me dedit mihi creare se: [18 Extrav. Joan. XXII. ad calc. Sext. Decretal. qui creavit me sine me creatur mediante me.-Stell. Par. 1585. Tit. xiv. Gloss. in cap. 4. col. 153. See Cleric. Davent. 1498. fol. B. ii. 2.
before, page 96, note 4. Sacerdos est altior regibus, felicior angelis, creator Nicol. Papa in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. sui Creatoris.-Serm. Discip. Venet. 1598. Serm.cxi. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Prima Pars, Dist. xcvi. can. p. 420. This sentence is a quotation from one termed 7. col. 467. See before, page 96, note 5. “ quidam doctor."]
Sext, Decretal. Lib. 1. Tit. vi. Gloss. in cap. 17. ('6 Quod nunc videmus etiam sensibiliter in col. 132. ecclesia fieri, ignique tradi quæcunque remanere Clement, Gloss, in Proæm. col. 4.] contigerit inconsumpta, &c.—Isych. in Levit. Basil.
Levit. Lib. ii. сар.