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O M. Harding, what a miserable doctrine is this! Remove only this vain shew of strange words, wherewith ye delight to astonne the simple, and the rest that remaineth is less than nothing.


THE THIRD DIVISION. If the term massbe taken for the act of the priest in respect of any his only doing, it is not able to remove sin: for so we should make the priest Gods peer, and his act equal with the passion of Christ; as our adversaries do unjustly slander us. Yet hath the mass virtue and effect in some degree, and is acceptable to God by reason of the oblation of the sacrifice, which in the mass is done by the offerer, without respect had to Christ's institution, even for the faithful prayer and devotion of the party that offereth, which the school-doctors term ex opere operantis. For then the oblation seemeth to be most acceptable to God, when it is offered by some that is acceptable. Now the party that offereth is of two sorts. The one offereth immediately and personally: the other offereth mediately, or by mean of another, and principally. The first is the priest that consecrateth, offereth, and receiveth the sacrament, who so doth these things in his own person, yet by God's authority, as none other in so offering is concurrent with him.

The party that offereth mediately, or by mean of another, and principally, is the church militant, in whose person the priest offereth, and whose minister he is in offering. For this is the sacrifice of the whole church. The first party that offereth is not always acceptable to God, neither always pleaseth him, because oftentimes he is a sinner. The second party that offereth is evermore acceptable to God, because the church is always holy, beloved, and the only spouse of Christ. And in this respect the mass is an acceptable service to God ex opere operantis, and is not without cause and reason called a sacrifice propitiatory, not for that it deserveth mercy at Gods hand of itself, as Christ doth, who only is in that principal and special sort a sacrifice propitiatory; but for that it moveth God to give mercy and remission of sin already deserved by Christ. In this degree of a sacrifice propitiatory we may put prayer, a contrite heart, alms', forgiving of our neighbour, &c. This may easily be proved by the holy fathers.

Origen's words be very plain : Si respicias ad illam commemora- In Levit. Homil. tionem,


qua dicit Dominus, Hoc facite in meam commemorationem, invenies, quod ista est commemoratio sola, quæ propitium faciat ... Deum?: "If thou look to that commemoration whereof our Lord saith, 'Do this in my remembrance,' or in commemoration of me, thou shalt find that this is the only commemoration that maketh God merciful.St Augustine saith thus : Nemo ... melius præter martyres meruit... ibi requiescere, ubi et hostia Sanctis.

Christus est, et sacerdos, scilicet ut ... propitiationem de oblatione hostiæ con*St Augus sequantur3 : “No man hath deserved better than the martyrs* to rest there where tipe spanketh Christ is both the host and the priest, (238) (he meaneth to be buried under the m earth, butt altar), to the intent they might attain propitiation by the oblation of the host." eulathe airin But here, to avoid prolixity in a matter not doubtful, I leave a number of places

whereby it may be evidently proved that the mass is a sacrifice propitiatory in this

degree of propitiation, both for the quick and the dead, the same not being spethirty-eighth

cially denied by purport of this article. [Thus we hare declared, as we might untrue con- superficially treating of this article, that the mass is a sacrifice propitiatory, both

ex opere operato, that is, through the merit of Christ's body that suffered on

the cross, which is here opus operatum, and is by Christ through the ministry ara Dei (non of the priest in the mass offered, truly, but in mystery, and also ex opere opeanimas sane rante, that is, through the doing of the priest, if he have the grace of God, and

so be acceptable, but in a far lower degree of propitiation, which is called opus operans, or opus operantis.]5 And this is the doctrine of the church touching the valor of the mass ex opere operato, whereby no part of Christ's glory is impaired.


Sermone 11, De

The two hun-
dred and


For St Augus-
tine saith :
* Vidi sub


['Almose, 1505, and H. A. 1564.)

[ Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. xiii. 3. Tom. II. p. 255; where facit.]

[August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Serm. ccxxi. 1. in Natal. Ss. Innoc. Tom. V. Append. col. 365.

This sermon is spurious.]

[* See below, page 756, note 1.)

[5 H.A. 1564 omits the sentence between brackets. It appears in II. A. 1565.]


Sent. Dist.

Gers. contr.
Floret. Lib.

Touching the worthiness of the priest, which they call opus operantis, it appeareth M. Harding could partly be contented to make it equal with the sacrifice of Christ, were it not that it should seem too great presumption. For thus he saith : “So we should make the priest God's peer, and his act equal with the passion of Christ.” And therefore they say, “ A wicked priest's mass is as Thom. in iv. good and as meritorious in this respect as a good priest's mass 6 ;" for that the 14. worthiness of the work hangeth nothing of the worthiness of the priest.

Notwithstanding, St Hierome seemeth to say far otherwise: Impie agunt in Summ. legem Christi, putantes eucharistiam imprecantis verba facere, non vitami: They Angel, in do wickedly against the law of Christ, thinking it is not the life, but the word of Hieron. in the minister, that maketh the sacrament.” And likewise Irenæus saith : Sacri- Zophon. ficia non sanctificant hominem;... sed conscientia ejus, qui offert, sanctificat sacri- cap. xxxiv. ficium, pura exsistens 8 : “ The sacrifice doth not sanctify the man ; but the conscience of the priest, being upright and pure, doth sanctify the sacrifice.” In like manner Gabriel Biel, his own doctor, saith : Videant, ne, si peccato obnoxii Biel. Lect. 26. offerant, sit illorum oblatio quasi ejus, qui victimat filium in conspectu patris, neve rursus crucifigant Filium Dei': “Let them take heed, lest, if they sacrifice, being in sin, their oblation be like unto the oblation of him that slayeth the child in the sight of the father; and lest they crucify again the Son of God." Verily, of wicked priests God saith : Maledicam benedictionibus vestris : “That Mal. ii. you bless I will curse.”

Touching St Augustine and Origen, that here are brought in for a countenance, if these ancient holy fathers were now alive, they would blush to hear their tales thus reported. Origen's words, if it might have pleased M. Harding to have laid them out whole and at large without clipping, as he found them, both would have been clear and plain in themselves 10, and also would have soon shaken down all this whole frame of opus operatum. For he neither speaketh of the mass, neither 11 promiseth remission of sins for any thing that is done in the mass; but only and wholly for the sacrifice of Christ's body upon the cross. His words be these : Si redeas ad illum panem, qui de coelo descendit, et dat huic mundo ritam, illum panem propositionis, [hoc est, Christum ipsum] quem proposuit Deus propitiationem per fidem in sanguine ejus ; et si respicias ad illam commemorationem, de qua dicit Dominus, Hoc facite ad meam commemorationem, invenies, quod ista est commemoratio sola, quæ propitium faciat hominibus Deum 12 : “ If thou turn to that bread that came down from heaven and giveth life to this world, I mean that shew-bread, that is, Christ himself, whom God hath appointed to be a propitiation by faith in his blood; and if thou behold that remembrance whereof the Lord saith, “Do this in remembrance of me;' thou shalt find that it is this remembrance only (that is to say, the body of Christ crucified, and the price of his blood thus remembered) that maketh God merciful unto men.” Now let M. Harding indifferently judge, whether these words be likely to prove his opus operatum, or any other thing belonging unto his mass.

The place of St Augustine is yet much plainer. For, as he toucheth none of all these M. Harding's fantasies, so he speaketh only of the innocents and blessed martyrs, that were slain only for the testimony of Christ; “whose souls,” St John saith, “lie underneath the altar of God,” not in earth, as M. Harding fancieth, but in heaven. For thus he writeth: Vidi sub ara Dei animas occi- August. de

Sanct. Serm. 11.

[Sive ergo per bonos, sive per malos ministros intra ecclesiam dispensetur, sacrum tamen est, quia Spiritus sanctus vivificat: nec bonorum dispensatorum Ineritis ampliatur, nec malorum attenuatur.-Thom. Aquinat. Op. Venet. 1595. In iv. Lib. Sentent. Dist. xiii. Quæst. 1. Tom. VII. fol, 70.

Floret. Lib. Lugd. 1499. Lib. iv. fol. 96. 2.

Clavas. Summ. Angel. Argent. 1513. Missa 56. fol. 209.

In some respects these two authors last cited make the mass of a good priest better than that of a bad one.)

[? Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Sophon.

Proph. cap. iii. Tom. III, col, 1671; where facere

[ Iren. Op. Par. 1710. Contr. Hær. Lib. iv.
cap. xviii. 3. p. 250. See before, page 723, note 16.]

[° There is probably a mistake in the reference,
as given above. But see for ideas very similar Gab.
Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515. Lectt. vii. viii,
foll. 12, &c.]

(10 Themself, 1565.)
[11 Nother, 1565.)

[12 Orig. Op. In Levit. Hom. xiii, 3. Tom. II.
p. 255. See before, page 754, note 2.]

Rev. vi.

sorum propter verbum Dei, et propter testimonium Jesu, &c.': “I saw under the altar of God” in heaven “ the souls of them that were slain for God's word, and for the testimony of Jesus.' What thing is there either more reverend or more honourable than to rest under that altar” in heaven, “ in which sacrifices are made and oblations are offered unto God, and wherein” no mortal man, but “the Lord himself is the priest ? For so it is written: “Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedech.' It is right” not that the bodies, but “that the souls of the just should remain under the altar ; because that upon that altar” in heaven “ Christ's body is offered. And well it is that just men do there require revengeance of their blood, where as Christ's blood for sinners is poured out.”

Immediately after this he intermeddleth somewhat touching altars or communion-tables in the earth. For thus he addeth further: Convenienter igitur, et quasi pro quodam consortio, ibi martyribus sepultura decreta est, ubi mors Domini quotidie celebratur, 8c.2: “ Therefore upon good discretion, and in some token of fellowship, martyrs' burials are appointed in that place” here in earth “where the Lord's death is daily remembered ; as the Lord himself saith: 'As often as ye shall do these things, ye shall set forth my death until I come.' I mean, that they that died for the Lord's death may rest under the mystery of his sacrament.”

After this he returneth again to the souls of the blessed martyrs under the altar in heaven: Legimus plerosque justorum Abrahæ sinibus refoveri, &c.*: We read,” saith St Augustine, “that many just men are refreshed in Abraham's bosom; and that many are in the pleasures of paradise. Yet no man deserved better than the martyrs to rest there” in heaven “ where as Christ is both the sacrifice and the priest. I mean, that they may enjoy God's favour by the offering of that sacrifice, and may receive the blessing and ministry of that priest.”

Hereby it is plain that St Augustine speaketh of heaven, and not of earth, nor of purgatory; of the souls received above, and not of the bodies buried beneath: for all these things St John, by revelation, saw in heaven.

And for proof hereof St Augustine addeth further: Inter ceteros igitur martyres, quos sub ara Dei consistere prædicamus, etiam beatas illas infantum lactentium pro Christo primitias martyrum laudemust: “Therefore amongst the rest of the martyrs whom we say to be under the altar of God” in heaven “let us commend those blessed first-fruits of sucking infants that were martyrs for Christ.”

This is St Augustine's plain and undoubted meaning. But M. Harding, to serve his turn, is fain of souls to make bodies ; of joy to make pain; and of heaven to make purgatory: and yet in all this great ado findeth neither opus operatum, nor his mass. Thus is it lawful for these men to carry about and to use their readers.

Touching the substance of this doctrine, which M. Harding now at last upon better advice seemeth in some part to mislike, notwithstanding it were

not long sithence generally received both in schools and churches, and counted Orig. in Matt. catholic, Origen, that ancient learned father, writeth thus : Quod sanctificatur

per verbum Dei, et per obsecrationem, non suapte natura sanctificat utentem. Nam id si esset, sanctificaret etiam illum, qui comedit indigne Dominos : “ The thing that is sanctified by the word of God and by prayer, of his own nature"

cap. xv.

["Vidi enim sub &c. ... Quid reverentius, quid honorabilius dici potest, quam sub illa ara requiescere, in qua Deo sacrificium celebratur, in qua offeruntur hostiæ, in qua Dominus est sacerdos, sicut scriptum est, Tu es sacerdos in æternum secundum ordinem Melchisedech? Recte sub altari justorum animæ requiescunt; quia super altare corpus Domini offertur. Nec immerito illic justi vindictam sanguinis postulant, ubi etiam pro peccatoribus Christi sanguis effunditur.— August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Serm. ccxxi. 1. in Natal. SS. Innoc. Tom. V. Appead. col. 365.]

[° Convenienter &c. Sicut ipse ait, Quotiens.

cumque hæc feceritis, mortem Domini annuntiabitis, donec veniat: scilicet ut qui propter mortem ejus mortui fuerant, sub sacramenti ejus mysterio requiescant.--Id. ibid.)

[Legimus &c. nonnullos paradisi amenitate lætari : nemo tamen melius &c. (see before, page 754.] et benedictionem functionemque sacerdotis ac. cipiant.-Id. ibid.]

[* Inter &c. beati illi infantes lactentes, pro Christo primitiæ martyrum, ... coronas meruerunt.Id. ibid.)

[ Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. Comm. in Matt. Tom. XI. 14. Tom. III. p. 499.]

Tract. 25.

1 Cor. x.

Johan. Tract

Johan. Tract.

or ex opere operato “sanctifieth not him that useth it. For otherwise it should sanctify him that eateth unworthily of the Lord.”

Again he saith: Assiduitas communicationis, et alia ... similia, ... non ipsæ orig. in Matt. sunt justitiæ, sed condituræ habentur justitiarum. Res autem spirituales, quæ ex se ipsis justitiæ sunt, dicuntur judicium, ... misericordia, et fides 6 : “ The often using of the communion, and other like things, be not righteousness itself,” of itself or of the work that there is wrought, “but only the seasoning and setting forth of righteousness. But the spiritual things, which be righteousness itself, are called judgment, mercy, and faith.”

So St Hierome: Ne quis confidat in eo solo, quod baptizatus est; aut in Hieron. esca spirituali vel potu putet Deum sibi parcere, si peccaverit?: “Let no man presume of this thing only, that he is baptized; nor let him think that God for receiving the spiritual meat or drinking the spiritual cup,” ex opere operato, “will pardon him if he offend.”

So St Augustine: Non ait, mundi estis propter baptisma quo loti estis ; sed August. in ... propter verbum, quod locutus sum vobis 8 : “ Christ saith not, Ye are clean 80. for the baptism's sake wherewith ye are washed; but for the word's sake that I have spoken unto you." And again : Felix venter qui te portavit, &c.' : August, in “Blessed is that womb that bare thee. But Christ answered : “Nay, blessed 10. be they that hear the word of God and keep the same:' that is to say: My mother, whom ye call blessed, thereof is blessed, for that she keepeth the word of God.”

Likewise again: Materna propinquitas nihil matri profuisset, nisi fælicius Chris- August. de tum [in] corde, quam [in] carne gestasset10: “ The nearness of mother's blood Virgin. should have profited Christ's mother nothing at all, unless she had more blessedly carried Christ in her heart than in her body."

Verily, to ascribe felicity or remission of sin, which is the inward work of the Holy Ghost, unto any manner outward action whatsoever, it is a superstitious, a gross, and a Jewish error.

Origen of the sacrament of circumcision writeth thus : Circumcisionis nisi Orig. in Luc. reddatur ratio, nutus tantum est circumcisio, et opus mutum!): “Unless there be a reason yielded of the meaning of circumcision, it is but an outward shew and a dumb labour,” and availeth nothing.

And touching the use and order of the holy mysteries, Christ saith not, Do this for remission of your sins; but, “Do this in my remembrance.”

The only and everlasting sacrifice for sin is the Son of God crucified upon the cross.

He sitteth now in the nature and substance of our flesh at the right hand of his father, “and evermore maketh intercession for us, and is the only sacrifice and propitiation for our sins.”

Whatsoever doctrine is contrary to this doctrine is wicked and blasphemous, and, as M. Harding hath confessed, injurious to the glory and cross of Christ.

Horn. 5.

[* Id. In Matt. Comm. Ser. 20. Tom. III. p. 843; where justitiæ sunt, justitiarum habentur, and spiritales que a semetipsis.]

[ Ne quis confidens in eo solum, quod &c. ... sibi Deam parcere &c.--Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. 1. ad Cor. cap. x. Tom. V. col. 994.)

{* August. Op. In Johan. Evang. cap. xv. Tractat. lu. 3. Tom. III. Pars 11. col. 703.]

[Felix venter qui te portavit. Et ille, Immo

felices qui audiunt verbum Dei, et custodiunt. Hoc
est dicere, Et mater mea, quam appellastis felicem,
inde felix, quia verbum Dei custodit.-Id. ibid. cap.
ii. Tractat. x. 3. col. 369.]

[Id. Lib. de Sanct. Virgin. cap. iii. 3. Tom. VI.
col. 342; where Mariæ for matri.]

[" Nisi enim circumcisionis ratio reddatur, nutus est circumcisio et opus mutum.-Orig. Op. In Luc, Hom. v. Tom. III. p. 937.]




Or that then any christian man called the sacrament his Lord and God.

outward forms were never called the sacrament, or Christ's body,

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The two hun-
dred and
fortieth un-

exposition. For this was not these fathers'


M. HARDING. THE FIRST DIVISION. This word sacrament(as is declared before) is of the fathers taken two ways: The two hun. (239) either for the only outward forms of bread and wine, which are Sacrament two thirty:hinth the holy sign of the very body and blood of Christ present, and under ways taken. For the only them contained; or for the whole substance of the sacrament, as it consisteth of

the outward forms and also of the very body and blood of Christ (240) verily present, (240) which St Augustine calleth the invisible grace and the thing in Sentent.

of the sacrament", (240) and Irenæus calleth it rem cælestem, “the Consecr. Dist. the ancient heavenly thing," as that other rem terrenam?,

the earthly thing.Žib. iv. cap. Taken the first way (as among the learned fathers it was never taken),

no christian man ever honoured it with the name of Lord and God; for that truth, stand- were plain idolatry to attribute the name of the Creator to the creature. But ing in untrue

taken in the second signification (as no ancient father ever took it), it hath

always of christian people and of the learned fathers of the church been called meaning.

by the name of Lord and God. And of right so ought it to be; for else were it
impiety, and a denial of God, not to call Christ the Son of God by the name
of Lord and God, who is not only in truth of flesh and blood in the sacrament,
after which manner he is there ex vi sacramenti, but also the3 inseparable con-
junction of both natures in unity of person, ex necessaria concomitantia, whole
Christ, God and man. That the holy fathers called the sacrament taken in this
sense Lord and God, I might prove it by many places: the rehearsal of a fer
may serve for many. Origen in a* homily speaking reverently of this
blessed sacrament saith, that, when a man receiveth it, our Lord entereth Evangelii

under his roof, and exhorteth him that shall receive it to humble him- Locos, Hom. 5. The two hun- self, and to say (241) unto it: Domine, non sum dignus, ut intres sụb tectum forty-first meum 5: “I, Lordo, am not worthy that thou enter under my roof.Origen saith not, “unto

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. Whosoever erreth in this article committeth idolatry, and giveth God's honour to a corruptible creature, that is no god. Therefore it behoved M. Harding herein to leave his guesses, and to allege none but good, substantial, and weighty reasons; and that so much the more, for that none of the old catholic fathers ever either erected temples or proclaimed holy-days in the name of the sacrament, or ever willed the people to adore it as the maker of heaven and earth, or to believe in it, or to call it God.

This notwithstanding, the reasons that M. Harding hath here found out are so slender and so simple, and so guilefully and untruly gathered, that his friends

In Diversos

dred and

untruth. For


[ August. in Lib. Sentent. Prosp. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 48. cols. 1936, 7. See before, pages 592, 617.]

[? Iren. Op. Par. 1710. Contr. Hær. Lib. iv. cap. xviii. 5. p. 251, See before, page 517, note 15.]

[ Also for the, H. A. 1564. But H. A. 1565 omits for.)

[* An, H. A. 1564. But H. A. 1565 has a.)

[5 Orig. Op. Lat. Basi). 1545. In Divers. Hom. v. Tom. II. p. 308. See before, page 536, note 2.)

[ Lord, I, H. A. 1564.]

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