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Or that it was then thought a sound doctrine to teach the people that the mass, ex opere operato, that is, even for that it is said and done, is able to remove any part of our sins“.


ARTICLE XX. H.A. 1564.]

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stom saith:

Indeed the doctrine uttered in this article is false, and derogatory to the glory of our Saviour Christ. For thereby the honour of Christ's sacrifice, whereby he hath once satisfied for the sins of all, should be transferred to the work of the priest, which were great wickedness and detestable blasphemy. And therefore we will not require M. Jerel to yield and subscribe unto this article. For we grant this was never thought a sound doctrine within six hundred years of Christ's ascension, nor shall be 80 thought within six thousand years after the same, of any man of sound belief. (234) Neither hath it been at any time taught in the catholic church, howsoever it The two hunliketh our adversaries to charge the scholastical doctors with the slanderous report thirty-fourth of the contrary. For it is Christ only, and none other thing, that is able to remove Forfit hath our sins; and that hath he done by the sacrifice of his body once done upon the cross. taught and Of which sacrifice, once performed upon the cross with shedding of his blood, this shaur edhe pealt unbloody sacrifice of the altar, which is the daily sacrifice of the church, commonly called the mass, is a sampler and a commemoration, (235) in the which we have the The two hun. same body that hanged on the cross. [Neither is it a sampler

[Neither is it a sampler or commemoration thirty-fifth only, but the self-same sacrifice which was offered on the cross: a sampler or com- For Chrysomemoration in respect of the manner, for that it is done without blood-shedding;

“In (vasis the self-same, for that the thing which is offered is the same that was offered on the sacris)...non cross.]e And whereas we have nothing of ourselves that we may offer up acceptable pus Christi, to God, we offer this his Son's body as a most acceptable sacrifice, beseeching him rium corpo

to look not upon our worthiness, our act or work, but upon the face tinetur. of Christ his dear! Son, and for his sake to have mercy upon us.

And in this respect we doubt not this blessed sacrifice of the mass to egetale. ex opere be vailable and effectual ex opere operato, that is, not as M. Jewel interpreteth, for that the mass is said and done, referring opus operatum to the act of the priest, not so; but for the work wrought itself, which God himself worketh by the ministry of the priest, without respect had to his merit or act, which is the body and blood of Christ, [whose breaking and shedding is in this mystical sacrifice, so far as the Holy Ghost hath thought expedient for man's behoof, represented, shewed, and recommended to memory.]6 Which [body and blood, when it is (236) according to The two hunhis commandment offered up to God, is, not in regard of our work, but of itself and of the holy institution of his only-begotten Son, a most acceptable sacrifice unto la poruthi him, both for quick and dead, * where there is no stop nor let to the contrary on the behalf of the receiver. The dead, I mean such only as through faith have re

joined with

Psal. Las sie.7

In Op. Imperf. Hom. 11.8

Hore the mass is

dred and thirty-sixth never gave such commandment.

a contradietion in itself.

[ Sin, H. A. 1564.]

{* The passages between brackets do not appear in H. A. 1564. They are in H. A. 1565.]

[: This reference first appears in H. A. 1565.]

[ Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Op. Imperf. in For the dead

can make no Matt. ex cap. v. Hom. xi. Tom. VI. p. Ixiii.] stop.

(° His most dear, H. A. 1564.]
["' To, H. A. 1564.]

mended themselves to the redemption wrought by Christ, and by this De Octo Quæst. faith have deserved of God, that after their departure hence,as St Pulcitii, quæst. Augustine saith, this sacrifice might profit thema.


Biel. Lect. 27.
Gers, contr.

Gers. contr.
Floret. Lib.
Grop. Art. 4.

cap. xix,


These words, opus operatum, opus operans, opus operantis, as they are strange and barbarous, so are they not found neither in the scriptures, nor in the old doctors, nor in any ancient council, but have been lately devised by certain new scholastical doctors of M. Harding's own side, who, notwithstanding, cannot yet well agree upon their own device, nor can certainly tell us what they have found.

Opus operantis some of them call the “work and worthiness of the priest 3;" Floret. Lib: but Innocentius III. rather calleth opus operantis “the priest himself 4.” LikeScot

. Quod- wise about these words, opus operatum, they have made much ado, and yet are Innoc. Lib. not well resolved of it what it should be. Scotus and Biel say: “It is the conBiel. Lect: 27. secration, the oblation, and the receiving of the sacrament 5." Gerson saith: “ It Scot. Quod" is the word of the Creator, and the power of the Holy Ghost 6." Pighius saith:

“ It is the will of God that appointed the sacrament to this purpose?." Gropper
of Colaine saith : “ It is the body of Christ 8.” Howbeit, it were hard to say,
either that Christ's body is a work, or that any work is Christ's body.
It were a point of mastery to make all these contrary resolutions agree in

Thus it fareth evermore where as men shoot without a mark. How beit, if neither M. Harding nor any other of his fellows for him be able to find these words, opus operatum, in any ancient doctor or council, then, notwithstanding the great multitude of his words, my assertion standeth still true. But, if he and others of his side have maintained this doctrine even in such sort as I have uttered it, then by his own confession they have deceived the world by wicked and blasphemous doctrine, to the great derogation of the glory and cross of Christ.

And, forasmuch as M. Harding seemeth now to blush at his own terms, and therefore beginneth to shun and to shift the same by vain and frivolous expositions, it shall not be amiss to open the true meaning thereof, both by the old records of the ancient writers in whose days the like folly began to grow, and was then reproved, and also by the plain words of M. Harding's own allowed doctors.

St Augustine saith there were some in his time that thought and taught the Xxi . cap. xix: people that, if a man had been baptized and had once received the communion,

notwithstanding he lived wickedly and maintained heresies and wilful doctrine, yet he could not be condemned, only because he was baptized and had once

received the holy communion'; which thing now is called opus operatum. Chrysost. ad Chrysostom saith: Mulieres et parvi pueri, pro magna custodia, ad collum

August. de

Pop. Ant.
Hom. 19.

['H. A. 1564 omits this reference. It appears
in H. A. 1505. ]

[? Neque negandum est defunctorum animas pietate suorum viventium relevari, cum pro illis sacrificium Mediatoris offertur, vel eleemosynæ in ecclesia fiunt. Sed eis hæc prosunt, qui cum viverent, ut hæc sibi postea possent prodesse, meruerunt. -August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Lib. de Oct. Dulcit. Quæst. Quæst. ii. 4. Tom. VI. col. 130.]

[’ Ex opere operante, hoc est, ex merito personali personæ celebrantis.-Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515. Lect. xxvi. fol. 50.

quia non in merito consecrantis, sed in verbo perficitur Creatoris et virtute... et illud dicitur opus operatum.-Floret. Lib. Lugd. 1499. Lib. iv. fol. 96. 2.

missa non solum valet virtute meriti, sive operis operantis; sed etiam virtute sacrificii, et operis operati.- Joan. Duns Scot. Op. Lugd. 1639. Quodlib. Quæst. xx. Tom. XII. p. 515. Conf. Art. ii. ibid. pp. 524, 5.)

[" The words of Innocent in the place referred to are these: non in merito sacerdotis, sed in verbo conficitur Creatoris ... Quamvis igitur opus operans

aliquando sit immundum, semper tamen opus operatum est mundum.--Innoc. Papæ III. Op. Col. 1575. Myst. Miss. Lib. III. cap. v. Tom. I. p. 367.]

[* Ex opere operato. i. ex ipsa &c.-Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Lect. xxvi. fol. 50. See above, note 3, and the next page.]

[ See above, note 3.]

[' Baptismus et cetera illa sacramenta...valent ex ipso opere operato... Non quidem ex aliqua virtute quæ in ipsis symbolis hæreat...sed ex una Dei voluntate hoc pendet universum, &c.---Alb. Pigh. Explic. Cathol. Contr. Par. 1586. De Miss. Sacrif. Contror. v. fol. 117.)

[8 ... operi operato innitimur, hoc est, ei quod Deus per sacerdotis ministerium confert, insistimus, --Gropper. De Præst. Altar. Sacram. Antv. 1539. Quart. Art. Tom. II. p. 160.]

[Item sunt alii, ab æterno supplicio liberationem, nec ipsis saltem omnibus hominibus promittentes, sed tantummodo Christi baptismate ablutis, qui participes fiunt corporis ejus, quomodolibet vise erint, in quacumque hæresi vel impietate fuerint.August. Op. De Civ. Dei, Lib. xxi. cap. xix. Tom. VII. col. 639.]

1 Cor. Hom.

cap. xxiii.

III. can. 6.

suspendunt evangelia 10: “Women and young children for great safety hang the Chrysoat. in gospel at their necks.” They thought the gospel itself, and of itself, could save 43. them from all mishaps, not because they believed in it, but only because it was Matt. Lib. iv. hanged or tied about them; and this is also opus operatum.

So there were certain in old times, that of mere superstition used to minister the communion unto the dead, and to lay the sacrament in the mouths of them Conc. Carth. that were departed "l; as St Benet also caused the sacrament to be laid upon a Inter Decret. dead woman's breast, thinking that the very outward ceremony thereof, without Deusd. can. faith or inward motion of the party, might be sufficient to do her good; which also is called opus operatum.

Even in St Paul's time there were certain that of like superstition began to baptize the dead; which thing also continued a long while after, as may appear Conc. Carth. by the council of Carthage 13. They thought the very outward work of baptism itself, only because it was done without any further motion of the mind, was sufficient to remit their sins.

This old error our adversaries of late years have taken up and made it catholic, bearing the people in hand that their mass itself, ex opere operato, only of itself, and because it is said, is available for the remission of their sins.

Thus they expound their own dream: Ex opere operato, id est, ex ipsa conse- Biel. Lect. 27. cratione, [et] oblatione, et sumptione venerabilis eucharistice 14 : Ex opere operato is lib. Art. . as much to say as for the very consecration, and oblation, and receiving of the reverend sacrament."

In Manipulus Curatorum, which not long sithence was thought to be a book most necessary for all parsons and curates, as containing all necessary doctrine for the church of God, it is written thus : Opus operatum est actus exercitatus Manip.Curat. circa sacramentum; sicut opus operatum in baptismo est inspersio, vel immersio aquce, et prolatio verborum 15. And therefore cardinal Cajetan, at Augusta in Germany, requiring Doctor Luther to recant this article, said thus: Fides non est In Paralip. necessaria accessuro ad eucharistiam 16 : “Faith is not necessary for him that will neerg. An. receive the sacrament;" meaning thereby that the very sacrament itself, only because it is ministered, is sufficient, although the receiver be utterly void of faith.

And therefore the bishops in the late council of Trident have determined thus : Si quis dixerit, per sacramenta novæ legis non conferri gratiam ex opere Concil. operato, sed fidem solam divinæ promissionis sufficere ad gratiam consequendam, 6. can. 8. anathema sit17: “If any man say that grace is not given by the sacraments of the new testament, even for the work that is wrought, but that faith only of the heavenly promise is sufficient to achieve grace, accursed be he.”

Likewise Gabriel Biel : Hoc sacrificium in illis, pro quibus offertur, non præ- Biel. Lect. 81. erigit vitam spiritualem in actu, sed in potentia, &c.18: “ This sacrifice, in them for whom it is offered, requireth not a spiritual (or godly) life in act and in deed, but only in possibility. Neither is this against the saying of St Augustine: “Who will offer the body of Christ, but only for them that are the members of Christ ? For

["O Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Ad Pop. Ant. Luther was required to recant is thus expressed : AcHom. xix. Tom. II. p. 197.

cessuro ad sacramentum necessarium esse ut credat.] - ευαγγέλιον κρέμασθαι παρά την κλίνην κ. τ.λ. ["? Si quis dixerit, per ipsa novæ legis sacramenta -Id. in Epist. 1. ad Cor. Hom. xliii. Tom. X. p. 405. ex opere operato non conferri gratiam, sed solam

Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. Lib. iv. in fidem divinæ promissionis ad gratiam consequendam Matt. cap. xxiü. Tom. IV. Pars I. col. 109.]

sufficere, anathema sit.-Concil. Trident. Sess. VII, ["Concil. Carth. III. cap. 6. in Concil. Stud. can. 8. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Tom. XIV. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. II. col. col. 777.] 1168. See before, page 6, note 1.]

(18 ... unde ut dicit beatus Thomas... Eucharistia (12 The reference is to the council of Auxerre. in quantum est sacrificium, habet effectum etiam in Concil. Autisiod. can. 12. in eod. Tom. V. col. 958. aliis pro quibus offertur: in quibus non præexigit See before, page 7, note 11. Conf. Crabb. Concil. vitam spiritualem in actu; sed in potentia ... Nec Col. Agrip. Tom. II. pp. 184, 5.)

contra illud est quod Augustinus ad renatos dicit : [13 See above, note 11.]

Quis offerat corpus Christi nisi pro his qui sunt ["* Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Lect. xxvi. membra Christi? [August. Op. De Anim, et ejus fol. 50. See before, page 750, notes 3 and 5.] Orig. Lib. I. cap. ix. 10. Tom. X. col. 342.] Intel

[15 Manip. Curat. Rothom. 1494. Tractat.i. Prim. ligitur enim pro membris Christi offerri, quando Pars, cap. ii, fol. 6; where vocatur actus, sacramenta, offertur pro aliquibus ut sint membra Christi.-Gab, and est aspersio.]

Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Lect. lxxxv. fol. 152. 2. ( 16 Paraleip. Rer. Memor. ad calc. Chron. Abbat. Conf. Thom. Aquinat. Op. Venet. 1595. Quart. Sent. Ursperg. Argent. 1537. p. 472; where the article Dist. xii. Quæst. ii. Art. 2. Tom. VII. fol. 67. 2.)

Trident. Sess.

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Cajet, in
Quodlib. de

thus we understand it, that the oblation is made for the members of Christ, when it is made for any that may be the members of Christ.”

- And therefore cardinal Cajetan, notwithstanding that he had spoken against Doctor Luther in open conference to the contrary, confesseth a general error

therein in his time. For thus he writeth: Unde in hoc videtur communis multorum Usu Spirit. error, quod putant, hoc sacrificium ex solo opere operato habere certum meritum, vel Quæst. 3.

certam satisfactionem, quæ applicatur huic vel illi? : “Wherefore herein appeareth the common error of many that think that this sacrifice, even of the work that is wrought, hath a certain merit or a certain satisfaction, that may be applied to this man or that man."

This of late years was the school-doctors' catholic meaning touching these new terms of their own inventing; which now M. Harding and his fellows are fain for shame to colour over with some finer varnish. Hereof, good christian reader, mayest thou judge how aptly this doctrine may stand with the glory and cross of Christ.

Now touching these words, “ oblation” and “sacrifice," with the shew whereof M. Harding thinketh it good skill to dazzle and to abuse the eyes of the simple; first, where he saith, a mortal man offereth up the Son of God indeed and verily unto his Father, and that Christ commanded such a sacrifice to be made; he knoweth himself it is both a great untruth, and also a manifest and a wilful blasphemy. And further, where he addeth, that the same sacrifice so offered is available for the dead, unless there be some stop or let in the receiver; this is a very vain and unadvised folly : for children know that the dead can neither receive the sacrament, nor make let or stop against the receiving of the same. Therefore this addition might have been better surveyed ere it came abroad.

Indeed St Augustine, having occasion somewhat to touch the state of the faithful departed, saith that the prayers of the living, being either joined with alms-deeds?, or made at the time of the holy communion, at which time the death of Christ is laid open before us, and therefore our mind the more inflamed to devotion, may be available for the dead. Howbeit St Augustine herein compareth the sacrifice of the holy communion with the sacrifice of alms-giving, and in that behalf of relieving the dead maketh either equal with the other. But for this present it is needless hereof to make further treaty; for M. Harding well knoweth this is none of the articles we have now in question.

But certain it is that St Augustine, neither here nor elsewhere, ever moved one word of opus operatum, that now so mightily is defended.



shewed what

TIIE SECOND DIVISION. But to speak of this matter more particularly and more distinctly, Mass taken tro the term massmay be taken two ways; either for the thing itself which is offered, or for the act of the priest in offering of it. If it be taken for the

thing itself that is offered, which is the body of Christ, and is in this respect M. Harding of the a scholastical doctors called opus operatum, no man can justly deny but that should have it removeth and taketh away sin.

b For Christ in his flesh crucified is 1 Cor. ri. & rii. scholasticate our only sacrifice, our only price, our only redemption, whereby he hath Tit. . taken it thus, merited to us upon the cross, and with the price of his blood hath bought Rev. xir.

the remission of our sins; and St John saith he is the propitiation 1 John ii. All these al- for our sins.” So Ecumenius saith : Caro Christi ... est propitiato- in iii. cap. ad terly con- rium nostrarum iniquitatum : The flesh of Christ is the propitiation Romanos. work that is for our iniquities.And this, not for that it is offered of the priest in the mass supposed in

specially, but for that he offered it once himself with shedding of his blood upon he work of the cross for the redemption of all. Which oblation done upon the cross is become eitiatory, a perpetual and continual oblation, not in the same manner of offering, but in the

same virtue and power of the thing offered. For since that time the same body of Christ, appearing always before the face of God in heaven, pre- Heb. ix.6

may seem untrue.

legations ut

demn the

the mass.


[ Thom, a Vio Cajet. Quæst. et Quodl. Venet.
1530. De Celebr. Miss. Quæst. ii. Tom. III. fol. 76.)

(? Almose-deeds, 1565.)
[ Almose-giving, 1565.) [* Farther, 1565.]

15 Ecum. Op. Lut. Par. 1630-1. In Epist. ad Rom. Comm. cap. iii. Tom. I. p. 243. ]

[ This reference is not in H. A. 1564, but in H, A, 1565.]

senteth and exhibiteth itself for our reconciliation; and likewise it is exhibited and offered (237) by his own commandment here in earth in the mass, where he is both The two hunpriest and sacrifice, offerer and oblation, [verily and indeed], though in mystery and thirty-seventh by way of commemoration, that thereby we may be made partakers of the recon- Forum ciliation performed, [applying the same unto us (so far as in this behalf man may mexrecomme apply) through faith and devotion, no less than if we saw with our eyes presently his priest, neither body hanging on the cross before us, and streams of blood issuing forth.]? And as it is now so it is a sacrifice in very deed propitiatory, not for our act or work, but for ofter up the his own work already done and accepted. To this only we must ascribe remission Christ. and removing of our sins.


Here M. Harding is driven to make wonderful hard shift, and to leave all the whole company of his school-doctors, and to go alone. The mass, saith he, sometime signifieth the body of Christ. Sometime, say you? And at what time, I beseech you? And if at one time, why not at all times ? What ancient doctor or holy father ever told us this tale? But let us give M. Harding leave to make somewhat of himself, and to uphold his strange religion with strange phrases and forms of speech. For he hopeth that, whatsoever he list to say, the ignorant people will believe him.

But wherefore allegeth he not either the scriptures, or some old council, or some ancient doctor; at the least some one or other of his own school-doctors, Innocentius, Thomas, Scotus, Alexander, Henricus de Gandavo, Robertus de Collo Torto, or some other like, in this behalf? Is there none of all these that ever could understand that the mass is the body of Christ ? And must we needs believe M. Harding in so strange a matter without witness ? Verily, if the mass according to this new doctrine be Christ's body, and that verily and indeed, without shift or help of figure, then was the mass born of the blessed virgin ; then was it crucified; then was it buried in the grave: for all these things happened to the body of Christ. Then whosoever denieth the mass denieth Christ's body; and whosoever believeth Christ's body believeth the mass. But what should M. Harding do? A monstrous doctrine requireth a monstrous kind of words.

Indeed, Christ's body crucified was “the price and propitiation for all our 1 John ii. sins.” Christ “with one oblation hath made perfit for ever all that be sanctified.” Heb. X. For in his flesh "he was that Lamb of God that hath taken away the sins of John i. the world.” And now in the same flesh “he appeareth before God, and ever- Rom. viii. more entreateth for our sins."

But, M. Harding, what is all this to your mass ? Who ever bade you to sacrifice Christ unto his Father? Who ever warranted you


your sacrifice, devised by yourselves, should be of the same virtue and power, as you say, that was the sacrifice of Christ himself upon his cross ? Who ever told you that your sacrifice should be the price and propitiation for the sins of the whole world ? or that Christ in your mass should evermore appear before God, and entreat for us ?

But why add you further 8 this special exception of yourself, “ And this, not for that it is offered of the priest in the mass specially ?” What needeth you with this so special proviso so finely to mince this matter? Why should you so specially disable or discredit the unbloody sacrifice of the church? of Christ be not specially available, for that as you say) it is offered by the priest, how then, being so offered, can it be propitiatory for our sins? If it be propitiatory indeed, and if the priest offer up Christ unto his father, and that in all respects of power and virtue as effectual and available as that Christ himself offered upon the cross, how then is it not specially profitable, for that (as you say) it is offered by the priest? Ye should have brought some Daniel with you to expound your dream, or some skilful surveyor to part tenures between Christ and the priest, and to limit each part generally and specially his own right.

Heb. vii.

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