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Const. Lib. viii.

God and King, according to Christ's institution, this bread and this cup, by him rendering thanks unto thee.” And, lest M. Harding happen to say this sacrifice was propitiatory to relieve the souls that were in purgatory, this Clemens saith further : Offerimus tibi pro omnibus, qui a seculis tibi placuerunt, sanctis, patriarchis, prophetis, justis, apostolis, martyribus? : “We offer unto thee for all holy saints that have been from the beginning of the world, patriarchs, prophets, just men, apostles, and martyrs.” I trow, M. Harding will not say all these were in

purgatory. Clem. Apost.

And touching the receiving of the communion he saith thus : Postea recipiat episcopus, &c. 2: “Then let the bishop receive, and after him the priests, the deacons, the subdeacons, the readers, the singers, the religious, the women deacons, the virgins, the widows, the children, and the whole congregation in order, with sobriety and reverence without confusion.” By this record of this Clemens it appeareth that the whole congregation received the holy communion all together, each man for himself, and not one man for another.

Now, whereas M. Harding utterly denieth that ever any man in his church received the sacrament instead of others, as somewhat misliking the open folly of the same, for short trial hereof I remit him both to the very practice of his mass, and also to the most catholic doctors of all his school.

In his requiem he singeth thus: Pro quorum memoria corpus Christi sumitur, fc.3: “ For whose remembrance the body of Christ is received." If he can happily devise some veil to shadow this, yet his doctors be both so plain that they cannot be shifted, and also of so good credit that they may not be refused.

Certainly they have been evermore thought to teach the catholic doctrine of the Biel. Lect. 81. church. Gabriel Biel saith thus : Sicut os materialis corporis, &c.4: “As the

mouth of our material body not only eateth for itself, but also receiveth sustenance for the preservation of all other members, which sustenance is divided throughout the whole body; even so the priest receiveth the sacrament, and the virtue thereof passeth into all the members of the church, and specially into

them that are present at the mass.” Likewise saith Vincentius de Valentia : 1o Serm. 2. “The whole Christianity is one body knit together by faith and charity and de Epiph.

having in it sundry members; and the priest is the mouth of this body. Therefore when the priest receiveth the sacrament, all the members are refreshed 5." Again he saith: [Nos] communicamus ore sacerdotis, audiendo missamb: “We hearing mass do communicate or receive the sacrament by the mouth of the priest."

Likewise Doctor Eckius saith : Populus bibit spiritualiter per os sacerdotis: “The Utraq. Spec.

people drinketh spiritually by the mouth of the priest.” These words be plain, and truly reported. Which being true, it must needs appear that M. Harding's

avouching the contrary is untrue. Chrysost. in So Chrysostom saith, the old heretics called Marcionitæ used to baptize some

that were living in the behalf and stead of others that were dead 8. And from thence it seemeth they that now would be counted catholics have derived their doctrine in this point. And that M. Harding may the rather believe that such folly hath been used, let him remember that in his church the bishop, when he createth a reader, giveth him evermore this commission : Accipe potestatem

Eck. de

1 Cor. Hom. 40.

Apost. Lib. viii. cap xii. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. I. col. 482.]

['Id. ibid.)

[ ... και μετα τούτο μεταλαμβανέτω ο επίσκοπος, έπειτα οι πρεσβύτεροι, και οι διάκονοι, και υποδιάκονοι, και οι αναγνώσται, και οι ψάλται, και οι ασκηται, και εν ταις γυναιξίν αι διακόνισσαι, και αι παρθένοι, και αι χήραι' είτα τα παιδία, και τότε πάς ο λαός κατα τάξιν μετα αιδούς και ευλαBeias ävev Dopúßov.-Id. ibid. cap. xiii. col. 483.]

[Manual. ad Us. Eccles. Sarisb. Rothom. 1555. Miss. pro Defunct. fol. 141. 2.]

{* Sicut os materialis corporis comedit, non solum pro se, sed pro salute omnium membrorum sumit cibum ; qui per totum corpus diffunditur et membris singulis incorporatur, ut salvetur in sua

subsistentia naturali: sic sacerdos sumit sacramentum, cujus virtus transit in omnia ecclesiæ membra hujus cibi spiritualiter susceptiva, et singulariter in eos qui missæ intersunt officio. - Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515. Lect. lxxxi. fol. 238.]

[" Tota christianitas est unum corpus fide et caritate conjunctum, habens multa membra. Sacer. dos est os hujus corporis. Cum ergo sacerdos communicat, omnia membra reficiuntur.-Vincent. Serm, Hyemal. Antv. 1572. In Epiph. Dom. Serm. ü. p. 203.]

{* Id. ibid. ; where sacerdotum.]

[? Joh. Eck. Enchir. Loc. Com. Col. 1532. cap. x. fol. E. 5. 2. See before, page 213, note 7.]

[ Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. 1. ad Cor. Hom. xl. Tom. X. p. 378.]

legendi erangelium...tam pro vivis, quam pro defunctis' : “ Receive thou power to read the gospel, as well for the quick as for the dead." Therefore M. Harding, so earnestly denying this, denieth the manifest and known truth, and defaceth the credit of his own doctors.

To conclude, I may well say as before, that M. Harding, having nothing to allege touching the matter that lieth between us, and instead thereof filling up his papers with matters impertinent, of prayer and sacrifice, hath somewhat abused the patience of his reader, and shewed him one thing for another.

[ Pontifical. Rom. Antv. 1627. De Ord. Diac. p. 39 ; where accipite.]


(JEWEL, 11.]




Or that the priest had then authority to apply the virtue of Christ's death and passion to any man by mean of the mass.




The two

in the mass.

untruth. For in the church of Rome the priest presumeth to

apply the

merits of Christ by mean of his


The virtue of Christ's death and passion is grace and remission of sins, the appeasing of God's wrath, the reconciliation of us to God, deliverance from the devil, hell, and everlasting damnation. Our adversaries, imputing to us as though we said and taught that the priest applieth this virtue, effect, and merit of Christ's death to

any man by the mean of the mass, either (232) belie us of ignorance, or slander us of hindreccand malice. Verily we say not so. Neither doth the priest apply the virtue

What applicth of Christ's passion to any man by the mean of the mass. He doth but the priest unto us apply his prayer and his intent of oblation, beseeching almighty God to apply the merit and virtue of his Son's death (the memory whereof he celebrateth at the mass) to them for whom he prayeth.

It is God, and none other, that applieth to us remission of sin : the priest doth mass, as shall but pray for it, and, by the commemoration of his Son's death, moveth him to apply:

so as all that the priest doth is but by way of petition and prayer, leaving all power and authority of applying to God; which prayer is to be believed to be of most force and efficacy when it is worthily and devoutly made in the mass, in the which the priest beareth the person of the whole church, and offereth his prayer in the sacrifice,

wherein the church offereth Christ, and itself through Christ to God. Which his The two hun- (233) prayer and devout service he beseecheth to be offered up by the hands of angels thirty-third unto the high altar of God, in the sight of the divine Majesty. Of what strength For the priest prayer made at the mass is, the holy bishop and martyr St Cyprian witnesseth (that prayeth that in all his books never once named the mass) where he saith: In the Sermon. De

presence of this sacrament tears crave not in vain, and the sacrifice of a by the hands contrite heart is never denied his request 2.” of angels.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. Neither have we of ignorance belied M. Harding's doctrine, nor have we of malice slandered it, but plainly and truly have reported the same; even as both he and his late doctors have taught it, and as the people in the church of Rome hath every where received it at their hands.

But like as in old times God commanded the Philistines to offer up golden mice and golden hæmoroids, to be kept for ever in record, and to witness against them in what sort they had been plagued for their wickedness, if at any time they should happen afterward to deny it; even so hath God specially provided that the monuments of our adversaries' old errors, whereof they seem now to be ashamed, should still remain in sure record, even in their own doctors' books, to

Cæna Dot

Christ may be carried up

1 Sam. vi,

[ By the mean, H. A. 1564.]

l? In hujus præsentia non supervacue mendicant lacrymæ veniam, nec unquam patitur contriti cordis

holocaustum repulsam.-Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Cen. Dom. (Arnold.) p. 43.]


witness against them if they should happen, as now, upon mislike, utterly to disclaim and deny the same, and to force them to confess that they are the children of them that have deceived the people.

For, whereas M. Harding, amongst many other words wherewith he laboureth to shadow and to darken the case, saith, “It is God only, and none other, that applieth unto us the death of Christ and the remission of our sins ;" Johannes Scotus, one of his most famous and most catholic doctors, saith plainly the contrary: Non solus Deus distribuit virtutem sacrificii, sed sacerdos quoques : “Not Quodlib.

„ Quæst. 20. only God distributeth or applieth the virtue of the sacrifice, but the priest also.” And Gabriel Biel, another of M. Harding's doctors, in like sort saith: “The force Biel. Lect. 26. and effect of the sacrifice is distributed and applied, not only by God, but also by the priest .” “Only" and “not only” imply a contradiction : if the one be true, the other of necessity must be false. Again Biel saith : Sacerdotis est deter- Biel. in ead. minare virtutem sacrifici, ut his vel illis indigentibus præmium reddendum per hujusmodi ecclesiæ sacrificia conferatur): “It is the priest's office to determine and limit the virtue of the sacrifice, that the meed that is given by such sacrifices of the church may be applied to these or them that stand in need.” Which thing he proveth by sufficient example in this wise: “As the pope, by right of his supremacy, hath power to divide the treasure of the church (whereby he meaneth his pardons), giving unto some full remission of all their sins, and dispensing with soine other for the third part of their pains, and granting unto some pardon for certain 6 number of days or years, as he seeth it may be most expedient for the devotion of the people; even so,” saith he, “ may the priest dispense and divide ut illi vel the merits of the church, and apply the same to this man or that man, as he shall albo prostrie.

applicare. think it may stand him in some stead?."

In Summa Angelica it is written thus: “The mass is available unto them unto sum. Angel. whomsoever it pleaseth the priest to apply it by his intention.” And again : Missa respectu operis operati, gc.: “ The mass, in respect of the work that is wrought, is nothing else but the applying of the merits 10 of Christ's passion.”

So Vincentius de Valentia, a notable catholic schoolman of M. Harding's side: Virgo Maria solum semel aperuit cælum, &c.11: “ The virgin Mary never but once Vinc. de opened heaven; but the priest openeth it every day and at every mass.” Doctor Selenden i Holcot saith : Quid est celebrare missam principaliter pro aliquo ? R. Est applicare Holcot. in it: missam Johanni, quod sit quædam satisfactio apud Deum pro anima Johannis, si Şent. Quæst. indigeat 12 : “What is it to say mass principally for any man ?” He answereth: “It is the applying of the mass unto John, to be a certain satisfaction for him before God, if John stand in need of it.” And withal he moveth a great doubt, In ead. whether the priest may apply one mass to two several men, and nevertheless Quæst. satisfy for them both 13.

And Biel saith that certain, the better to help the priest's memory, taught him to apply his mass throughout all the cases of declension; as for example, nomi- Biel. Lect. 26. natiro, "a mass for himself;" genitivo, a mass for his father and mother;" dativo,

in Miss.


[... quod bonum ibi virtute sacrificii communicandum, non solum Deus distribuat, sed aliquis minister in ecclesia.-Joan. Duns Scot. Op. Lugd. 1639. Quodlib. Quæst. xx. Art. ii. Tom. XII. p. 524.]

[* ...bonum in virtute sacrificii communicandum non solus Deus distribuat: sed aliquis minister in ecclesia. — Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515. Lect. xxvi. fol. 49.]

[ ...etiam ipsius est virtutem sacrificii et oblationis determinare: ut illis vel illis indigentibus præmium reddendum pro hujusmodi ecclesiæ sacrificio conferatur.--Id. ibid.]

[ For a certain, 1565.]

[? Unde sicut papa ratione supremitatis potestatem habet dispensandi thesaurum ecclesiæ, conferendo nunc plenissimam remissionem peccatorum, nunc partem tertiam pænarum auferendo, nunc certi numeri dierum vel annorum indulgentiam conferendo secundum quod viderit ecclesiæ unitati et populorum devotioni expedire ... ita et in proposito recipit quili

bet sacerdos potestatem ex ritu et institutione ecclesiæ; ut merita totius ecclesiæ illi vel illi possit applicare, ut pro ipsis illis aliquod bonum conferatur.-Id. ibid. fol. 49. 2.]

[... valet specialiter si sunt in statu gratiæ illis qui faciunt eam dicere pro se; vel quibus prædicti vel sacerdos per intentionem applicant. — Clavas. Summ. Angel. Argent. 1513. Missa 52. fol. 208. 2. ]

[... missa respectu operis operati nihil aliud est quam applicatio meriti passionis Christi.-Id. ibid.]

[1° Merit, 1565, 1609.]

[" Vincent. Sermon. Æstiv. Antv. 1572. In Fest. Corp. Christ. Serm. i. p. 322. This author proceeds : sed sacerdos quolibet die, et in qualibet missa.]

... expono quid voco missam celebrare principaliter pro aliquo. et videtur mihi quod celebrare principaliter est applicare, &c.-R. Holkot sup. Quat. Libr. Sentent. Lugd. 1497. Lib. iv. Quæst. ii. fol. n.]

[13 Id. ibid. foll. m. viii, n.]




a mass for his founders or benefactors;" accusativo, “a mass for his enemies or accusers ;” vocativo, a mass for sinners and infidels ;" ablativo, a mass for his backbiters and slanderers.”

Of these things M. Harding seemeth now to be ashamed, notwithstanding it were of late the catholic and general doctrine of his church, universally taught by Holcot in England, by Vincentius in Spain, by Biel in France, by Angelus in Italy, or rather by all these and all others through the whole church of Rome. Hereof grew such merchandise and sale of masses, that the house of God was become a den of thieves.

Therefore M. Harding, having no other defence for all these follies, but only to cast off all that can be said of our side as malicious and ignorant surmises, sheweth himself little to have considered the state of his own church, and in the impatience of his heats to speak against us what him liketh, and so to spice his error both with ignorance and with malice.

But for resolution hereof, and some short satisfaction of the reader, it behoveth us to understand that it is not the priest, but God only it is, that applieth unto each man the remission of his sins in the blood of Christ ; not by mean of the

mass, but only by the mean of faith. St John saith: “He that believeth in the August. in Son of God hath a witness in himself.” St Augustine saith: Holocaustum dominico ex eonch. passionis ... eo tempore offert (unus]quisque pro peccatis suis, quo ejusdem passionis

fide dedicatura: “ Then doth every man offer the sacrifice of Christ's passion for

himself, when he is dedicated in the faith of Christ's passion.” So saith the old Orig. in

learned father Origen: Siclo sancto comparandus est nobis Christus, &c.3: “With the holy sicle we must buy Christ, that may put away our sins.

sicle beareth the form of our faith. For, if thou bring faith as the price, thou Orig. in Epist. shalt receive the remission of thy sins.” Likewise again he saith : Christus factus iii. cap. iii.

est hostia et propitiatio pro peccatis. Quce propitiatio ad unumquemque venit per viam fidei* : “ Christ is made the sacrifice and propitiation for sin. Which propitiation cometh (or is applied) to each man (not by the mass, but) by the way of faith.”

This is the most certain and undoubted application of the merits and death of Christ. St Paul saith : “God hath set Christ to be our reconciler through faith by the mediation of his blood.”

1 John v.

Levit. Hom. 3.

The holy

ad Rom Lib.

[ Unde quidam ex ordine sex casuum grammaticalis declinationis nominum, quasi magis celebranti noto, ordinem memorandorum tradiderunt: ut a nominativo sive a recto qui primus est casuum. i. a seipso sacerdos a quo ordinata caritas incipit vivorum memoriam exordiatur. Secundo genitivi. i. pro genitorum parentum ac propinquorum carnalium et spiritualium subdat memoriam. Tertio dativi. i. fundatorum patronorum offerentium ac benefactorum a quibus temporalia receperunt. Quarto accusativi. i. inimicorum: nam accusativus ex vocabuli interpretatione casus est adversariorum Quinto vocativi, i. errantium infidelium et peccatorum ... Sexto ablativi. i. eorum quibus bona animæ, corporis, aut famæ abstulimus, occasionem damni spiritualis aut temporalis dedimus.-Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515.

Lect. xxvi. fol. 51.]

[° August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Epist. ad Rom. Expos. Inch. 19. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 937. See before, page 737, note 18.]

[? Siclo igitur sancto comparandus nobis est Christus, qui peccata nostra dissolvat. Siclus sanctus fidei nostræ formam tenet. Si enim fidem obtuleris tanquam pretium...remissionem accipies peccatorum.

Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. iii. 8. Tom. II. p. 198.]

[^ Secundum hoc ergo quod hostia est, profusione sanguinis sui propitiatio efficitur in eo quod dat remissionem præcedentium delictorum: quæ tamen propitiatio ad unumquemque credentium per viam fidei venit.-Id. Comm. in Epist. ad Rom. Lib. iii. cap. iii. 8. Tom. IV. p. 515.]

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