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Heb. ix.

Orat. contr.

Euseb. de Demonstr.

contr. Jud. Orat. 3.


apply that word sometime to prayer and other devotion of the mind, and somebloody time to the ministration of the holy communion. Sacrifice. For the better opening hereof it may please thee, good christian reader, to

understand that, in the time of Moses' law, the priests and Levites offered up unto God oxen, calves, rams, and goats, and with the blood thereof sprinkled the book, the instruments of the ministry, the whole tabernacle, and all the people ; and, as St Paul saith, in the ceremonies of that law "without blood-shedding there was no remission of sin.” Likewise the heathens killed and offered up their cattle

unto their idols, sometimes an hundred fat oxen in one day. Sometime they Clemens in proceeded further, and made their sacrifices of man's blood. Erichtheus of

Athens and Marius of Rome killed and offered up their own daughters in the honour of Pallas?. The nobles of Carthage, in the honour of their idol Saturnus, killed and offered up three-score and ten of their own male children in one sacrifice.

In respect of these gross and fleshly and bloody sacrifices, our christian sacrifices in the gospel, because they are mere spiritual, and proceed wholly from the

heart, are called unbloody. Eusebius saith : Incendimus orationis suffitum ; Lib. I. cap. vi. sacrificium, quod appellatur purum, non per cruores facimus, sed per puras THEO ' actiones3 : “We burn the incense of prayer; and we offer up the sacrifice that αιμάτων.

is called pure, not by shedding of blood, but by pure and godly doings.” Chrysost. So Chrysostom: Offerimus non per fumum, nidorem, aut sanguinem, sed per

Spiritus gratiamt: “We make our sacrifices not by smoke, smell, and blood, but by the grace of the Holy Spirit.” He addeth further : "For God is spirit, and he that adoreth him must adore in spirit and truth.”

And this is the unbloody sacrifice. So saith Eusebius : Offerent illi rationa

biles et incruentas hostias 6 : “ They shall offer unto him reasonable (or spiλυγικας

ritual) and unbloody oblations." And the same he expoundeth “the sacrifice of Kai avai.

praise 7.”

In like sort St Hierome seemeth to say: In sinceritate azyma epulamur 8 : “We feast in pureness, without leaven." In like consideration the sacrifices that in old times were made unto Fides and Terminus were called åvaipakta, “ unbloody," because they consisted only in suffumigations and odours, and were not imbrued with any blood. And for the like cause Thucydides calleth certain of the heathen oblations dyvà búpura, “pure sacrifices.” Likewise Cyrillus calleth the prayers and melody of the angels and blessed spirits in heaven, continually

praising and glorifying the name of God, incruenta sacrificia”, “unbloody sacriCyril. contr.

fices.” Again he saith: Nos, relicto crasso ministerio Judæorum, præceptum habemus, ut tenue et spirituale et subtile sacrificium faciamus. Itaque offerimus Deo in odorem suavitatis virtutes omne genus, fidem, spem, caritatem 10: “We, having left the gross ministry of the Jews, have a commandment to make a fine, thin, and spiritual sacrifice. And therefore we offer unto God all manner virtues, faith, hope, charity, as most sweet savours.”

For this cause the sacrifices of our prayers and other like devotions are called unbloody, for that they require no fleshly service or shedding of blood, as did the sacrifices of the Jews and heathens, but are mere ghostly and spiritual, and stand wholly in the lifting up and elevation of the mind.

In like manner the ministration of the holy communion is sometimes of the ancient fathers called an “unbloody sacrifice;" not in respect of any corporal or fleshly presence that is imagined to be there without blood-shedding, but for that

Euseb. de

μους θυ- .

σίας. . Hieron. in Epist. ad Gal.

cap. iv.

Cyril. ad

Júl. Lib. X.

[ Sometimes, 1565.]

[? 'Epe xoeus ó 'ATTIKOS, kai Mápios ó 'Pw. μαιος, τας αυτων εθυσάτην θυγατέρας' ών ο μεν τη Φερεφάττη ... ο δε τοίς αποτροπαίοις, ο Μάριος. -Clement. Alex. Op. Oxon. 1715. Cohort. ad Gent. Tom. I. p. 37.)

[3 Euseb. Demonst. Evang. Par. 1628. Lib. I. cap. vi. p. 19.]

(* Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Adv. Jud. Orat. v. Tom. I. p. 648.)

[ Id. ibid. pp. 648, 9.]

[ Euseb. Demonstr. Evang. Lib. 1. cap. x. p. 39 ; where τας αναίμους και λογικας... θυσίας.]

[? Id. ibid.]

[ Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. ad Gal. cap. iv. Tom. V. col. 1043.]

τας νοητας δηλονότι και αναιμάκτους θυσίας, ύμνους και δοξολογίας.-Cyril. Αlex. Op. Lut. 1638. Ad Regin, de Rect. Fid. Lib. 11. 38. Tom. V. l'ars 11. p. 160.)

[1° Id. Contr. Julian. Lib. x. Tom. VI. p. 345. ]

ριον αναί

In eod. μνήμην...

ρειν. Hieron. ad

Just. Mart. in
Dial, cum

it representeth and reporteth unto our minds that one and everlasting sacrifice

Unthat Christ made in his body upon the cross. Therefore Eusebius saith: Exci

bloody tamus illi altare incruentorum et rationabilium sacrificiorum, secundum nora mys- Sacrifice. teriall; “ We erect unto God an altar of unbloody and reasonable or spiritual sacrifices, according to the new mysteries.” Again : Sacrificium incendimus illi, Ferebaster

. memoriam magni illius sacrificü 12: “We burn a sacrifice unto God, that is, the Lib. i.

θυσιαστήremembrance of that great sacrifice." Likewise again : Christus obtulit mirabile sacrificium pro salute omnium nostrum, jubens nos offerre memoriam pro sacrificio 13 : uw kai “ Christ offered up that marvellous sacrifice for our salvation, commanding us to Avoiwv offer a remembrance thereof instead of a sacrifice.” So likewise saith St Hierome, kata ta although not altogether in like respect: Pane et rino, puro et simplici sacrificio otupia. Christi dedicarit sacramentumlt: “He dedicated the sacrament of Christ in bread In eod. libro. and wine, which is (not a bloody or loathsome, but) a pure and a simple sacrifice.”

ημίν παThis remembrance and oblation of praises and rendering of thanks unto God paĝous avfor our redemption in the blood of Christ is called of the old fathers “an poopeunbloody sacrifice," and of St Augustine “the sacrifice of the new testament 15."

Justinus Martyr saith : Esaias non pollicetur cruentarum victimarum instaura- Evang: tionem, sed veras et spirituales oblationes laudis et gratiarum actionis 16 : “ Esaias Grat

. Nov. promiseth not the restoring of bloody sacrifices, but the true and spiritual obla- Honorat. tions of praises and thanksgiving." St Chrysostom saith: Non jam sanguinem aut adipem offerimus, &c.17: “We Tryphon

Chrysost. in offer not now the fat or blood of beasts. All these things are abolished. And in- Epist. ad stead thereof there is brought in a reasonable or spiritual duty. But what is this 11. duty that we call reasonable or spiritual? That it is that is offered by the soul and spirit.”

This kind of sacrifice, because it is mere spiritual, and groweth only from the mind, therefore it needeth not any material altar of stone or timber to be made upon, as doth that sacrifice that M. Harding imagineth in his mass. Chrysostom saith : Munus evangelii sine sanguine, sine fumo, sine altari, ceterisque Chrysost

. in sursum ascendit 18 : “ The sacrifice of the gospel ascendeth up without blood, without smoke, without altar, and other the like.” In the second council of Nice it is written thus : Nos Christiani propemodum quid sit ara, et quid sit victima, nescimus 13 : “What sacrifice or altar meaneth, we, being christian people, in a manner cannot tell.”

St Hierome saith : Unusquisque sanctus altare Domini in se habet, quod est Hieron. in. fides 20: “Every holy man hath in himself the altar of God, which is faith.” To be short, St Augustine saith : Sacrificium novi testamenti est, quando altaria August.de cordis... nostri munda et pura in conspectu divinæ Majestatis offerimusal : “ The 125. sacrifice of the new testament is when we offer up the altars of our hearts pure and clean in the sight of the divine Majesty.” In these respects our prayers, our praises, our thanksgiving unto God for our salvation in the death of Christ, is called an unbloody sacrifice. Hereof the slenderness of M. Harding's guesses may soon appear.

For thus he would seem to reason: The ministration of the holy communion, and our humble remembrance of the death of Christ, is called

Heb. Hoin.

Psal. xcv.


[" Euseb. Demonstr. Evang. Lib. 1. cap. vi. p. 20.]
["? Id. ibid. Lib. 1. cap. x. p. 40.]
[13 Id. ibid. p. 38.]

{"* Hieron. Op. Ad Evang. Epist. Tom. II. col. 571; where simplici puroque sacrificio, and dedicaderit.]

[ ... ut ostenderet sacrificium novi testamenti ... Immola, inquit, Deo sacrificium laudis. — August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De Grat. Nov. Test. Lib. ad Honorat. seu Epist. cxl. cap. xviii. 46. Tom. II. col. 439.)

("S Just. Mart. Op. Par. 1742. Dial. cum Tryph. p. 211.)

[? ουκέτι αίμα και κνίσσαν. πάντα ταύτα λέλνται, και αντεισενήνεκται αντί τούτων η λογική λατρεία. τί δέ έστιν η λογική λατρεία και τα δια

ψυχής, τα διά πνεύματος.-Chrysost. Op. In Εpist.
ad Hebr. cap. vi. Hom. xi. Tom. XII. p. 115.)

(18 Id. Hom. in Psalm. xcv. Tom. V. p. 630.7

["9 Leont. Episc. Neap, ex Quint. Serm. pro Christ. Apol. in Concil. Nic. II. Act. iv. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. VII. col. 243.)

[20 Hieron. Op. Breviar. in Psalt. Psal. xxv. Tom. II. Append. col. 183.)

[* The following is probably the passage meant: ... duplex a nobis sacrificium quærit Deus ... Tunc enim ordinem legitimum consecrationis altaris cum gaudio celebramus, quando altaria &c. - August. Op. Serm. ccxxx. 4. Tom. V. Append. col. 378. It is very doubtful whether this is really a sermon of Augustine's.)

Cap. ix.

an unbloody sacrifice; ergo, the priest hath power to offer up the Son of God in Melchise

sacrifice unto his Father. dech.

M. HARDING. THE FIFTEENTH DIVISION. St Augustine hath many evident sayings touching this matter in his works. One shall suffice for all, which is in a little treatise he made contra Judæos, uttered in these words : Aperite oculos tandem aliquando, et videte ab oriente sole usque ad occidentem, non in uno [loco], ut vobis fuit constitutum, sed in omni loco offerri sacrificium christianorum, non cuilibet deo, sed ei qui ista prædixit, Deo Israel!: “ Open your eyes at last, you Jews, and see that from the rising of the sun to the setting, not in one place, as it was appointed to you, but in every place the sacrifice of the christian people is offered, not to erery god, but to him that prophesied of these things before, the God of Israel.And even so with that protestation which St Augustine made to the Jews I end this tedious matter, consisting in manner altogether in allegations, to M. Jewel. Open you your eyes?

at last, M. Jewel, and see how (230) all the holy and learned fathers that hare thirtieth un. preached the faith of Christ from the rising of the sun to the setting, have taught this hot one of all doctrine, by word and writing left to the posterity, that they, which under Christ do

use the office of a priest after the order of Melchisedech, have not only authority, but ever said that also express commandment to offer up Christ unto his Father. hath either The proof of which doctrine, although it depend of the weight of one place, yet I

have thought good to fortify it with some number3, that it may the better appear to up the Son of be a most undoubted truth, not moved greatly with the blame of tediousness, where no

thanks are sought, but only defence of the catholic religion is intended.

The two hundred and

these fathers here alleged

power or commandment to offer

God unto his


Contr. Adv.

August, in
Lib. lxxx.

St Augustine, as in these words he neither toucheth nor signifieth this new manner of offering up Christ unto his father, so in sundry other places he

openeth his own meaning plainly and fully touching the same. In his treaty August. adv. against the Jews he writeth thus: Sacerdotium Aaron jam nullum est in aliJud. cap. i.

quo templo ; at Christi sacerdotium ... æternum perseverat in cælo: “ The (bloody) priesthood of Aaron is now in no temple to be found; but the priesthood of Christ continueth still not upon any earthly altar, but) in heaven.” Again :

“The priest offereth up the sacrifice of praise, not after the order of Aaron, Los et Proph: but after the order of Melchisedech 5." Ejus sacrificii similitudinem celebrandam

in suce passionis memoriam commendavit; et illud, quod Melchisedech obtulit Deo, Quæst . 61. jam per totum orbem terrarum... videmus offerrib: “ Christ hath left unto us a

likeness or token of that sacrifice in remembrance of his passion; and the same that Melchisedech offered unto God we see is now offered throughout

the whole world.” Holocausti ejus imaginem ad memoriam passionis suæ in Quæst.

ecclesia celebrandam dedit?: “Christ hath given us to celebrate in his church

an image or token of that sacrifice, for the remembrance of his passion.” August. Hujus sacrificii caro et sanguis ante adventum Christi per victimas similitudinum Lib. xx. cap. promittebatur : in passione Christi per ipsam veritatem reddebatur: post ascen

sionem Christi per sacramentum memoria celebratur8 : “ The flesh and blood of this sacrifice before the coming of Christ was promised by sacrifices of resem

blance: the same was performed in deed in the time of Christ's passion; but De Consect. after Christ's ascension it is frequented by a sacrament of remembrance.” Sacricrificium. ficium hoc visibile invisibilis sacrificii sacramentum, id est, sacrum signum est' :

In cad.

contr. Faust.


[' Id. Tractat. adv. Jud. cap. ix. 13. Tom. VIII. col. 38; where in occidentem, and sicut vobis erat.]

(* Open, open your eyes, H. A. 1564.] [3 Some good number, H. A. 1564.]

(* August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Tractat. adv. Jud. cap. ix, 13. Tom. VIII. col. 39; where Aaron sacerdotium, and et for at.)

[ Iste immolat Deo sacrificium laudis, non secundum ordinem Aaron, sed secundum ordinem Melchisedec. — Id. Contr. Advers. Leg. et Proph. Lib. 1. cap. xx. 39. Tom. VIII. col. 570.]

[* Id. Lib. de Div. Quæst. Octog. Trib. Quæst. lxi. 2. Tom. VI. col. 34; where ut illud, and videamus.]

[? Id. ibid. col. 35.]

[8 Id. Contr. Faust. Lib. xx. cap. xxi. Tom. VIII. col. 348; where adscensum.]

[ Id. de Civ. Dei, Lib. x. cap. v. Tom. VII. col. 241; where ergo for hoc. Conf. Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 32. col. 1925; where the reading is somewhat different.)

Psal. li.

“This visible sacrifice is a sacrament, that is to say, a token or sign of the sacrifice invisible.” Quod appellamus sacrificium, signum est et repræsentatio August. de sacrificiilo: “The thing that we call a sacrifice is a sign and representation Lib. 2. cap. v. of a sacrifice.”

Thus many ways St Augustine himself teacheth us what he meant by this word “sacrifice," an oblation of praise, a similitude, a resemblance, a likeness, an image, a remembrance, a token, a sign, a representation of a sacrifice. So Nazianzene calleth it την των μεγάλων μυστηρίων αντίτυπον11, , “the figure or token Nazianz. in of the great mysteries." To conclude, St Hierome saith thus : Tunc acceptabis Aleron in sacrificium, .... vel cum te pro nobis offers Patri, vel (cum] a nobis laudes et gratiarum actiones accipis 12: “ Then shalt thou receive sacrifice, either when thou offerest thyself 13 (upon thy cross) for us unto thy Father, or when thou receivest of us praises and thanksgiving."

Neither hath God appointed any certain order of outward priesthood to make this sacrifice. Every faithful christian man hath authority to offer up and to make the same. Howbeit, this I mean not of the ministration of the holy sacraments, which only pertaineth unto the minister, but only of the oblation and making of thel4 spiritual sacrifice. Thus much I say, lest any man either of malice take occasion or of ignorance be deceived. St Cyprian saith : Omnes, Cyprian. de qui a Christi nomine dicuntur Christiani, offerunt Deo quotidianum sacrificium, Chrism. ordinati a Deo sanctimoniæ sacerdotes 15: “ All that of Christ be called Christians offer up unto God the daily sacrifice, being ordained of God priests of holiness.” Origen saith: Omnes, quicunque, &c.16: “ All that are bathed with the Orig. in holy ointment are made priests; even as Peter saith unto the whole church, 9. You are the chosen stock, and the kingly priesthood.'” St Augustine saith : 1 Pet. ii. Holocaustum dominicæ 17 passionis offert quisque pro peccatis suis 18: “Every man August, in offereth up the sacrifice of our Lord's passion for his own sins.” St Ambrose ad Rom. saith: Invicem exspectate, .... ut multorum oblatio simul celebretur 18 : “Wait ye Ambros. in one for another, that the sacrifice of many may be offered together." St Chrysostom saith : In mysteriis nihil differt sacerdos a subdito 20 : “In the holy Chrysost. in mysteries (the ministration only excepted) the priest differeth nothing from the incor

. Hom. people."

It appeareth by these ancient learned fathers, that every christian man is bound to offer up the unbloody and daily sacrifice of the new testament, and that in as full and ample sort as is the priest. And therefore M. Harding himself saith even in the very canon of his mass : Memento Domine famulorum famularumque tuarum, ... et omnium circumstantium, ... pro quibus tibi offerimus, tel qui tibi offerunt hoc sacrificium laudis21 : “Remember, O Lord, thy servants and all them that stand about, for whom we offer unto theę, or else which do offer unto thee this sacrifice of praises.”

Out of St Augustine's words M. Harding in the end concludeth thus : Christ is a priest after the order of Melchisedech ; ergo, the priest hath authority to offer up the Son of God in sacrifice unto his father. It were hard to

Levit. Hom.

1 Cor. cap. xi.

(19... quoniam illud quod ab omnibus appellatur sacrificium, signum est veri sacrificii.-Id. ibid. col.

Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. ix. 9. Tom. II.
p. 243.)


[" Gregor. Nazianz. Op. Par. 1778-1840. Orat. ii. 95. Tom. I. p. 56.)

{"? Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Brev. in Psalt. Peal. l. Tom. II. Append. col. 254 ; where quum vel te, and accipis actiones.]

[^* Theeself, 1565.)
[ This, 1565, 1609.]

[15 ita et participes ejus quotquot sunt.. dieantur a Christo Christiani ... et offerant Deo &c.Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Unct. Chrism. (Arnold.) P. 48.]

(19 Omnes enim quicumque unguento sacri chrismatis delibuti sunt, sacerdotes effecti sunt, sicut et Petrus ad omnem dicit ecclesiam: Vos autem genus electum, et regale sacerdotium, gens sancta.–Orig.

[17 Dominici, 1611.)

[18 ... holocausto Dominicæ passionis, quod eo tempore offert quisque pro peccatis suis, quo ejusdem passionis fide dedicatur, &c. — August. Op. Epist. ad Rom. Expos. Inch. 19. Tom. III. Pars 11. col. 937.)

[19 Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Comm. in Epist. ad Cor. 1. cap. xi. v. 33. Tom. II. Append. col. 150.)

[20 "Έστι δε όπου ουδε διέστηκεν ο ιερεύς του αρχομένου: οίον, όταν απολαύειν δέη των φρικτων pivot npiwv.-Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. II. ad Cor. Hom. xviji. Tom. X. p. 568.)

(21 Missal. ad Us. ac Consuet. Sar. Par. 1527. fol. 156. 2.)

Psal. cx.


1 John ii.

1 Pet. ii.

2 Cor. v.

John i.

1 Pet. iii.

Heb. iv.

tell us how this antecedent and this consequent came together. No man hath authority thus to mince his logic but M. Harding.

Christ only is that priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech: he hath made an endless sacrifice: he himself hath offered up himself unto

God his Father upon the cross. Therefore God the Father saith unto him : Heb. vii.& ix. “ Thou art that priest for ever ;" not any mortal creature or worldlywight,

but thou (only), being both God and man, art that priest for ever. St Paul saith: “We are made perfit and sanctified by that one sacrifice once made upon the cross." St John the evangelist saith : “He is the propitiation and sacrifice for our sins.” St Peter saith: “He carried our sins in his body upon the tree.” St Paul saith: “God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself.” Therefore St John the Baptist saith: “ Behold that Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world.”

If M. Harding and his fellows doubt hereof, as they seem to do, let Christ himself bear witness to the price of his own blood. Hanging upon the cross and yielding up the spirit, he sealed up all with these words : Consummatum est : that is to say: “ This is the sacrifice for sin: hereby my Father's wrath is pacified: hereby all things are made perfit.”

The sacrifice is but one: we may look for none other. It is full and perfit: we may look for no better.

St Peter saith : “ Christ offereth us 3 unto God his Father." St Paul saith: “ Through Christ we have access to the throne of glory.” What then meaneth M. Harding thus to tell us, and to bear the world in hand, that contrariwise he hath authority to offer up Christ, and to present him before the throne of glory? Or how dareth he to desire God to receive his only-begotten Son into favour, and favourably and fatherly to look upon him at his request? For thus he biddeth his prayer even in his canon, even in the secretest and devoutest part of his mass : Super quæ propitio ac sereno vultu, 8c.4: Upon these things (that is to say, saith Gabriel Biel, upon the body and blood of Christ thy Son), O Lord, look down with a merciful and a cheerful countenance, and receive the same (the body and blood of thy Son) as thou didst in old times receive the sacrifice of Abel and of Abraham” (which was a wether, or a calf, or some other like thing). Thus he not only taketh upon him to pray for Christ, but also compareth the sacrifice of the Son of God with the sacrifice of brute cattle. If he deny any part hereof, his own canon, his own mass-book will reprove him. If this be not blasphemy, what thing can be called blasphemy?

But God will answer such a blasphemous and rash sacrificer: I know my Son; in him my heart is pleased. But what art thou ? Who bade thee thus to pray? Who required such sacrifice at thy hand ?

0, M. Harding, God open the eyes of your heart, that you may see the miserable nakedness of your side! Deceive not yourself. Mock not the world. Consider better of your authorities. Of all the holy learned fathers, of whom ye tell us ye have such store, ye are not yet able to shew us one, either Greek or Latin, or heretic or catholic, from the rising of the sun to the sun going down, that ever said as you say: “A mortal man hath authority and power to offer up in sacrifice the Son of God.”

Talk of your store when ye have tried it better, Thraso6 will talk of that he hath not. And somewhat it may serve to fray the simple; but the wise will think it folly.

[' Worty, 1611.)
[? This, 1565, 1609.)
[3 Offereth up us, 1565.]

[ ^ Missal. ad Us. ac Consuet. Sar. Par. 1527.
Can. Miss. fol. 159. See below, page 773, note 12.]

[5 [supra quæ] scilicet dona et data tibi in hoc sacrificio oblata, corpus scilicet et sanguinem Christi Filii tui, &c.-Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Espos. Basil, 1515. Lect. lv. fol. 142. 2.)

[ A character in the Eunuch of Terence.]

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