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in S. Germ.



Inter Ep.

Epist. 31.

et omnibus sufficientem: quod adhuc Græci servare dicuntur: "In the primitive church they offered one great cake that was sufficient for all the people; which Lit. Chry- thing, they say, the Greeks do continue still." In Chrysostom's liturgy or communion we see both the form of the bread, and also the order of cutting or dividing it with a knife2. Gentianus Hervetus, in the description thereof, saith: Gent. Hervet. Est... panis... crassus, et fermentatus, [et] figura propemodum sphærica3: "It is Rer. Eccles. a thick cake, and leavened, and of form in manner round." It appeareth by Gregor. Dial. St Gregory, that it was a great cake, such as men used commonly at their August. ad tables1; which thing appeareth also by that the heretics called artotyritæ added Quod vultcheese unto it, and so ministered the communion in bread and cheese5. And Paulinus, sending such a cake unto St Augustine, sent also this greeting withal : Panem unum, quem unanimitatis indicio misimus caritati tuæ, rogamus [ut] accipiendo benedicas: "This one loaf or cake, which I have sent unto you in token of unity, I beseech you, receiving the same, to bless it." And perhaps Ignatius in respect hereof said: Unus est panis pro omnibus fractus: "There is one loaf or cake broken for all." And St Basil: Idem est virtute, sive unam partem quis accipiat a sacerdote, sive plures partes simul: "It is all one in effect, whether a man take one only part of the priest, or many parts together." It is likely he useth these words "part" and "parts" in respect of one whole. DuDurand. Lib. randus saith that in his time "the priest in some churches, dividing the sacrament into three portions, received one himself, and ministered the other two to the deacon and subdeacon9." The like is recorded by Alexander de Hales, and sundry others. All this M. Harding dissembleth and passeth by, and seeth nothing but a mystical ceremony.

Ignat. ad
Basil. ad


iv. cap. xv.

Alex. de
Hales. in 4.
Quæst. 37.


Alex. Stro

Now, this cake being so large, so thick, and so massy, and able to suffice so many, we may not well think that the priest could conveniently divide it into three parts, and receive all alone. But rather, as I have already said, the breaking thereof is an invincible proof of the holy communion, and a manifest condemnation of M. Harding's private mass. For it was not divided into parts, to the end to signify these mystical fantasies, that M. Harding and others have imagined, but to be distributed and delivered to the people. Clemens Alexandrinus saith: Etiam eucharistiam, cum quidam, ut mos est, diviserint, permittunt mat. Lib. i. unicuique ex populo partem ejus sumere 1o: "After that certain (that is, the priests) have divided the sacrament, they suffer every of the people to take a portion of it." So St Augustine saith: Ad distribuendum comminuitur11: “It is broken that it may be distributed." And again: "Confringunt oblationes in eucharistiam12 : "They divide the oblations into the sacrament" (that the people may communicate). So Dionysius: Velatum...panem in multa concidens, et unitatem calicis omnibus impertiens 13: "Dividing the bread, that stood covered, into many parts, and delivering the unity of the cup unto all the people." In St Basil's communion, taken out of the Syrian tongue, it is written thus: Sacerdos frangit, et signat: diaconus proclamat, Communionem 14: "The priest breaketh and signeth

August. ad
Paul. Epist.


August. ad
deum. De


Eccles. Hierarch. cap. iii.

Lit. Basil.

['Id. ibid. cap. liii. 3. fol. 199. 2; where enim for unum.]

[2 Chrysost. Lit. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. Par. 1560, pp. 72, 3.]

[3 Gent. Hervet. ad Lect. ad calc. Lit. Sanct.
Patr. fol. 35. 2; where utpote fermentatus.]

[ Tunc duas secum oblationum coronas detulit.-
Gregor. Magni Papæ I. Op. Par. 1705. Dial. Lib.
IV. cap. lv. Tom. II. col. 464; where see note. Conf.
Bingham, Orig. Eccles. Book xv. chap. ii. 5, 6.]

[5 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Ad Quodvultd.
Lib. de Hær. 28. Tom. VIII. col. 10.

Epiph. Op. Par. 1622. Adv. Hær. Lib. 11. Hær. xlix. 2. Tom. I. p. 418.]

[ Paulin. Epist. xxv. 5. in August. Op. Tom. II. col. 38.]

[7 Ignat. Interp. Epist. ad Philad. cap. iv. in Cotel. Patr. Apostol. Amst. 1724. Tom. II. p. 77.]

[ Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. Ad Cæsar. Patric. Epist. xciii. Tom. III. p. 187.]

[ Sane sacerdos ipse omnes partes hostiæ comedit. In quibusdam tamen ecclesiis ipse unam partem sumit: et reliquam eucharistiæ medietatem super patenam in duas partes dividit, quas ministris, scilicet diacono et subdiacono, comedendas impendit. -Durand. Rat. Div. Offic. Lugd. 1565. Lib. IV. cap. liv. 3. foll. 200, 1.]

[10 Clement. Alex. Op. Oxon. 1715. Stromat. Lib. 1. Tom. I. p. 318. See before, page 153, note 14.]

[11 August. Op. Ad Paulin. Epist. cxlix. 16. Tom. II. col. 509.]

[12 Id. ad Quodvultd. Lib. de Hær. 17. Tom. VIII. col. 8. in Not. The Benedictine editors exclude this from the text, as not supported by manuscript authority.]

[13 Dionys. Areop. Op. Antv. 1634. De Eccles. Hierarch. cap. iii. 3. Tom. I. p. 299.]

[14 Basil. Lit. ex Syr. Vers. in Cassandr. Op. Par. 1616. Liturg. cap. ix. p. 26.]

1 Cor. x.

(the sacrament): the deacon crieth aloud, The communion." And what needeth the witness of so many? St Paul saith: Panis, quem frangimus, nonne commu- 1 Cor. x. nicatio corporis Christi est? "The bread that we break, is it not the communication of the body of Christ?" Which words Anselmus expoundeth thus: Panis, quem nos sacerdotes...frangimus, et quem unum in multas partes dividi- Anselm. in mus, ad designandam caritatem accipientium 15: The bread that we, being priests, do break, and which bread, being one cake, we divide into many portions, to express the love (or unity) of the receivers." Likewise Lorichius: Panis, quem Lorich. de frangimus, participatio Domini est; hoc est, fractio significat, nos esse unum corpus 16: Prorogand. "The bread that we break is the participation of the Lord; that is to say, the breaking 17 signifieth that all we are one body." It appeareth hereby that the sacrament was thus divided into parts, not to the intent we should thereby learn new mysteries, but that the people might receive it.

Lib. iii.

To be short, this ceremony of three portions so broken and so received cannot be found neither in the scriptures, nor in any of the old fathers or councils : it beareth witness both against transubstantiation and also against private mass: the best learned of that side cannot yet agree, neither whence it sprang first, nor what it meaneth: the people neither seeth it nor knoweth it: they themselves that so highly would seem to favour it, contrary both to Sergius' decree, and also to his mystical exposition, in their masses daily and openly are bold to break it. Now hast thou, good christian reader, hereof indifferently to judge, whether M. Harding or his countrymen be deceived. Verily St Augustine saith: "If the causes August. ad that first moved and led men to devise such ceremonies can hardly or not at all Epist. 119. be known, whensoever opportunity is offered, let them be cut off and abolished without staggering 18.

[15 Anselm. Op. Col. Agrip. 1612. In 1. Epist. ad Cor. cap. x. Tom. II. p. 140; where unionem caritatis.]

[16 Ger. Lorich. De Miss. Pub. Prorogand. 1536. Lib. 111. pp. 282, 3.]

[ Bread, 1565.]

[18 Omnia itaque talia...ut vix aut omnino numquam inveniri possint caussæ, quas in eis instituendis homines secuti sunt, ubi facultas tribuitur, sine ulla dubitatione resecanda existimo.-August. Op. Ad Inq. Januar. Lib. II. seu Epist. lv. 35. Tom. II. col. 142.]





For M.Harding's own fellows have



OR that whosoever had said the sacrament is a figure, a pledge, a token, or a remembrance of Christ's body, had therefore been judged for an heretic.


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In this article we do agree with M. Jewel in some respect. For we confess it cannot be arouched by scripture, ancient council, doctor, or example of the primitive church, that whosoever had said the sacrament is a figure, a pledge, a token, The hundred or a remembrance of Christ's body, had therefore been judged for an heretic. (185) fifth untruth. No man of any learning ever wrote so unlearnedly. Much less, to impute heresy to any man for saying thus hath been any of the highest mysteries or greatest keys of both taught our religion; with which untruth M. Jewel goeth about to deface the truth. Wherefore so and wit- this article seemeth to have been put in either of malice toward the church, or of therefore un- ignorance, or only to fill up the heap for lack of better stuff. Perusing the works of the ancient and learned fathers, we find that oftentimes they call the sacrament 2 a figure, a sign, a token, a mystery, a sampler. The words of them used to this purpose in their learned tongues are these: figura, signum, symbolum, mysterium, exemplar, avríTUTоv, imago, &c. By which they mean not to diminish the truth of Christ's body in the sacrament, but to signify the secret manner of this3 being in the same.

ten so; and


de Euch.



It appeareth that these men's doctrine is much mutable, and subject to change. For, notwithstanding they be now grown into some better liking of these terms, figure, sign, signification, token, &c.; yet not long sithence they seemed to be otherwise resolved, and thought themselves able to allege Theophylactus, Damascenus, Euthymius, and other great matter, to disprove the same. Cuth. Tonst. D. Tonstal, the more to make the matter odious, saith thus: "If the sacrament be a figure of Christ's body, then was a figure crucified for us, and not Christ." And whatsoever they were that used this word figura in this matter Marcus Con- of the sacrament, D. Stephen Gardiner scornfully calleth them figuratores, 'figurers." And M. John White, late schoolmaster, and after bishop of Winton, writeth thus in great scorn against that most reverend learned father, D. Peter Martyr, touching the same:

Lib. i.



Audio mille locis 'corpus;' non audio, Petre,

Signa, troposque, tuo nec symbola nata cerebro":

"I hear 'body, body,' in a thousand places; but of signs, figures, tokens, that came only out of thy head, I hear nothing." Which words notwithstanding, in all the ancient learned fathers, by M. Harding's own confession, if he had had ears to hear, he might have heard. Therefore it was neither malice, nor ignorance, nor increase of heap, nor want of other stuff, but the fondness and folly of M. Harding's side, that added this article to the rest.

[ 1565 omits for.] [2 Sacraments, 1565.]

[3 His, 1565, and H. A. 1564.]

[ Tonst. De Verit. Corp. et Sang. Dom. in Euch.

Lut. 1554. Lib. 1. foll. 12, 15, 29. 2.]

[5 Confut. Cavill. in Ven. Euch. Sacr. Verit. Par. 1552. Ad Object. 13. fol. 18. 2.]

[ Whit. Diacosio-Mart. Lond. 1553. Gregor. Secund. fol. 42. 2.]


But, forasmuch as many, either of simplicity or of the great reverence they bear towards that holy mystery, have persuaded themselves that Christ's words touching the institution thereof must of necessity be taken plainly and as they sound, that is to say, without figure; and forasmuch also as St Augustine saith, "It is a dangerous matter, and a servitude of the soul, to take the sign instead August. de of the thing that is signified";" therefore, to avoid confusion, lest the simple be Lib. ii. cap. deceived, taking one thing for another, I think it necessary in few words and plainly to touch what the ancient learned fathers have written in this behalf.

Doctr. Christ.


Dist. ii.

Lib. x. cap. v.


Epist. v.


cap. i.


And to pass by that Christ himself saith, "Do this in my remembrance;" and that St Paul saith, "Ye shall declare the Lord's death until he come;" and 1 Cor. xi. likewise to pass by a great many other circumstances, whereby the truth hereof may soon appear; the nature and meaning of a sacrament of the old fathers is thus defined: Sacramentum...est sacrum signums: "A sacrament is a holy token." De Consecr. Which definition is common, and agreeth indifferently to all sacraments. There- Sacrificium. fore St Augustine saith: [Signa] cum ad res divinas pertinent, sacramenta Civ. Dei. appellantur: "Signs, when they be applied unto godly things, are called sacra- August. ad ments." And the cause why sacraments are ordained is this, that by mean of such visible and outward things we may be led to the consideration of heavenly things. Therefore Dionysius saith: Non est possibile animo nostro ad immate- Dionys. rialem illam ascendere cœlestium hierarchiarum... contemplationem, nisi ea, quæ Hierarch. secundum ipsum est, materiali manuductione utatur 10: "It is not possible for our mind to lift up itself to the spiritual contemplation of heavenly things, unless it have the corporal leading of such natural things, as be about it." Likewise again: Nos imaginibus sensibilibus, quantum fieri potest, ad cœlestes contemplationes Dionys. adducimur 11: "By sensible images we are led as much as may be to heavenly Hierarch. contemplations." And, touching this holy mystery of Christ's body and blood, can αἰσθηταῖς the cause of the institution thereof was, as Chrysostom saith, to keep us still in elkórt. remembrance of Christ's great benefit, and of our salvation 12. Which thing fo St Hierome openeth in this sort: Ultimam nobis memoriam reliquit. Ut si quis hoc facite in peregre proficiscens aliquod pignus apud eum, quem diligit, relinquat; ut, quoties beneficii mei, illud viderit, possit ejus beneficia et amicitiam memorare 13: quod ille, si perfecte tra. dilexit, non potest videre sine ingenti dolore, et sine fletu 14: "He left unto us his last cor. cap. xi. remembrance. As if a man, going a far journey, leave a token with his friend, to the end that he, seeing the same, may remember his benefits and his friendship; which token that friend, if he love unfeignedly, cannot see without great motion of his mind, and without tears." So saith St Basil: Quid utilitatis habent hæc Basil. de rerba? Nempe, ut edentes, et bibentes, perpetuo memores simus ejus, qui pro nobis mortuus est, ac resurrexit15: "What profit have these words? Verily, that we, eating and drinking, may evermore be mindful of him that died for us and rose again." So St Ambrose: Quia... morte Domini liberati sumus, hujus rei memores, Ambros. in in edendo et potando, carnem et sanguinem, quæ pro nobis oblata sunt, significamus 16: "Because we are made free by the death of our Lord, being mindful thereof, in eating and drinking, we signify the flesh and blood that Christ offered for us." Origen, expounding these words of Christ, "Unless ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, &c." saith thus: Agnoscite, figuras esse, quæ in divinis voluminibus Orig, in

[August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De Doctr. Christ. Lib. III. cap. v. 9. Tom. III. Pars I. col. 47. See before, page 448.]

[* Id. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, Dist. ii. can. 32. col. 1925. Op. De Civ. Dei. Lib. x. cap. v. Tom. VII. col. 241.]

[ Id. ad Marcell. Epist. cxxxviii. 7. Tom. II. col. 412.]

[10 Dionys. Areop. Op. Antv. 1634. De Cœlest. Hierarch, cap. i. Tom. I. p. 3.]

[" Id. de Eccles. Hierarch. cap. i. Tom. I. p. 232.]

[12 Ait enim, Quotiescunque hoc feceritis...facietis commemorationem salutis vestræ, beneficii mei.Chrysost. Op. Lat. Basil. 1547. Ad Pop. Ant. Hom.

lxi. Tom. V. col. 402. See before, page 448, note 4.]
[13 Memorari, 1565.]

[14......ultimam nobis......memoriam dereliquit.
Quemadmodum si quis peregre proficiscens aliquod
pignus ei quem diligit, derelinquat: ut quotiescum-
que illud viderit, possit ejus beneficia et amicitias
memorari, quod ille, si perfecte dilexit, sine ingenti
desiderio non potest videre vel fletu.-Hieron. Op.
Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. 1. ad Cor. cap. xi.
Tom. V. col. 998.]

[15 Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. De Baptism. Lib. 1. cap. iii. 2. Tom. II. Append. p. 650. The Benedictine editor does not consider this work genuine.]

[16 Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Comm. in Epist. ad Cor. 1. cap. xi. v. 26. Tom. II. Append. col. 149. See before, page 570, note 3.]

Ad Pop. Ant.


salutis ves

Hieron. in


1 Cor. cap. xi.

Levit. Hom.


Tertul!. contr. Marcion.

Lib. iv.

scriptæ sunt; et ideo tanquam spirituales, et non tanquam carnales examinate, et intelligite ea, quæ dicuntur. Nam, si quasi carnales ista suscipiatis1, lædunt vos, non alunt2: "Know ye, that these be figures written in the holy scriptures; and therefore examine and understand ye the things that be spoken, as men spiritual, and not as carnal. For if ye take these things as carnal men, they hurt you and feed you not." Tertullian expoundeth Christ's words in this wise: Hoc est corpus meum, hoc est, figura corporis mei3: "This is my body; that is to say, this is a figure of my body." St Ambrose, speaking of the sacrament of Christ's body, Ambros. de useth oftentimes these terms, a figure, a similitude, a sign, a token of Christ's body. St Augustine, beside infinite other places, saith: [Christus] adhibuit [Judam] ad convivium, in quo corporis...sui figuram discipulis [suis] commendavit: "Christ took Judas unto his table, whereat he gave unto his disciples the figure of his body." And writing against the heretic Adimantus, he saith: Non... dubitavit Dominus dicere, Hoc est corpus meum, cum daret signum corporis sui: "Our Lord doubted not to say, 'This is my body,' when he gave a token of Chrysost. in his body." So Chrysostom: Si mortuus Christus non est, cujus symbolum ac signum hoc sacramentum est"? "If Christ died not, whose sign and whose token Hieron, adv. is this sacrament?" So St Hierome: In typo sanguinis sui non obtulit aquam, sed vinum: "In token of his blood he offered not water, but wine.”

Sacram. Lib. iv. cap. v. August. in Psal. iii.


contr. Adimant. cap. xii.

Matt. Hom.


Jovin. Lib. ii.

I leave other like authorities well near infinite. These few may suffice for a taste. This was the old fathers' manner of writing; neither was there any man then that ever controlled them therefore, or called them figurers.


can. Hoc est

For the better understanding of such places, where these terms are used in the matter of the sacrament, the doctrine of St Augustine, In Sententiis Prosperi, may serve very well; which is thus: Hoc est quod dicimus, quod omnibus De Con. Dist. 2. modis approbare contendimus, sacrificium... ecclesiæ duobus confici, quod dicimus. duobus constare, visibili elementorum specie, et invisibili Domini nostri Jesu Christi carne et sanguine; sacramento, [(id est, externo sacro signo)] et re sacramenti, id est, corpore Christi, &c.9: "This is that we say," saith he, "which by all means we go about to prove, that the sacrifice of the church is made of two things, and consisteth of two things; of the visible shape of the elements (which are bread and wine), and the invisible flesh and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ; of the sacrament (that is, the outward sign), and the thing of the sacrament, to wit, of the body of Christ," &c. By this we understand that this word "sacrament" is of the fathers two ways taken. First, for the whole substance of the sacrament, as it consisteth of the outward forms, and also withal of the very body of Christ The hundred verily present; as St Augustine saith the sacrifice of the church to consist (186) sixth un- of these two. Secondly, it is taken so as it is distinct from that hidden and For St Augus- divine thing of the sacrament, that is to say, for the outward forms only, which are the holy signs 10 of Christ's very body present under them contained. Whereof we must gather that, whensoever the fathers do call this most excel- [How the fathers The hundred lent sacrament a figure or a sign, (187) they would be understanded are to be underseventh un- to mean none otherwise than of those outward forms, and not of the sacrament a For none of Christ's body itself, which is there present, not typically or figura-c. H. À. 1564.]

and eighty


tine never said so.

and eighty


the learned


ever called

the outward

form a sacrament. Christ's body itself is a figure.

[ Suscipitis, 1565.]

[2 Agnoscite quia figuræ sunt, quæ in divinis voluminibus scripta sunt, et ideo tanquam spiritales et non tanquam carnales examinate, et intelligite quæ dicuntur. Si enim quasi carnales ista suscipitis, lædunt vos, et non alunt.-Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. vii. 5. Tom. II. p. 225.]

[3 Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. Adv. Marcion. Lib. Iv. 40. p. 571. See before, page 447.]

[ Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. De Sacram. Lib.

IV. cap. v. 21. Tom. II. col. 371.]

[ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Psalm. iii. Enarr. 1. Tom. IV. col. 7.]

standed, calling

sign, token,

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