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M. HARDING. THE SIXTH DIVISION.
No man can speak more plainly hereof than Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus, an old author who wrote in Greek, and is extant, but as yet remaining in written hand, and common11 to the sight of few learned men: his words be not much unlike the words of the school doctors. Præbetur corpus év Túп... aprov, in specie, sive figura panis. Item, præbetur sanguis év rúmų ovou 15: "Christ's body," saith he, "is given us in form or figure of bread. Again, his blood is given us in form of wine.” A little after these words he saith thus: μὴ πρόσεχε οὖν, ὡς ψιλοῖς τῷ ἄρτῳ καὶ It is not bare Tę owo, &c.: Ne mentem adhibeas quasi pani et vino nudis: sunt enim hæc is bread. corpus et sanguis, ut Dominus pronunciavit. Nam tametsi illud tibi sensus suggerit, esse [scilicet panem et vinum nudum], tamen firmet te fides, et ne gustatu rem dijudices, quin potius pro certo ac comperto habe, omni dubitatione relicta, esse tibi impartitum corpus et sanguinem Christi 16: "Consider not," saith this father, "these as bare bread and wine. For these are his body and blood, as our Lord said. For, although thy sense report to thee so much, that it is bare bread and wine, yet let thy faith stay thee, and judge not thereof by thy taste, but rather be right well assured, all doubt put apart, that the body and blood of Christ is given to thee." Again he saith thus in the same place: Hæc cum scias, et pro certo et explorato habeas, (180) qui videtur esse panis, non esse, sed The hundred corpus Christi; item, quod videtur vinum, non esse, quanquam id velit sensus, sed untruth, sanguinem Christi, ac de eo prophetam dixisse, Panis cor hominis confirmat; wilful corfirma ipse cor, sumpto hoc pane, utpote spirituali 17: "Whereas thou knowest this ruption of for a very certainty, that that which seemeth to be wine is not wine, albeit the words and sense maketh that account of it, but the blood of Christ, and that the prophet thereof said, 'Bread strengtheneth the heart of man;' strengthen then 19 thyself 20 thy heart, by taking this bread as that which is spiritual." And in the 21 III. Catechesi this father saith: Panis eucharistiæ post invocationem sancti Spiritus non amplius est panis nudus et simplex, sed corpus, &c. 22: "The bread of the sacrament, after prayer made to the Holy Ghost, is not bare and simple bread, but the body of Christ."
meaning, as shall ap
Now, sith that by this doctor's plain declaration of the catholic faith in this point we ought to believe, and to be verily assured, that the bread is no more bread after consecration, but the very body of Christ, and the wine no more wine, but his precious blood, though they seem to the eye otherwise, though taste and feeling judge otherwise, and, to be short, though all senses report the contrary ; and all this upon warrant of our Lord's word, who said these to be his body and blood, and that (as he teacheth) not in the bread and wine; and further, sith we are taught by Eusebius Emissenus, in homilies 23 of Easter, to believe Newly set terrena commutari et transire 24, "the earthly things to be changed, and to pass;" justly sus [Transubstantia. again, creaturas converti in substantiam corporis Christi 25, "the tion. H. A. 1564.] creatures of bread and wine to be turned into the substance of our Lord's body and blood," which is the very transubstantiation; and sith Chrysostomb b In compa saith, panem absumi, "that the bread is consumed away" by the substance of Christ's body; and Damascene, bread and wine transmutari
H. A. 1564]
σου πρόσωπον.—Id. ibid. 9. p. 322.]
[18 See below, page 579.]
[19 Thou, H. A. 1564.]
[20 Theeself, 1565.]
[1 H. A. 1564, omits the.]
[22 Id. Catech. xxi. Myst. iii. 3. pp. 316, 7.]
[24 Nec dubitet quisquam...creaturas...in domi-
[25...tibi novum... non debeat videri, quod in Christi substantiam terrena et mortalia committantur, &c.-Id. ibid. fol. 45.]
Christ's body, sented, the
that is repre
is in the water of baptism, and in all sacraments.
d Even so Theophylact
transelementamur in Christum 4."
and Marcus Ephesius, are late writers, void of credit, yet all ene
dora Fide, cap. ziv.
these Greek wri
ters have been set Claudius de
forth of late by one
supernaturaliter1, "to be changed above the course of nature;" and Lib. iv. De OrthoTheophylact, the bread transelementari in carnem Domini2, "to be In Marc. xiv. saith: "Nos quite turned by changing of the elements," that is, the matter of3 substance it consisteth of, "into the flesh of our Lord;" and that in another place, ineffabili In Matt.xxvi. operatione transformari, etiamsi panis nobis videatur, "that the bread is transformed and changed into another substantial form (he meaneth that of our Lord's body) by unspeakable working, though it seem to be bread; finally, sith that the Greek doctors of late age affirm the same doctrine, among whom [The treatises of e These four, Samona useth for persuasion of it the similitude which Gregory Nyssene and Damascene for declaration of the same used before, which is, that in consecration such manner transubstantiation is made, 1564.1 as is the conversion of the bread in nourishing, in which it is turned into the substance of the nourished"; Methonensis, like St Ambrose, would not men in this miesta matter to look for the order of nature, seeing that Christ was born of a virgin beside all order of nature, and saith that our Lord's body in this sacrament is received under the form or shape of another thing, lest blood should cause it to be horrible; Nicolaus Cabasila saith, that this bread is no more a figure of our Lord's body, neither a gift bearing an image of the true gift, nor Cap. zxvii. bearing any description of the passions of our Saviour himself, as it were in a table, but the true gift itself, the most holy body of our Lord itself, which hath truly received reproaches, contumelies, stripes, which was crucified, which was killed; This Marcus Marcus Ephesius, though otherwise to be rejected, as he that obstinately resisted wilfully de- the determination of the council of Florence concerning the proceeding of the Holy Basil's words. Ghost out of the Son, yet a sufficient witness of the Greek church's faith in this point, affirming the things offered to be called of St Basil antitypa, that is, the Two sorts of samplers and figures of our Lord's body, because they be not yet perfitly consecrated, but as yet bearing the figure and image, referreth the change or transubfit, the other stantiation of them to the Holy Ghost, donec Spiritus sanctus adveniat, qui ea mutet 10 These gifts offered (saith he) be of St Basil called figures, "until the Holy Ghost come upon them, to change them." Whereby he sheweth the faith of the Greek church, that, through the Holy Ghost in consecration, the bread and wine are so changed, as they may no more be called figures, but the very body and blood of our Lord itself, as into the same changed by the coming of the Holy Ghost. Which change is a change in substance, and therefore it may rightly be termed transubstantiation, which is nothing else but a turning or [Transubstantiachanging of one substance into another substance.
consecration; the one per
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.
tion. H. A. 1564.]
This Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus is an old author newly set forth. I will not call his credit into question; notwithstanding many of his considerations be very
[ Damascen. Op. Par. 1712. De Fid. Orthod. Lib. IV. cap. xiii. Tom. I. p. 270.]
[ Theophyl. Op. Venet. 1754-63. In Marc.
Comm. cap. xiv. Tom. I. p. 249.]
[3 Or, H. A. 1564.]
[ See below, page 577, note 12.]
[5 H. A. 1564, omits that.]
[" Id. in Matt. Comm. cap. xxvi. Tom. I. p. 146.]
[ Quid requiris causam et ordinem naturæ panis
sanguinem intuentes.-Nic. Episc. Methon. De Corp.
et Sang. Christ. in Mag. Biblioth. Vet. Patr. Tom. XII. Pars I. p. 1192. See also ad calc. Lit. Sanct. Patr. foll. 25, 6.]
[ ...panis enim non amplius figura dominici corporis, neque donum ferens imaginem veri doni, neque ferens aliquam descriptionem ipsius Servatoris passionum tanquam in tabula: sed ipsum verum donum, ipsum sanctissimum corpus Domini, quod omnia illa vere suscepit, probra, contumelias, vibices; quod crucifixum, quod interfectum. - Nic. Cabas. Liturg. Expos. cap. xxvii. in Mag. Biblioth. Vet. Patr. Tom. XIV. p. 149.]
[10 Idcirco et Magnus Basilius...antitypa vocat proposita dona, nimirum quasi nondum perfecta per ea verba, verum adhuc typum quendam et imaginem ferentia. Itaque deinceps statim Spiritus sanctus adveniat precatur, faciatque panem quidem ipsum preciosum corpus; calicem autem, ipsum preciosum sanguinem.-Marc. Ephes. ad calc. Lit. Sanct. Patr. fol. 28.]
much like to M. Harding's judgment in this article, that is to say, like accidens sine subjecto, "a shew of words without substance." He seemeth both in words and sense fully to agree with Chrysostom, Ecumenius, and other Greek fathers, Bare oil. that never understood this M. Harding's new religion. He shutteth up the hearers' bodily eyes, wherewith they see the bread and wine; and borroweth only the inner eyes of their minds, wherewith they may see the very body and blood of Christ, which is that bread that came from heaven. And herein, notwithstanding his words be quick and violent, the more to stir and inflame the hearts of them unto whom he speaketh, yet he himself in plainest wise openeth and cleareth his own meaning. For thus he writeth: Ne consideres, tanquam panem Catech. nudum: Panis eucharistia non est amplius panis simplex et nudus11: "Consider it not as if it were bare bread: The bread of the sacrament is no longer bare and simple bread." Which words are naturally resolved thus: It is bread; howbeit not only bare bread, but bread, and some other thing else beside. So, where they of M. Harding's side are wont to say, Papa non est purus homo 12, "The pope is not a bare man ;" I trow their meaning is not that the pope is no man, but only that he is a man, and yet, besides that, hath another capacity above the condition and state of common men. Of these words of Cyrillus we may well reason thus by the way: The sacrament is not only or bare bread; therefore it is bread, albeit not only bare bread. And thus the same Cyrillus, that is brought to testify that there remaineth no bread in the sacrament, testifieth most plainly to the contrary, that there is bread remaining in the sacrament.
And, although this answer of itself might seem sufficient, yet, good christian reader, for thy better satisfaction, I pray thee further to understand that, as this Cyrillus speaketh here of the sacrament of our Lord's body and blood, even so, and in like phrase and form of words, he speaketh of the oil that they call holy, of the water of baptism, and of other ceremonies. Of the oil he writeth thus, and further by the same expoundeth his meaning touching the sacrament: Vide, Cyril. in ne illud putes esse unguentum tantum. Quemadmodum enim panis eucharistiæ, post Tert. sancti Spiritus invocationem, non amplius est panis communis, sed corpus Christi; sie et sanctum hoc unguentum non amplius est unguentum nudum, neque... commune,... sed est charisma Christi 13: "Beware thou think not this to be oil only. For as the bread of the sacrament, after the invocation of the Holy Ghost, is no longer common bread, but the body of Christ; so this holy oil is no longer bare or common oil, but it is the grace of Christ." By these words there appeareth like change in the one as in the other. As the oil is the grace of Christ, so is the bread the body of Christ; and as the nature and substance of the oil remaineth still, although it be not bare or common oil, so the nature or substance of the bread remaineth still, although it be not common or bare bread.
In like sort he writeth of the water of baptism: Non tanquam aquæ simplici Cyril. in studeas huic lavacro:... ne aquæ simplicitati mentem adhibeas11: "Behold not this bath as simple water: consider not the simplicity of the water." Of these conferences of places we may well gather thus: The water in the holy mystery of baptism, notwithstanding it be not bare and common water, yet nevertheless continueth still in the nature and substance of very water; so likewise the bread in the holy mystery of Christ's body, notwithstanding it be not bare and common bread, yet nevertheless in nature and substance is bread still.
But Cyrillus saith, it is no bread, it is no wine, notwithstanding it appear so unto the senses; Chrysostom saith, the substance of bread is consumed; Emissenus saith, it is turned into the substance of Christ's body; and Damascenus and Theophylactus, latter 15 writers of no great credit, avouch the same.
It is plain that both Cyrillus and all other old learned fathers labour evermore, with all vehemency and force of words, to sequester, and pull their hearers from the judgment of their senses, to behold that bread that giveth life unto the
["Cyril. Hierosol. Op. Par. 1720. Catech. xxii. Myst. iv. 6. p. 321; Catech. xxi. Myst. iii. 3. pp. 316,7.] [12...Romanus pontifex qui non puri hominis, sed veri Dei vicem gerit in terris.-Innoc. III. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decretal. Gregor. IX.
Lib. 1. Tit. vii. cap. 3. col. 217.]
[13 Cyril. Hierosol. Op. Catech. xxi. Myst. iii. 3.
[14 Id. Catech. iii. 3, 4. pp. 40, 1.]
Spiritual. world. And therefore he calleth it spiritual bread; and of Christ's blood he saith Nothing thus: Bibe vinum in corde tuo, spirituale scilicet vinum1: "Drink that wine (not in com- with thy bodily mouth, but) in thy2 heart; I mean that spiritual wine." Again parison. he sheweth wherefore the Jews were offended with Christ, and openeth the very The oil is cause of the grossness of their error: Judæi, non audientes verba Christi secundum Christ. Spiritum, scandalizati abierunt retro, eo quod existimarent sese ad humanarum carCatech. nium esum incitari3: "The Jews, not hearing Christ's words according to the Spirit, were offended, and went from him, for that they thought they were The transla- encouraged to eat man's flesh." Again he saith: Gustate et videte quod suavis est Dominus. Num hoc corporeo palato, ut istud dijudicetis, vobis præcipitur ? "Quod Chris- Nequaquam; sed potius certa fide1: "Taste and see that the Lord is delectable. nus" being, What, are you commanded to judge this with your bodily mouth? No, not so; as I judge, but with undoubted faith."
tus est Domi
of these two words, χρηστὸς and Xpio
In this sense the water in baptism giveth place to the blood of Christ, and of itself seemeth nothing; likewise the bread in the sacrament of Christ's body giveth place to the body of Christ, and in respect thereof is utterly nothing. Which thing concerning the water of baptism Paulinus seemeth to express thus: Fonsque novus renovans hominem; quia suscipit, et dat Munus: sive magis quod desinit esse per usum, Tradere divino mortalibus incipit usu".
Chrysost. in Likewise Chrysostom: Non erit aqua potationis, sed sanctificationis": "It shall not be water to drink (as it was before), but water of sanctification" (as before it was not). This is the very substance of the sacraments; in respect whereof the corruptible elements of bread, wine, and water, are consumed, and taken for nothing.
rarch. cap. iv.
This thing Chrysostom expresseth notably to the eye by this example: Lana, cum tinguntur, naturæ suæ nomen amittunt, et tincturæ nomen accipiunt; et non ultra vocas lanam, sed vel purpuram, vel coccinum, vel prasinum, &c.7: "Wool, when it is dyed, loseth the name of his own nature, and taketh the name of the colour; thou callest it no longer wool, but purple, or scarlet, or green, &c." Notwithstanding the very substance of wool remaineth still.
And so Pachymeres saith: "The holy oil is no longer called oil, but it is Eccles. Hie turned into Christ." His words be plain: Oleum enim est Christus: "For the μύρον γὰρ oil is Christ." Not meaning thereby that the oil is no oil, but only that in o Xplorós. respect of Christ, that thereby is signified, the oil is consumed, and appeareth nothing. So Paulus, that famous learned lawyer, saith: Res [una] per prævalentiam trahit aliam: "One thing by force of greater weight draweth another with it."
ff. De Rei Vendicatione. In rem. Paul.
Thus therefore saith Cyrillus: "The bread that we see is now not bread, but Christ's body; and the wine that we see is now not wine, but Christ's blood." As if he should say, these elements or creatures are not so much the things that they be indeed, as the things that they represent. For so St Augustine saith generally of all sacraments, as it hath been alleged once or twice before: "In Maxim. Lib. sacraments we may not consider what they be indeed, but what they signify 10" And to the same end St Ambrose saith: Magis videtur, quod non videturll: "It is better seen that is not seen." And all this is wrought, both in the mystery of baptism, and also in the mystery of Christ's body, not by the work or force of nature, but by the omnipotent power of the Spirit of God, and by the warrant of Christ's word.
Ambros. de iis qui init. Myst. cap. iii.
[ Cyril. Hierosol. Op. Par. 1720. Catech. xxi.
[ They, 1565.] [3 Id. ibid. 4. pp. 320, 1.]
[ Paulin. Op. Ant. 1622. S. Fel. Natal. Dec.
[6 Chrysost. Op. Lat. Basil. 1547. Expos. Psal. xxii. Tom. V. col. 710.]
[ Id. Op. Par. 1718-38. De Fid. et Leg. Nat. Serm. Tom. I. p. 828. This is spurious.]
[8 Τὸ δὲ μύρον ἐστὶν ὁ Χριστός.--Dionys. Αreop. Op. Antv. 1634. De Eccles. Hierarch. Pachym. Paraphr. cap. iv. 11. Tom. I. p. 353.]
[9 Paul. in Corp. Jur. Civil. Amst. 1663. Digest. Lib. VI. Tit. i. 23. Tom. I. p. 145; where alienam rem trahit.]
[10 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Contr. Maxim. Arian. Lib. II. cap. xxii. 3. Tom. VIII. col. 725. See before, page 467.]
["Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Lib. de Myst. cap. iii. 15. Tom. II. col. 328.]
Thus Emissenus, thus Damascene, thus Theophylact say the bread is changed into the substance of Christ's body; I mean, even so as the same Theophylact saith: "We ourselves are transelemented (and transubstantiate) into the body of Theophyl. in Christ." For thus he imagineth Christ to say: Miscetur mihi, et transelementatur Johan. in me 12. And in like sort Chrysostom, speaking of the corruption and renewing of the world, saith thus: Opus erat quasi reelementationem quandam fieri13: "It Chrysost. in was needful that the elements were (transubstantiate, or) made new." So St 25. Peter saith: Efficimur consortes divinæ naturæ: "We are made partakers of the 2 Pet. i. divine nature." And a heathen writer saith: Homo transit in naturam Dei 14: "A Mercurius Trismegistus man is turned into the nature of God." in Esculapio.
All these, and other like phrases of speech, must be qualified with a sober and a discreet construction; otherwise, according to the simple tenour of the words, they cannot stand. Therefore St Chrysostom, entreating of the exposition of the scriptures, saith thus: Divina opus est gratia, ne nudis verbis insistamus. Chrysost, in Nam ita hæretici in errorem incidunt, neque sententiam, neque auditoris habitum 39. inquirentes. Nisi enim tempora, locos, auditorem, et alia hujusmodi consideremus, multa sequentur absurda15: “We have need of God's heavenly grace, that we stand not upon the bare words. For so heretics fall into error, never considering neither the mind (of the speaker) nor the disposition of the hearer. Unless we weigh the times, the places, the hearers, and other like circumstances, many inconveniences must needs follow." Verily Bertramus, an ancient writer, saith: Ipse, qui nunc in ecclesia, &c.16: "He that now in the church by his omnipotent Bertram. de power spiritually turneth the bread and the wine into the flesh and blood of his Euch. body, the same invisibly made his body of the manna that came from heaven; Manna and of the water that flowed from the rock, invisibly he made his own blood." made Thus, as the fathers say manna was made Christ's body, or the water in the Christ's wilderness was made his blood; even so they say the bread and wine are like- body. wise made Christ's body and blood.
Now that it may thoroughly appear, even unto the simple, what the godly fathers meant by such extraordinary use of speech, it shall not be from the purpose to report certain words of Gregorius Nyssenus touching the same, and that in such order as they are written. Thus therefore he saith: Nam et hoc Gregor. Nyss. altare, &c.17: "This altar whereat we stand is by nature a common stone, nothing Baptism. differing from other stones whereof our walls be built and our pavements laid; but, after that it is once dedicate to the honour of God, and hath received blessing, it is a holy table and an undefiled altar, afterward not to be touched of all men, but only of the priests, and that with reverence. Likewise the bread, that first was common, after that the mystery hath hallowed it, is both called and is Christ's body; likewise also the wine Christ's blood. And whereas before they were things of small value, after the blessing that cometh from the Holy Ghost, either of them both worketh mightily. The like power also maketh the priest to be reverend and honourable, being by mean of a new benediction divided from the common sort of the people." Hereby we see, as the altar,
[1 Theophyl. Op. Venet. 1754-63. In Joan. Comm. cap. vi. Tom. I. p. 595.]
[13 ...ἐχρῆν...ὥσπερ ἀναστοιχείωσίν τινα γενέbai-Chrysost. Op. In cap. vii. Gen. Hom. xxv. Tom. IV. p. 239.]
[14 Mercur. Trismeg. Pœmand. Par. 1554. cap. x. p. 43; where is the passage that most probably is meant.]
[15 Chrysost. Op. In Joan. Hom. xl. Tom. VIII. p. 236.]
[16 Ipse namque, qui nunc in ecclesia omnipotenti virtute panem et vinum in sui corporis carnem, et proprii cruoris undam spiritualiter convertit, ipse tunc quoque manna de cœlo datum corpus suum, et aquam de petra profusam proprium sanguinem, invisibiliter operatus est.-Ratramn. Lib. de Corp. et Sang. Dom. Oxon. 1838. cap. xxv. p. 14.]
[; 'Επεὶ καὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον τοῦτο τὸ ἅγιον,
ᾧ παρεστήκαμεν, λίθος ἐστὶ κατὰ τὴν φύσιν κοι-