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ARTICLE IX. H. A. 1564.)

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If M. Jewel would in plain terms deny the reservation and keeping of the blessed sacrament, for which purpose the pix and canopy served in the churches of England, as of the professors of this new gospel it is both in word and also in deed denied; it were easy to prove the same by no small number of authorities, such as himself cannot but allow for good and sufficient. But he, knowing that right well, guilefully refraineth from mention of that principal matter, and, the better to make up his heap of articles for some shew against the sacrament, by denial Teproreth the hanging up of it under the canopy; thereby shewing himself like to Vomus, who, espying nothing reprovable in fair Venus, found fault with her slipper.


This article, as it is small of itself, and therefore might the better be dissembled and passed over, were it not accessory to idolatry, so it is warranted of M. Harding's side by very simple and slender proofs, as shall appear. It liketh M. Harding for his entry, to solace himself and his friends withal, to call us new doctors; himself being not able hitherto to allege any one of all the old doctors, without force and fraud, plainly and directly, to serve his purpose. But these new doctors are neither so new nor so much destitute of antiquity as these men would fain have the world to believe. For, touching the abolishing of the reservation of the sacrament, which M. Harding hath here drawn in to help out the matter, being otherwise not necessarily incident unto this article, they have the authorities and examples of good ancient old catholic fathers for their warrant in that behalf. For St Cyprian saith : [Panis iste] recipitur, non inclu- Cypr. de diturl : “ Thebread is received, and not shut up." Clemens, who, as M. Hard- Cæn. Dom. ing saith, was the apostles' fellow, writeth thus : Tanta in altario holocausta Clemens, offerantur, quanta populo sufficere debeant : quod si remanserint, in crastinum non

Epist. 2. resercentur3: “Let there be so many hosts, or so much bread, offered at the altar, as may be sufficient for the people. If any thing remain, let it not be kept until the morning.” Origen or Cyrillus saith (for one book beareth both their names): Dominus panem, quem discipulis (suis] dabat, ... non distulit, nec jussit servari in crastinumt: “The bread that our Lord gave to his disciples, he lingered it Chili

. not, nor bade it to be kept until the morning.” His reason is grounded upon the order of Christ's institution ; for that Christ said not, Take, and keep, but, * Take, and eat.” St Hierome saith: Post communionem, quæcunque ... de sacrificiis Hieron.


Lev. Cyril. Hom.


1 Cor. xi.

[Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Cæn. Dom. (Arnold.) p. 42.]

[? This, 1565.)

(a Clement. Epist. ii. in Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. I. col. 41.)

(JEWEL, 11.]

[* Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. v. 8.
Tom. II. p. 211. See before, page 175, note 11.
These homilies on Leviticus have been ascribed to
Cyril of Alexandria; but they appear to be really


Trin. Lib. iii. cap. x.

tisc. 11. cap.
Gab. Biel,
Lect. 26.

Reserva- superfuissent, illic in ecclesia communem conam comedentes pariter consumebant! : tion. “ After the communion was done, whatsoever portion of the sacrifices remained,

they spent it there together in the church eating their common supper.”. St August, de Augustine likewise seemeth to say the same : “ The bread made to this pur

pose is spent in receiving the sacrament 2.” Hesychius saith that the remanents Hesych. in Levit. Lib. ii. of the sacrament were burnt immediately in the fire?. Nicephorus saith, the Niceph. Lib. same remanents in some places were given to children that went to school to xvii.cap.xxv. be eaten by them presently in the church4. The like whereof is also decreed in Concil. Ma- the council of Matiscon”. So saith Gabriel Biel, a new doctor of M. Harding's

company : Non dedit discipulis, ut ipsum honorifice conservarent; sed dedit in sui usum, dicens, Accipite, et manducate 6 : “ Christ gave not (the sacrament) to his disciples, that they should reverently reserve it; but he gave it for their use, saying, "Take, and eat."

Thus many old doctors, and yet many more we have on our side. Therefore M. Harding was somewhat overseen, for following of them, to call us new doctors.

I know, the sacrament in old times in some places was reserved, as it may

appear by Tertullian, St Cyprian, St Hierome, St Basil, Eusebius, and others. Cypr. de

St Cyprian saith, women used to keep it at home in their chests? Tertullian Laps. Serm.5.

saith, the faithful used then to have it in their private houses, and to eat it before other meats. St Hierome saith that Exuperius, the bishop of Tolouse, used to carry it abroad in a basket'. St Basil saith that in Egypt, and

specially about Alexandria, every man for the most part had the sacrament in his Euseb. Lih: house 10. Eusebius seemeth to say, the priest had it in his chamberll. St Am

brose saith, men used then to carry it about them, not only by land, but also by sea, in their napkins 12. All these were abuses of the holy mysteries; and therefore afterward were abolished. Thus was then the sacrament reserved, in private houses, in chests, in baskets, and in napkins. Now, if M. Harding be able truly to shew any such-like ancient authority for his canopy, then may

say, he holdeth up 13 the old catholic fathers. But, forasmuch as M. Harding hath leisure, to call to mind his old fable of Momus, Venus, and such-like; indeed they say, Momus was wont to espy faults, and to control all the gods without exception, even the great Jupiter himself, that sat in Rome in the capitol ; and therefore his office ofttimes was not so thankful as some others.

But one great fault he found with Vulcan, for the making of man, for that he had not set a grate or a window at his breast, that others might peer in and espy some part of his secret thoughts. If M. Harding had such a grate or window at his breast, and men might look in and see his conscience, I doubt not but they should see many more sparks of God's truth than as now outwardly do appear.

Tertull. ad
Hieron. ad
Basil. ad

vị. cay. xlic. Ambr. de Obit. Satyr.


[ Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. 1. ad Cor. cap. xi. Tom. V. col. 998.]

[... panis ad hoc factus in accipiendo sacramento consumitur.—August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De Trin, Lib. III. cap. x. 19. Tom. VIII, col. 803. ]

[: Sed hoc quod reliquum est de carnibus, et panibus, in igne incendi præcepit. Quod nunc videmus etiam sensibiliter in ecclesia fieri, ignique tradi quæcunque remanere contigerit inconsumpta, &c. Isych. in Levit. Basil. 1527. Lib. 11. cap. viii. fol. 49. 2.)

[* "Έθος κεκράτηκεν εκ πολλού τη βασιλίδι των πόλεων, ως επειδαν πολύ τι των μερίδων του αχράντου και θείου σώματος του Κυρίου και θεού και Σωτήρος ημών Ιησού Χριστου εναπολειφθείη, μεταστέλλεσθαι τους ιερέας παίδας αφθόρους εκ των ές χαμαιδιδασκάλου φοιτώντων, και ταύτας νηστεις ėg0ielv, K.7.1.- Niceph. Call. Hist. Eccles. Lut. Par. 1630. Lib. xvii. cap. xxv. Tom. II.

[5 Quæcunque reliquiæ sacrificiorum post peractam missam in sacrario supersederint, quarta vel sexta feria innocentes ab illo, cujus interest, ad ecclesiam adducantur, et indicto eis jejunio, easdem reliquias conspersas vino percipiant.-Concil. Matise.

11. cap. 6. in Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. II. p. 176.]

[6 Gab. Biel, Sacr. Canon. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515. Lect. xxxvi. fol. 83. 2; where neque for non.]

[? Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Laps. pp. 132, 3. See before, page 6, note 4.]

[ Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. Ad Uxor. Lib. 11. 5. p. 190. See before, page 6, note 4.)

[° Nihil illo ditius, qui corpus Domini canistro vimineo, sanguinem portat in vitro. - Hieron. 0) Ad Rust. Monach. Epist. xcv. Tom. IV. Pars 11. col. 778.

[Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. Ad Cæsar. Epist. xciji. Tom. III. pp. 186, 7. See before, page 152.)

[" Euseb. in Hist. Eccles. Script. Amst. 16951700. Lib, vi, cap. xliv. p. 200. See before, pages 149, &c.]

(1? Qui ... in naufragio constitutus ... ne vacuus mysterii exiret e vita; quos initiatos esse cognoverat, ab his divinum illud fidelium sacramentum poposcit... Etenim ligari fecit in orario, et orarium involvit collo, &c. --- Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. De Excess. Fratr. Satyr. Lib. 1. 43. Tom. II. col. 1125.]

[ 13 By, 1565, 1609.]

p. 772.)

As for his fair lady Venus, whereby he meaneth his church of Rome, the Reservaworld seeth, and he himself knoweth, she hath been taken in open advoutry; and tion. Phæbus, the Son of God, with the heavenly beams of his holy word hath revealed it. Owould to God we had no cause justly to say with the prophet Esay: Quomodo facta est meretrix civitas fidelis ! “O how is that faithful city become Isai. i. an harlot !” Verily Momus shall not need now to reprove her slipper. He shall rather have cause to say : A planta pedis, usque ad verticem capitis, non est in ea sanitas : “ From the sole of the foot to the top of the head there is no whole Isai. i. part in her.”

For so St Bernard complaineth of her miserable state in his Bernard.de time 14.

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(Direrse manners

Whereto we say that, if he, with the rest of the sacramentaries, of keeping the Wised sacrament.

would agree to the keeping of the sacrament, then would we demand H.A. 1564.) why that manner of keeping. were not to be liked. And here, upon proofs made of default in this behalf, and a better way shewed, in so small a matter, conformity to the better would soon be persuaded. In other christian countries, we grant, it is kept otherwise, under lock and key, in some places at the one end or side of the altar, in some places in a chapel builded for that purpose, in some places in the restry, or in some inward and secret room of the church, as it was in the In Epist. ad In- time of Chrysostom at Constantinople 15. In some other places we

read that it was kept in the bishop's palace near to the church, and in the holy-days brought reverently to the church, and set upon the altar, which, In Concil. Brac- for abuses committed, was by order of councils abrogated 16.

Thus in divers places diversely it hath been kept, every where reverently and surely, so as it might be safe from injury and villany of miscreants and despisers of it. The hanging up of it on high hath been the manner of England, as Lindwood noteth upon the Constitutions Provincial17; on high, that wicked despite might not reach to it; under a canopy, for shew of reverence and honour.

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cartr. iii. can. 5.


Here M. Harding sheweth that this reservation of the sacrament in divers countries hath been diversely used, under lock and key, at the altar's end, in a chapel, in the vestry, in the bishop's palace. And all this of the usage of late years; for of antiquity, saving only the epistle of Chrysostom to Innocentius, which also, as it shall appear, maketh much against him, he toucheth nothing. But amongst all these diversities of keeping, he hath not yet found out his canopy. And touching that he allegeth of the reservation of the sacrament in the bishop's palace, it seemeth very little to further his purpose. For, whereas the sacrament was reserved only in the bishop's custody, it followeth necessarily that there in other parish churches and chapels was

reservation. Chrysostom's Chrysost. ad epistle to Innocentius is good witness that the sacrament was reserved to be received of the people at the communion the next day, or in very short time after. For it was reserved in both kinds 18, as it appeareth plainly by his words. But it is clear, both by the judgment of reason, and also by their own cautels in Ne Consecr. that behalf 19, that the wine in such sort and quantity cannot be kept any long Presb. in time without souring. And the manner in Græcia was, during the time of Lent, In Sexta to consecrate only upon the Saturdays and Sundays, and yet nevertheless to com- Synol. Const.


no such

τη 24 θεία

λειτουργία [** Bernard. Op. Par. 1690. In Conv. S. Paul. fastus apud homines gloria intumescant, et quasi ylaouévww. Serm. i. 3. Vol. I. Tom. III. col. 956; where ad ver- ipsi sint reliquiarum arca, Levitæ albas induti, in ticem non est sanitas ulla.]

sellulis eos deportent.) (s Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Ad Innoc. Epist. [" See below, page 557, notes 11, 12.] i. Tom. III. p. 519. See before, page 241, note 11.] [18 See before, note 15.]

{ $ Concil. Brac. Jii. cap. 5. in Crabb. Concil. [19 Sed sanguinem non præcipitur servare, quia Tom. II. p. 273. The particular abuse here noted &c.-- Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Grais the following: Agnovimus quosdam de episcopis, tian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. Gloss. quod in solennitatibus martyrum ad ecclesiam pro- in can. 93. cols. 1963, 4.) gesuri, reliquias collo suo imponant, ut majoris [29 1611 omits th]

των προη

Hieron. in
Vit. Malch.

Lib. iii. de ('ustod. Euch. &c.

Canopy municate of the same upon the other week-days. For the end of this reservanot com- tion in old times was, not that the sacrament should be adored, but that it should menda- be received of the people; and specially that persons excommunicate, for whose ble.

sake it was reserved, being suddenly called out of this life, upon their repentance might at all times receive the communion, and depart with comfort, as the members of the church of God.

But methinketh M. Harding doth herein as Apelles the painter sometime did in setting out king Antigonus' physiognomy. For, understanding that Antigonus was blind of the one side, he thought it best to paint him out only with half face, and so he cunningly shadowed the deformity of the other eye. Even so M. Harding sheweth us certain variety of keeping the sacrament, and other small matters of like weight; but the danger of idolatry, and other like horrible deformities, he dissembleth cunningly and turneth from us. Loth I am to use the comparison, but St Hierome saith it: Diabolus nunquam se prodit aperta facie? : “ The devil never sheweth himself openly with his whole face.”

In the old times, when the sacrament was kept in chests, in napkins, in baskets, and in private houses, there was no danger of adoration. But under the canopy we see not only that the effect hath fallen out far otherwise, but also

that the very cause thereof was at the first to the contrary. For so saith LinGul . Linw. wood himself: Citius repræsentatur nostris aspectibus adorandas : “ It is the

rather offered unto our sights to be worshipped.” If there were no cause else,

yet is this itself cause suflicient to abolish this new order of hanging up the Kings xviii. sacrament under a canopy. For therefore the king Ezechias took down the

brasen serpent and brake it in pieces, notwithstanding God had specially commanded Moses to erect it up; because he saw it abused to idolatry.

Again, they themselves, upon smaller considerations, have utterly abolished the manner of reservation that was used in the primitive church. For they will

not now suffer neither lay people nor women to keep it in their houses ; nor boys Euseb. Lib. to carry it to the sick, as then the boy did to Serapion4; nor infidels, or men not

christened, to wear it about them, as then did St Ambrose's brother Satyrusó. I leave the rust, the mould, the canker, and the breeding of worms, whereby that holy and reverend mystery of Christ's death is oftentimes made loathsome, and brought into contempt. They themselves do testify that such things not only may happen, but also have often happened. It is said that Alphonsus the king of Arragon, for the preservation of his honour and safety, so long kept the sacrament about him, that at last it putrefied, and bred worms; which when they had eaten up and consumed one another, in the end there remained only one great worm, that was the last, and had eaten all his fellows6. In such cases they command that the worms be burnt, and the ashes buried in the altar?.

The gloss itself upon

the decrees saith thus: “It is not necessary to keep the wine.” And DisConsect. the reason is this : Quia opus esset nimia cautela 8 : “ Because we should need to

have too much ado with the keeping of it.”

In the council of Lateran it is confessed, that the sacrament so kept hath 111. can. 20. been abused ad horribilia et nefaria facinora': “to work horrible and wicked

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xliii. Ambros, de Obit. Satyr.

Gers. contr.
Floret. Lib.

Presb. in Gloss. Concil. Lat. sub Innoc.

[Concil. Quinisext. can. 52. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. VI. cols. 1166, 7. See before, page 129, note 6.]

[ numquam diabolum aperta fronte se prodere. — Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Vit. Malch. Monach. Tom. IV. Pars II. col. 91.]

[ Lyndew. Provincial, seu Const. Angl. Antw. 1525. Lib. I. De Custod. Euch. fol. 179. 2.]

(* Euseb. in Hist. Eccles. Script. Amst. 10951700. Lib. vi. cap. xliv. p. 200.)

[5 Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. De Excess. Fratr. Satyr. Lib. I. 43. Tom. II, col. 1125. See before, page 554, note 12.)

[ This story may be found Ant. Panorm. de Dict. et Fact. Alphons. Basil. 1538. Æn. Silv. Comm. Lib. I. 39. p. 251. But the king does not there say that such a thing occurred to himself: Vas aureum

aperuit quispiam in quo ante mensem eucharistiam condiderat, nihil ibi præter vermiculum reperit.)

[? Sed quæritur quid fiendum, si ex illis speciebus generentur vermes. Solu. Dicendum est quod vermes debent comburi et cineres intra altare recondi. Floret. Lib. Lugd. 1499. Lib. iv. fol. 99. 2.

Ex Concil. Aurel. capp. 5,6. in Burchard. Decret. Lib. xx. Par. 1549. Lib. v. capp. 1. li, foll. 140, 1.)

[® Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, Dist. ii. Gloss. in can. 93. cols. 963, 4.]

[° Statuimus...ut chrisma et eucharistia sub fideli custodia clavibus adhibitis conserventur, ut non possit ad illa temeraria manus extendi, ad aliqua horribilia vel nefaria exercenda.-Concil. Lat. sub Innoc. III. cap. 20. in Crabb. Concil, Col, Agrip. 1551. Tom. II. p. 953.)


deeds." And M. Harding himself confesseth that, for certain like abuses, the

Canopy same reservation was in some part abolished in the council of Bracara 10.

not comTo be short, touching the canopy, Linwood himself findeth fault with it, as it mendappeareth in the Provincial. For thus he writeth: Dicitur, quod in loco mundo able. et singulari debet servarill : “ It is said, the sacrament ought to be kept in a clean several place sequestered from other.” Whereunto he addeth thus: Ex hoc Brac. 11. ridetur, quod usus observatus in Anglia, ut ... in canopæo pendeat, ... non est com- Extr. de Cel. mendabilis 12: “Hereby it appeareth that the order that is used in England, of Gul. Linw. hanging up the sacrament in a canopy, is not commendable.” Here M. Harding Custod. hath causes, both in general, why all manner such reservation ought to be misliked, and also in special, why the canopy cannot be liked.

can. 5.


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truth. For

Christi, sed mysterium

If princes be honoured with cloth of estate, bishops with solemn thrones in their churches, and deans with canopies of tapestry, silk, and arras (as we see in sundry cathedral churches), and no man find fault with it; why should M. Jewel mislike the canopy that is used for honour of that blessed sacrament, (172) wherein is contained The hundred the very body of Christ, and, through the inseparable joining together of both second unnatures in unity of person, Christ himself, very God, and very 13 man?

With what Chrysostom face speaketh he against the canopy used to the honour of Christ in the sacrament, vasis sanctis that, sitting in the bishop's seat at Sarisbury, can abide the sight of a solemn canopy corpus made of painted boards spread over his head? If he had been of counsel with Moses, Darid, and Salomon, it is like he would have reproved their judgments, for the great coniperise honour they used, and caused to be 15 continued towards the ark, wherein was con- tineturke." tained nothing but the tables of the law, Aaron's rod, and a pot full of manna. [2 San. vii. H.A. King David thought it very unfitting, and felt great remorse in heart, 1561.)

that he dwelt in a house of cedars, and the ark of God was put in the midst of skins, that is, of the tabernacle, whose outward parts were covered with beasts' skins.

And now there is one found, among other *monstrous and strange forms of " Let your creatures, manners, and doctrines, who, being but dust and ashes, as Abraham said known to all of himself, promoted to the name of a bishop, and not chosen, I ween, to do high iv. serrice of a man according to God's own heart, as David was, thinketh not himself unworthy to sit in a bishop's chair under a gorgeous testure or canopy of gilted boards, and cannot suffer the precious body of Christ, whereby we are redeemed, to hare, for remembrance of honour done of our part, so much as a little canopy, a thing of small price. (173) Yet was the ark but a shadow, and this the body; that The hundred the figure, this the truth; that the type or sign, this the very thing itself. As third unI do not envy M. Jewel that honour, by what right soever he enjoyeth it, so I cannot but blame him for* bereaving Christ of his honour in this blessed sacrament.


." Pbil.

truth. For
both are
figures, both
types, both
signs. Nazian.
saith : "Fi-
gura figuræ."
De Pas-
chate 16.
• Christ will
say, "In vain


Matt. xv.

Princes use to sit under a cloth of estate ; bishops and deans under painted thrones, or cloth of arras; ergo, (saith M. Harding), the sacrament me,"&c. ought to be hanged up under a canopy. I trow, it is not lawful for all men to use such arguments. In such sort Durandus reasoneth: “ The ark of the cove- Nurand. nant was carried by the Levites; ergo, the pope must be carried aloft upon the deacons' shoulders 17.” And again, they seem by practice further to reason thus :

Lib. ii.

[19 Concil. Brac. III. cap. 5. in eod. Tom. II. p. 273. See before, page 555, note 16.)

(" Lyndew. Provincial. seu Const. Angl. Lib. II. De Custod. Euch. fol. 179; where singulari mundo e signato debet. See Corp. Jur. Canon. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. 111. Tit. xli. cap. 10. col. 1378.]

["? Id. ibid.)
(13 H. A. 1564 omits very.]

["* ... in quibus non est verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis ejus continetur.-Chrysost. Op.

Par. 1718-38. Op. Imperf. in Matt. ex cap. v. Hom.
xi. Tom. VI. p. Ixiii.]

[15 So to be, H. A. 1564.)

[16 Το γαρ νομικών πάσχα...τύπου τύπος ήν apvòpótepos. — Gregor. Nazianz. Op. Par. 17781840. In Sanct. Pasch. Orat. xlv. 23. Tom. I. p. 863.)

(17 A quinquagesimo autem anno jussi sunt Levitie vasa custodire: et a xxv. annis et supra jussi sunt in tabernaculo deservire, tanquam ætatis ad onera portanda robustæ: qui possent arcam fæderis, mensam

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