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And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it, for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely d'ie." Hear me, rash màn! on thy allegianoce heàr me.
Silence', ye winds,
If, when three days are expired',
Thằt moment is thy death. If, then, ye have judgments of things pertaining to this life, set thèm to judge' who are least esteemed in the church. I speak to your shame. Is it sơ, that there is not a wise màn among you, no, not one that shall be able to judge between his brèthrén, but brother' goeth to law with brother, and that' before unbelievers'? Now there is utterly a faùlt among you, because ye go to law on e with another. Why do ye not rather tàke wrong'? Why do you not rather suffer yourselves to be defrauded'? Này, ye do wrong, and defraud, and that your brethren,
Bring no more vàin oblations'. Incense is an abomination to me.
The new moons and sabbaths', the calling of assemblies; I cannot away with': it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting. Your nèw moons, and your appointed feas'ts my soul hateth. They are a trouble' unto me. I am weary to bear them.
Hà! who comes hère ?
Be astonished', O ye heavens", at thìs, and be horribly afraid Be ye very desolate', saith the Lord.
Thèse, as they change', almighty Father', these
Is full of theè. And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host, pràising God', and saying, "Glory to God in the highest', and, on earth, peace, good will to men.”
It may be here remarked that all those affections and emotions which indicate love, cheerfulness, and a lively state of mind in general, and especially if one is desirous of producing such feelings in another, incline the voice to the rising slide, while those which indicate a depression of mind, from whatever .cause, incline the voice to the falling slide. The book of Lamentations, by Jeremiah, is full of examples of the latter kind. As a general rule, too, emotions of every kind which are overpowering incline the voice to the falling inflection, even when some of them, existing in a less degree, would incline it to the rising. In a book, however, so elementary as this, it is inexpedient to dwell on this subject, or to multiply rules and examples. Due reflection, with proper taste, will usually assist one to read passages of the description referred to without any very essential errors.
There is one mistake so common, and yet so important in its tendency, that it deserves mention, and the mention of it properly falls under the last rule. The mistake is this,—the use of the falling slide on a verb in the imperative mode, in all cases and circumstances. Those who commit the error seem to suppose that this form of the verb always commands, and thus they naturally use the slide adapted to such a case. But the verb in the imperative does, by no means, always command: on the contrary, it often invites, entreats, supplicates, and in a way, too, the most remote from dictation or authority. The imperative mode is employed in the humblest petitions for mercy from an inferior to a superior, even to God himself, and is consistent with the deepest sense of humility on the part of the suppliant. In the mouth, also, of a superior, it is often expressive of the utmost kindness, and simply invites, allures, and entreats in a manner the most winning. Nothing, then, can be more preposterous than to read passages where these expressions of feeling occur in the tone and manner of authority, as must be done if the falling inflection is employed, and especially if it is made intensive.
Take this passage, “ Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden,” and read it with the falling slide on come, and the language is made repulsive rather than inviting.
Come', sound his praise abroad',
And hymns of glory sing. Read, now, the first line of the above couplet with the falling inflection on the words come and abroad, and make the same inflection intensive on the word sing at the end of the second line, and you will destroy all that is inviting in the language
by the impropriety of your expression ;-you will issue a command, when
should have given a kind invitation. O wash my soul from every sin',
And make my guilty conscience clean. Put the downward slide on the words wash, or, what would oftener be done, on soul and on sin in the first line of the above couplet, and on make and clean in the second one, and you would need a feeling of the heart quite different from the expression of the lips to receive a gracious answer to your supplication. Go yet further, and in all of these examples use full tones instead of semitones, with a strong enunciation, and the impropriety alluded to will be still more apparent.
RULE IX. Implication, contempt, doubtfulness, and supposition, are often expressed by the circumflex.
I will do it if you desire mé. (The implication is, I would not do it if another desired me.)
To travel in different countries, and there survey the works of nature and the monuments of art, would ônce have given me the highest gratification. (Here it is implied that it would not now.)
She sings delîghtfully. (Just the contrary is meant.)
What think you of the impotent threats of your adversary'? What thînk?-they are unworthy of my notice.
To the voice of the people I will bow; but never shall I submit to the calumnies of
an individual hired to betray therr and slander me'. -The right honorable gentleman has suggested examples which I should have shunned', and examples which I should have followed. I shall never follow hîs, and I have ever avoided it. Am I to renounce those habits now forever' ? And at the beck of whom ?-I should rather say of whât ?-half a minister -half a monkey-a 'prentice politician', and a master coxcomb.
How long will your friend be absen't? He may be gone a week'—a fortnight-and pôssibly a month.
If these things are sô, all further negotiation, all further inquiries, are at an end.
Must I endure all thîs ?
All thîs ? Ay', more'.
If any, against all these proofs, should maintain that the peace with the Indians will be stable without the pôsts, to them I will urge another reply. From arguments calculated to produce conviction', I will appeal directly to the hearts of those who hear me, and ask whether it is not already planted there ? I resort especially to the conviction of the western' gentlemen, whether, supposing nô posts and nô treaty, the settlers will remain in security ?
And Abraham answered and said, Behold, now I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord', which am but dust and ashes', peradventure there shall lack fîve of the fifty righteous'; wilt thou destroy all the city for lack of fîve? And he said, If I find there fồrty and five', I will not destroy it. And he spake unto him yet again, and said', Peradventure there shall be förty found there'? And he said, I will not do it for forty's sake. And he said unto him, 0 let, not the Lord be angry', and I will speak.—Peradventure there shall thîrty be found there? And he said, I will not do it if I find thirty there. And he said', Behold, now I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord', peradventure there shall be twenty found there ? And he said, I will not destroy it for twenty's sake. And he said, 0 let not the Lord be angry', and I will speak yet but this on ce : peradventure tên shall be found theré? And he said, I will not destroy it for ten's sake.
SECONDARY INFLECTIONS.—MONOTONE. Hitherto I have considered only the primary inflections, as being the most obvious, and, of course, the most easily explained and understood. The way is now prepared to consider, with some chance of success, those which I have denominated secondary.
The secondary inflection or slide chiefly occurs when the sound of the voice is protracted on a long or an accented syllable, detaining, as it were, the attention of the hearer for a very short time on the thought which is there expressed, or, when it is employed for the sake of euphony,* removing the asperity and abruptness of passing directly from the extreme of a slide on one note to another below or above it. Hence it is that the secondary inflection is oftenest found in cases which
* Euphony--an agreeable sound; one pleasing to the ear.
require a slow movement of the voice, and in the expression of tender sentiments and of devotional feeling. Both the sublime and beautiful incline the voice naturally to it; poetry abounds in it, as requiring the voice to correspond with its own harmony of numbers ; while all the rough and boisterous feelings avoid it, from a similar correspondence between them and the voice.
A critical ear will not unfrequently detect this secondary inflection on even a short or unaccented syllable; but I shall content myself with pointing
out what is more obvious and more immediately important. The reader who is disposed to pursue this matter further, can avail himself of his own researches, or resort to other sources of information.
A few examples will now be given for the illustration of what has been suggested under this head.
I never shun a gravel-yard', and I entered this'. There were trees growing in it, here and there, though it was not regularly planted, and I thought it looked better than if it had been. The only paths' were those which had been worn by the slow feet of sorrow and sympathy', as they followed love and friendship to the grave”; and this
, too, was well, for I dislike a smoothly-rolled gravel-walk in a place like this.
And when I saw that no man' who had loved the beauty of the rose gathered again its scattered leaves', or bound up the stalk which the hand of violence had broken', I looked earnestly at the spot where it grew', and my soul received instruction.
With all my powers of heart and tongue
Is full of theel.
Awake', awakel, put on thy strength', O Zion'; put on thy beautiful garments, o Jeru'salem', the holy city; for hence'. forth' there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean'.
Lo', earth receives him from the bending skies :