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8 The countryman and his pig,

.

9 The cock and the fox,

117

10 Tit for tat,

118

11 The shepherd's dog,

Unknown. 119

12 Peter the Great,

120

13 Good for trade,

121

14 The ape and the beaver,

121

15 The massacre of Scio,

122

16 Dogs and a lion,

124

17 Symptoms of imposture,

124

18 The miller's daughter of Argenton,

125

30 Elm-tree hall,

Carlton Bruce. 145

31 The basket of tools,

Instructive Fables. 149

32 The evil of conceit,

Stories worth telling. 153

33 Wealth and fashion,

155

34 The hunters of the prairie,

W. Irving. 158

35 The mother and her infants,

Scrap Book. 159

36 Melancholy moments,

Miss Mary E. Jackson. 160

37 Story of a hunter,

Scrap Book. 161

38 Temper,

Mrs. Opie. 165

39 A republic of prairie dogs,

W. Irving. 168

44 The widow and her son,

179

45 Rural funerals,

182

46 Thoughts on death,

Job, vii. and xiv. 1-14. 184

47 Cain and Abel,

Exod. iv. 3–15. 186

53 The adventure of a mason,

W. Irving. 192

54 The truant,

195

55 Improvement of taste,

Blair. 198

56 Specimen of Indian figurative language, C. Colden. 198

57 Parables from the Bible; Old Testament,

199

58 Job rebuked by Eliphaz,

Job iv. 201

59 Sinai at the giving of the law,

Exod. xix. 16—25. 202

67 Tale of potted sprats,

Mrs. Opie. 211

68 A pilgrimage to the White Mountains, Token for 1836. 213

69 Dialogue. A scene from the Gipsy, - Metropolitan. 220

71 The governor and the notary, Irving's Alhambra. 227

72 A thunder storm on the prairies,

W. Irving. 232

74 Deer bleating. Magic balls,

238

75 A frontier farm-house,

240

83 Indolence,

Dennie. 254

84 Escape of Birch and Wharton,

Cooper. 256

85 Anecdote of Dr. Chauncy,

Tudor. 263

90 Description of a death scene,

Miss Francis. 269

91 National union,

Gouv. Morris. 273

92 Misinterpretation of motives,

273

93 Scene in the burning of Rome, Croly's Salathiel. 275

94 Extract from Webster's speech on the trial of Í. F. Knapp. 278

102 Death of Le Fevre,

Sterne. 287

103 Eternity of God,

Greenwood. 253

104 Preaching of Whitfield described,

Miss Francis. 289

105 Intemperance,

Brockway. 292

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PART I.

ANALYSIS OF ALL THE SIMPLE SOUNDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.-REMARKS ON ACCENT, &c.

CHAPTER I.

ON THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. - DISTINCTION BETWEEN VOWELS AND

CONSONANTS. -DEFINITION OF BOTH. A BRIEF account of the organs of speech, and of the manner in which the sounds of the voice are made, is useful to every one who would learn to modulate those sounds with propriety. I

can see no good reason why books designed to teach us to read and speak, that is, to manage skilfully the human voice, should entirely omit every thing relating to the structure of its organs and the mode of their operation. How few, even among persons advanced in life, and, it might be added, among scholars too, understand the true distinction between a vowel and a consonant, or know how many of either our language contains ! They have been told, in spelling books, and occasionally elsewhere, that we have twenty-six letters, six of which are vowels, and the rest consonants; and nine hundred and ninety-nine out of a thousand learners are left to believe that we have just six vowel sounds in our language, no more nor less, and twenty consonants precisely. We have, indeed, just so many characters, called letters, in common use, which meet the eye in writings or in print; but so miserably imperfect are these characters as representatives of sounds, that they teach us nothing at all in relation to the number of the latter. The same character, in many instances, is made to represent several sounds, and the same sound is represented by several characters.

As a specimen of this perversion of all propriety in the use of characters, take the vowel sound as heard, not seen, in the following words: late, ail, veil, prey, pay, gauge, great, deign, eight, tete. Here are no fewer than ten characters, or combinations of characters, namely, a, ai, ei, ey, ay, au, ea, eig, eigh,

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