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degrees the evil accumulates, times turn wrong, and ere the unsuspecting victim knows, he is there. The present times are ample testimony to this fact, as many poor souls can bear witness.
In conclusion, then, let those who would succeed begin carefully, and school down all idle ambition to go fast, or to embark in adventures and speculation ; take hold only of what you can mapage ; pay as they go ; keep cool; wait patiently; work industriously ; be economical, (not mean,) honest, judicious, firm, to say no when necessary, (and it is not upfrequent ;) counsel with their wives, especially if they are more cautious and prudent (not unfrequently the case) than themselves, teach their children to be industrious, and to earn their dollars before they spend them.
The foregoing rules observed carefully, and we will warrant all such parties safe from sleepless nights, shipwrecks, or serious disaster. Who among our young men will practice the recipe ? A score of years hence will tell. You can find them without a lantern, and tell them by their surroundings.
COMMERCE AND EXTENT OF THE LAKES. An Albany correspondent of the New York Commercial Advertiser gives the following interesting items :
I have been looking over the appual report of the superintendent of the Saut Ste. Marie Ship Canal. This canal was built by New York and New England capitalists. By it the largest class of lake steamers are enabled to pass from the lower lakes into Lake Superior, and to the copper mines thereof. This canal is 5,694 feet in length- the fall to be overcome is seventeen feet- there are two lift locks, each three hundred and fifty feet in length, sixty-one feet wide at the bottom, and seventy feet wide at the top. Congress granted the company in 1852, in aid of this work, 750,000 acres of the public lapds. The receipts of the company for 1859 were $17,400, and the expenditures $5,600.
Lake Superior, thus opened to the navigation of the largest class of steamers, is the most extensive body of fresh water yet known on the globe, and its shores are rich in inexhaustible mines of copper ore, and the best and strongest iron yet discovered. There have passed downward from this lake the past year 66,000 tons of iron ore, and 7,300 tons of copper ore. The total valuation of all the property passing through the canal, including provisions, &c., for the miners and others, is, in round numbers, $10,000,000. The day is close at hand when this great northern part of the State of Michigan will be organized into a separate State, and probably under the name of “Superior.” Even now the people in this region talk of the feasibility of a ship canal, some three hundred and fifty miles in length, to connect Lake Superior with Hudson's Bay. Imagine yourself one of a pleasure party starting from New York for a summer's trip in a staunch steamer, via the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Canadian canals, the great lakes, and this canal to the Arctic Ocean. You can keep the idea to cool off with when the heats of next summer invade the sanctum. Wild as this may pow seem, the child is now old enough to read your paper who will yet take this very
FIVE PER CENT. A verdant looking person called not many months since upon a jeweler in Montreal, and stated that he bad managed to accumulate, by hard labor, for the few past years, $75, that he wished to invest in something, whereby he migbt make money a little faster; and he had concluded to take some of the stock and peddle it out. The jeweler selected wbat he thought would sell readily, aðd the new peddler started on his first trip. He was gone but a few days, when he returned, bought as much again as before, and started on his second trip. Again he returned, and greatly increased his stock. He succeeded so well, and accumulated so fast, that the jeweler one day asked hiin what profit he obtained on what he sold ? Well, I put on 'bout five per cent." The jeweler thought that a very small profit, and expressed as much. “Well,” said the peddler, “I don't
know as I exactly understand about your per cent; but an article for which I pay you one dollar, I generally sell for five !"
This reminds us of a very successful business deacon in western New York, whom we knew very well, who was wont to say that he was very well satisfied with two per cent profit-that is to say, sell for $2 what is bought for $1. Hence, the deacon's two per per cent was a “standing joke" among the tradesmen of that region. Having, however, acquired a large fortune, he bigbly enjoyed the “ joke."
MARITIME INTERCOURSE IN TIME OF WAR. At a meeting held in Bremen on the 2d of December, regarding maritime intercourse in time of war, the following resolutions were adopted :-
Considering that the inviolability of person and property forms the sole basis on which the material and intellectual intercourse of nations can safely prosper, on which civilization and wealth can be freely developed, and penetrate upendangered into the remotest territories of the earth; that this principle, therefore, ought, even in war, to be held sacred by all nations whose ambition it is to be regarded as the champions of civilization; considering that, in contravention of this principle, what has long since been stigmatized as barbarous violence on land, to rob of their liberty and property private individuals peacefully pursuing their avocations, to seize and destroy merchant ships with their cargo, to detain their crews as prisoners, international law in naval wars still permits ; considering, further, that a consciousness of the injustice of this procedure is already felt on all sides; that the “declaration" of the Congress at Paris of the 16th of April, 1856, which has been acceded to by almost all States, has begun to pave the way for just views of the subject ; that it protects not only the interest of neutrals, but also the property of subjects and citizens of belligerent States, if on board of neutral ships; that, partly in consequence of this “ declaration," partly from the avowed wish of many governments --for instance, that of the United States of America--to see the long established injustice completely abolished, the universal acknowledgment of the claims of private individuals engaged in commerce and navigation to security for themselves and their property, provided they do not act contrary to the conditions of war, is materially facilitated ; considering, also, that the Congress of the great powers of Europe now again assembling will gladly embrace the opportunity to complete the work commenced by its predecessor, and, by entirely banishing from the rules of maritime law the arbitrariness of ruder ages, to found a noble and imperishable memorial in the annals of civilization; considering, lastly, that all, whom their own interest or zeal for the progress of justice impels to do 80, ought loudly to raise their voice and proclaim to their own goveroment and to the assembled council of nations the unanimous judgment of the civilized world ; the meeting resolves:-1. That the inviolability of person and property in time of war on the high seas, extended also to the subjects and citizens of belligerent States, except as far as the operations of war necessarily restrict the same, is imperatively demanded by the sentiments of justice universally entertained at the present time. 2. That the High Senate of the Free Hanse Town of Bremen be most urgently requested to support this principle, and to recommend the carrying of it into effect to the consideration either of the cor federate German Governments or of the powers assembled in Congress. 3. That strenuous endeavors should be made to procure the unanimous expression of opinion, and the unanimous exertion of influence with their government, on the part of all who, in their own interest and for the sake of justice and civilization, desire to see the principle in question carried into effect. 4. That for the carrying out of these resolutions a committee be appointed, which will in particular undertake to bring the same to the knowledge of the High Senate of the Chamber of Commerce, of the consuls of other States resident here, and also of such circles and persons generally, in Germany and abroad, as are interested in the prosper. ity of maritime traffic, calling upon them for their active co-operation in the like spirit.
INDUSTRY. A writer in our cotemporary, the Boston Cultivator, thus moralizes upon the results of industry :
Industry lays the foundation for happiness and usefulness. Behold the man who is always at work and who improves every moment as it passes; he is building a foundation for future happiness, broad and deep, that will last as long as he himself remains an inhabitant of earth. And he is not only securing happiness for himself, but he is teaching those around him by his example, that lasting happiness is derived from a life well spent, whose moments must be improved as they swiftly fly. Let us for a few moments wander back into the dim vista of the past, and review the lives of those who distinguished themselves as great, and discover if we can, what the most prominent trait of their character was. Were they noted for anything, more than they were for industry? and can we conceive of a closer relationship in any other trait ? or can we recall any one of these men, for one moment, except it be a moment of great and eternal activity ? Let their lives answer these questions. Was it pot by industry that WASHINGTON was enabled to accomplish so much? Even when a child, he was noted for being very industrious, for he was up and at work before the sun made its appearance in the morning; and its setting rays found him still engaged at his always commendable employment; and we find bim no less distinguished for being industrious, on the field of battle, than when a child; for when a general, he was always at his post, ready for any encounter at a moment's warning. Was it not industry that caused ALEXANDER and NAPOLEON to conquer so many nations ? Was it pot industry, inspired with ambition, it is true, that led them forward from one field of battle to another, until it was said of ALEXANDER, that he had conquered all the then known world,” and of NAPOLEON, that “ he made his friends kings, and established and demolished thrones ?” But let us follow time in its rapid flight, until we arrive at the present century, and in our own country, and we find the names of Mann and IRVING, printed in almost every paper, as men who have spent their lives in benefiting their fellow men. They are examples, worthy of study and imitation. Was it not by industry that they accomplished so much? But have we not referred to enough already to show that industry is & prominent trait in the character of those wbo have accomplished so much during their lives? As we look around us and behold the vast difference which is seen in the lives of those who are industrious and those who are not, let us teach all men to be industrious ; not only by our words, but by our examples ; for there is nothing that will more effectually recommend this quality to others than for us to teach it, and for them to see it, in our daily lives, for actions ever speak louder than words.
MOURNING WEALTH. At the faneral of STEPHEN Whitney in New York recently, there was some capital represented. The pall-bearers were a “solid” set. Their names and supposed wealth are given, as follows:Joseph Kernochan, President of Fulton Bank......
$2,000,000 J. A. Stevens, President Bank of Commerce...
700,000 Benjamin L. Swapn, retired merchant ...........
1,300,000 James B. Murray, baoker....
1,000,000 W. B. Crosby, retired merchant. .......
800,000 Jobn D. Avery, doctor.........
600,000 Joseph Beers, retired merchant.. ...
500,000 Thomas Suffren, retired merchant. ......
$9,300,000 And, like the millionaire whose body they were following, not one farthing of their many millions will they be allowed to carry with them to the other world.
A LARGE BREWERY. One of the largest establishments of the kind in the world is the brewery of Barclay & Perkins, situated in Southwark, London. This brewery was · founded by Dr. Johnson's friend, Henry THRALE, who, in 1773 (according to
the statement made by the doctor in his “ Hebridian Tour,") was paying as much as $100,000 annually to the excise department. After TURALE's death the executor sold it (for $685,000) to BARCLAY, a descendant of the author of the “ Apology of the Quakers," and Perkins, who had been Thrale's chief clerk. Since that time the business has assumed vast proportions, as the following statistics will show :- The buildings cover upwards of ten acres; two steam engines, equal to 75-horse power, are required to work the machinery; there are 24 malt bins, each equal in size to an ordinary three-story house ; and Westmipster Hall is not much larger than the great brewing room. More than 100,000 gallons of water are used daily, and 2,000 quarters of malt weekly. Ten brewing coppers have an aggregate capacity of 120.000 gallons ; there are four fermenting vessels, each capable of holding 1,500 barrels of beer. The cooling floor bas a surface of more than 1,000 square yards ; 300 vessels, of 309 gallons each, are used in the working off of the yeast from the beer, which is stored in 150 vats, the longest of which holds 108,000 gallons, and the average gives 30,000 gallons each. Two hundred horses and drays are employed in distributing the beer to London retailers.
CORRECT SENTIMENT. The sentiments which follow are worthy to be placed in every house and engraved on every heart :
Nothing is more certain, yet few things less thought of, than the mutations of poverty. Of this education is the great cause. I will venture to declare that youths, educated with expectations of possessing great wealth, or suffered even io suppose they are to inherit it, imbibe exactly those principles, notions, and opinions, which prevent their keeping it. On the contrary. the bardihood of poverty, and those enterprising and scheming habits which are acquired in indigence, will inevitably lead to wealth and probably to power. I will assert, with prospective certainty, that the children of these youths whom I now see swelling with inflations of the pride of wealth, will, in their day, be found in the haunts of wretchedness, while the offspring of many an industrious, smutty-faced apprentice boy will be blazing in the tinseled trappings of fortune.
VALUE OF TIME. Who is there that does not waste, absolutely throw away, one or two hours every day? Our great concern appears to be to kill time--to get over hours, days, weeks, months, years, as rapidly as possible, without bestowing a thought on the shortness of life, and the imperative pecessity of prompt, wakeful, and vigorous action, in order that we may accomplish the end of our being—usefulness here and happiness hereafter. We forget that a moment lost, is lost for. ever-that there is no recalling of time. We lose sight of the important fact, that the mind cannot remain stationary-it must either advance or retrograde. Two hours lost each day, would make nearly two months in a year-yet who would be willing to throw away so large an amount of time? Think et it, reader, long and seriously.
THE BOOK TRADE.
1.- A Knowledge of Living Things. By A. N. BELL, A. M., M. D., late P. A.
Surgeon U. S. Navy, etc. 12mo., pp. 318. New York : Bailliere Brothers.
This is an unusually well named and artistical volume, beautifully embellished by colored plates and numerous wood eats illustrative of its title.
The importance of an acquaintance with the fundamental principles of physiology, as being essentially necessary for the preservation of health and the promotion of life, is universally acknowledged. Yet there is scarcely a household to be found in wbich there are not individuals affected with diseases which would be wholly avoided if due regard were paid to the elementary conditions of life which pertain to every living thing. While people have not failed to appreciate the necessity of obtaining this essential knowledge for the preservation of life, they have generally so far mistaken the means as to aggravate, rather than remove, the difficulty. Heretofore amateur readers and teachers have sought the means in special physiology, or that physiology which is based upon an anatomical knowledge of the human frame, and numerous epitomes of human physiology have been compiled for this purpose. Well does the author of the book before us compare all such efforts with the endeavor to study reading without knowing the letters. For if such a system were carried out in relation to the other sciences, we should soon find the elemen's of moral science and natural theology dismissed, and abstracts of tomes op divinity in their stead. “ Not only the comfort, healtb. and degree of civilization, but the very existence of man, depends upon the state of the earth, the atmosphere of the earth, the climate of the earth, and the productions of the earth. Man is placed in a system where all the changes produced in other objects occur according to a relation existing among the substances changed, and his own organic constitution participates in all these things that surround him. To understand these conditions of our existence it is necessary to begin at the very germ of organization and pursue the changes that take place in the nearest approximation to the inorganic material of the universe."
Starting with living things in their simplest aspect, each succeeding series is described with a familiarity which renders every new feature more and more attractive, until at last the whole culminates in the consummation of organic de. velopment--the erect stature and expressive countenance of Man." "Food," “Food plants," “ Quantity and Sources of Food,” “ Health of Potatoes," etc., etc., are subjects of deep interest, and treated of in an instructive manner. Indeed, the whole tenor of the book indicates a mind familiar with the conditions of health and life in their most extensive relations. And the attractive manner in which this knowledge is presented, commends the plan pursued by the author as being in strict conformity with all other branches of scientific pursuit, and admirably adapted to academic instruction, as well as for the easy comprebension of the reader.
2.- Notes on Nursing. By FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. New York: D. Apple
ton & Co.
Is a practical little 12mo., which should be read by everybody, for it contains essential knowledge of such things as are at some period of life likely to be profitable to any one who would know how to impart comfort. Nor is this all : the notes on " Ventilation and Warming," “ Health of Houses,” • Light," “ Food," etc., are no less useful to those who would maintain health, than to those who would regain it, where it has been lost in consequence of insufficient attention to these things. The book pretends not to be “a rule of thought by which nurses can teach themselves to nurse, or a manual to teach nurses to nurse;" yet it is more than thiz-it informs them on those conditions of health and life which, if neglected, usually result in sickness.