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how many of our unkindnesses, our cruelties, our acts of thoughtlessness and recklessness, may be actually owing to a cause of the same character? We eat something that deranges the condition of the system. Through the stomachic nerve that derangement immediately affects the brain. Moroseness succeeds amiability; and under its influence we do that which would shock our sensibility at any other moment. Or, perhaps, a gastric irregularity is the common result of an over-indulgence in wholesome food, or a moderate indulgence in unsuitable food. The liver is afflicted. In this affliction the brain profoundly sympathizes. The temper is soured; the understanding is narrowed; prejudices are strengthened; generous impulses are subdued ; selfishness, originated by physical disturbances which perpetually distract the mind's attention, becomes a chronic meutal disorder; the feeling of charity dies out; we live for ourselves alone; we have no care for others. And all this change of nature is the consequence of an injudicious diet.
THE SOCIETY ISLANDS AND THEIR ORANGE TRADE. Since the discovery of gold in California, a large trade in oranges has sprung op between that country and the Society Islands, where this delicious fruit grows in great profusion. Most of the oranges come from three islands of the group
–Tahiti (where the French have a garrison,) Hauhina, and Roetea. About 5,000,000 of oranges are annually exported, for which about $7 50 per thousand is paid, delivered on board ship. The trade is in the hands of a few foreign merchants at Papute, in Tabiti, who take foreign goods in exchange for the fruit, which is gathered and brought to them by the natives. The oranges are passed down from the trees by youngsters, and gathered by the women into baskets made of the leaves of the cocoanut tree, and taken thence to the place at which the vessel is lying to receive them. There they are placed in a long thatched house, and when collected in sufficient numbers, are wrapped in leaves by the women. A smart woman will wrap 1,200 oranges in a day, by which she can earn about eighty cents. The fruit grows luxuriantly in every direction, in gulleys and ravides which run from the seaside up the steep mountains. The oranges grow wild, but the trees are claimed in districts by different natives, through hereditary descent. Before the California trade gave a special value to the fruit, it was free as water, and almost as common. The natives formerly made an intoxicating liquor, called orange rum, from it, but this practice is now given up. The orange season commences in February and ends in September, during which time the trees may be seen at once in the various stages of blossoming, green and half yellow, and ripe fruit. In the spring time the fruit is picked green; in the summer, half yellow, and in the fall full ripe, those being the conditions in which they are found by experience to keep best for exportation. California consumes Dearly the whole crop of fruit.
The standard of weights was originally taken from the ears of wheat, whence the lowest denomination of weights we have is still called a grain.
THE BOOK TRADE.
1.- Engineering Precedents of Steam Machinery; embracing the performances
of steamships, experiments with propelling instruments, condensors, boilers,
&c., &c. By B. F. ISHERWOOD, Chief Evgineer United States Navy. 8vo., ! pp. 231. New York : Bailliere Brothers.
The contents of this work consist of several papers relating chiefly to boilers and fuel, though incidental subjects are treated as they arise in natural connection, and are accounts of experiments ordered by the United States Navy De partment, and made by boards of Daval engineers, of which the author was a member. The first paper describes the experiments made at the New York Navy Yard, to determine the comparative evaporative efficiencies of the hard, or anthracite, the Trevorton, semi-anthracite, and the Cumberland, semi-bituminous coals, the three kinds in general use for steam vessels and land engines in the United States. The third is taken up with an account of the experiments made with the Prosser boiler, as is the fourth and fifth with those patented by Messrs. Ellis and Chief Engineer D. B. Martin, United States Navy. The importance of this scientific analysis can readily be comprehended when the immense amount of coals consumed in generating steam is considered, and the saving which thereby can be attained by a correct knowledge of the relative value of each system through the aid of these experiments, which, bearing as they do the seal of the government, entitles them to the fullest confidence.
2.- Archaia ; or, Studies of the Cosmogony and Natural History of the He
brew Scriptures. By J. W. Dawson, LL. D., F. G. S., author of “ Acadian Geology,” &c. 12mo., pp. 400. Montreal : B. Dawson & Son ; also for sale by D. Appleton, New York.
This work is the production of a teacher of geology, and is the result of a close study of those parts of the Bible having to do with the creation, and the affinity or relation they bear to the geological theories held at the present day. To theologians and those in pursuit of the knowledge we have of God and his works, both natural and revealed, this is a very interesting as well as valuable book, being written in a clear and perspicuous style wbich readily presents to the mind of the reader the precise ideas of the author, free from all verbiage; presenting on the one hand to naturalists a summary of what the Bible does actually teach respecting the early history of the earth and man ; and on the other a view of the points in wbich the teaching of the Bible comes in contact with natural science at its present stage of progress. Thoughtful, intelligent readers will find in this volume that which will repay them both the cost of the volume and the time spent in its perusal. 3.- Loss and Gain; or Margaret's Home. By ALICE B. Haven. 12mo., pp.
315. New York : D. Appleton & Co.
Embraces a most pleasing and instructive story. Its tone is spirited, and many of its passages sparkling. The authoress has a pen for the tender and sentimental, which, in some paragraphs, displays itself admirably, and, as a whole, is far above the average, both in point of moral and instruction, of the mass of publications of this sort. 4.-Earnest Bracebridge ; or, School Boy Days. By W. H. G. Kingston.
12mo., pp. 344. Boston : Ticknor & Field.
Here we have a fine christmas present in a beautifully illustrated and earnestly written tale after the style of School Days at Rugby," filled up with a venture, and told in that happy strain which is sure to enlist the attention of the young.
5.— The White Hills; their Legends, Landscape, and Poetry. By Thomas
Starr King, with sixty illustrations, engraved by Andrew, from drawings by Wheelock. 4to., pp. 403. Boston : Urosby, Nichols & Co.
Two groups of mountains there are included under the general title of the White Hills situate in New Hampshire, which, from their loveliness and grandeur have lately attracted much attention, and thousands there are who are induced during the summer months to spend their time and money by making pilgrimages to this spot, to be refreshed by the draperies of verdure, shadow, cloud, and color that are hung by the Creator around and above these hills. As for ourselves we never shall forget the day we stood upon a projection of Mount Washington looking at the fantastic photographs which the brindle mountain sides presented, with the mist twining around their tops, at times smothering their peaks, and anon the south wind tearing them apart to let their grim heads look out, towering high above, and sharp as spears. No one who has seen this picture of ever-changing beauty will easily rid himself of the impression left upon the senses, or help receiving a lesson of fortitude in making the ascent. This book is devoted to the scenery of this mountain region, and intended as sort of guide for future pilgrims, showing from which points the noblest views are to be gained, what are the characteristics of each district, &c., &c. The book is among the handsomest we have seen in a long time, in the way of mechanical execution, and does infinite credit to the publishers, Messrs. Orosby, Nichols & Co.
6.- Wild Southern Scenes ; a tale of Disunion and Border War. By J. B.
Jones, author of " Wild Western Scenes." 12mo., pp. 500. Philadelphia : T. B. Peterson & Brother.
This, though purely a work of fiction, is, in many respects, a remarkable book, as much on account of its novelty as anything else. The scenes are laid principa'ly in Virginia and the South, in which the author labors to portray in his suppositious history the ill and direful effects of disunion. There is a good deal of ingenuity and invention, as well as some extraordinary flights of imagination, required in weaving together the thread of such a story, and in these requirements Mr. Jones seems to be fully up to the mark, as for stirring events and warlike achievements, accompanied by grape-shot and rifle balls, it bears the gree of anything we have read in a long time. There is enough in this book to terrify the strongest mind-purely imaginative though it be; and if it but have the effect of opening the eyes of the more conservative to the terrible results that will follow the sectional madness and folly now disturbing the country, by drawing the bands of union much closer in various sections of our republic, Mr. Jones' labor will not have been in vain, and we shall feel inclined to regard him in the light of a public benefactor, rather than that of a sensation story writer.
7.-Lizzy Glenn; or the Trials of a Seamstress. By T. S. ARTHUR. 12mo..
pp. 253. Philadelphia : T. B. Peterson & Brothers.
Is another of the many domestic tales from that prolific author, T. S. Arthur, which, though destitute of that brilliant action and stirring interest, with which dovelists usually bring out their heroes and heorines, still points to a definite moral, and may be considered good wholesome reading matter for the young.
8.- Mary Staunton; or the Pupils of Marvel Hall. By the author of " Por
traits of my Married Friends." 12mo., pp. 398. New York : D. Appleton & Co.
Appears to be an exceedingly well written and spirited tale, showing up the modus operandi of the boarding school system, and the evils existing therein, which it does pretty effectually. We recommend it heartily to all young misses contemplating leaving home for the “sweet simplicities " and genial hospitalities of boarding shool life.
9.- Great Facts; a Popular History and Description of the most remarkable
Inventions during the present Century. By FREDERICK C. BAKEWELL, author of Philosophical Conversations," &c. Illustrated with numerous engravings. 12mo., pp. 307. New York : D. Appleton & Co.
The progress of a country is exhibited in no stronger light than by the many inportant inventions and contrivances by which labor is shorn of its drudgery, and time and space anpibilated. Thus by the combined efforts of inventive genius during the last half century, while steam navigation was facilitating the means of intercourse over rivers and seas, and whilst railways and locomotive engines served to bring distant cities within a few hours' journey of each other, another source of power, infinitely more rapid than steam, has been made to transmit intelligence from one country to another with the speed of lightning. It has been the author's aim in this treatise, not only to make the reader acquainted with the successive steps by which these series of inventions have been brought to their present perfection, but also to give a description of the mechanisms and processes by which they are effected ; so far, at least, as to render the principles on which their actions depend understood. These are wholesome lessons, especially for youth, as the knowledge gained is eminently practical, and well calculated to give accelerated impulse to inventive minds, thereby acting as an agent in promoting further discoveries.
10.- True Womanhood. A Tale. By John Neal. 12ino., pp. 487. Boston:
Ticknor & Fields.
“Having long entertained a notion that women have souls,” (we quote from the author's preface, and would not for a moment be considered heretical on the subject ourselves,) " or something of the sort, call them what you may; that they have not only a right to think for themselves, but to act for themselves, and take the consequences, here and hereafter, without being accountable to us, any more than we are to them ; and that marriage is not always the best thing, nor the one thing needful for them, whatever it may be to us," he has written this tale for ilustration. Taking advantage of incidents which occurred in the great commercial paralysis of 1857–58, he attempts to show how different characters and temperaments are differently affected by the same events and circumstances, and how they are brought to different conclusions by the very same evidence, and also what true womanhood is equal to and capable of, under some of the most trying circumstances of life. A worthy theme truly, and worth the consideration of our modern dames who seem to think that woman has become a doll, to be fettered with petticoats and gilded meshes of lace to be carried out, instead of an active helpmeet to man.
11.- Life of Lafayette. Written for children. By E. CECIL. Illustrated. 12mo.,
pp. 218. Boston : Crosby, Nichols & Co.
This little memoir of our ancient friend, Lafayette, is an effort to interest American youth in the character and history of one who stood so near our own Washington during the stormy times of the Revolution, and whose after life was so varied and remarkable. The moral tone of the book is excellent, and we think it upexceptionable as a holyday present.
12.- Sword and Gown. By the author of " Guy Livingstone." 12mo., pp. 308.
Boston : Ticknor & Field.
This will be found no prosy essay setting forth the value, purity, or effective services rendered by the pontifical mitre, or be who adjusts the balance with carnal weapons. We should take it that the author's mind is too much distracted to well fix itself on meditative subjects. However, it cannot well be said he - beareth the sword in vain," either copsidering the interesting tale bere given us, which will be found written with considerable felicity of style, and well calculated to please the haut ton to whom it would appear to cater.
CONTENTS OF NO. II., VOL. XLII.
PAGS I. PARTIAL REVIEW OF MR. CAREYIS LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT. RE
PLY TO MR. HENRY CAREY BAIRD. By HioilARD SULLEY, of Fort Wayne,
................................................ 147 IL COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES. No. LXXII.
NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA. Progress of New Orleans - Imports, Export and
of Crops-Production and Value-Freights--Rates of-Number of Arrivals............. 156 III. PRODUCE AND RAW MATERIALS. Influence of Gold-Stimulus to Industry-Pro
ducers inore Prosperous--Greater' Demand for Clothing-Raw Materials-English Purchases-Decline in Values to 150-Rise since-Increased Markets-Prominence of Cotton-Sources of English Supply-India a Consumer of Cotton - Goods sent ThitherEgypt as a Market-Hand-loom Goods United States Cotton-Proportion taken by England-Larger Purchases by Europe - More Cotton per Hand-Exported Produce of tbe South-Food Raised-Sonth and North -- Articles of Food-The South Raises its own Foud - Cattle-Hay nut an Evidence of Wealth-A Necessity of Climate-Coal Analogy
--Comparative Value of Produce--Rise in the value of Cotton.............. IV. AMERICAN TRADE IN THE BLACK SEA. By J. P. Brown, United States Acting Consul at Constantinople ...................
... 170 V. DECIMAL SYSTES AND SILVER COINS OF THE UNITED STATES. By Col
FREDERICK A, SAWYER of California .............................................. 177 VL TIIE INDIAN AKCHIPELAGO SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR-DUTCT EXCLU.
SIVENESS AND PESTRICTIONS TO COMMERCE. By THOMAS D rox, JR., of
New York'.................................................................. 108 VII. CUSTOMS REFORM IN BELGIUM........
............ 187 JOURNAL OF MERCANTILE LAW. Salvage - Vessels Empoyed in Salvage Business-Rights and Dutios of Salfors--Liability for Negligence-Saving or Life..
................. 191 Seamen's Wages ...
................ COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND BEVIEW. Close of the Decade--Scale of Progression--Comparative Exports of tree Nations--Immense Increase of Exports-Developinent of Capital --United States for Vorty Years-Trade--TonDage--Railroads --Disasters of 1819--United States Bank--Tariff Policy--Revolution--Bank War--Speculation of 1836--Explosion--Death of the Monster -Close of Fourth Decade-Fallures of Nine States--Improvement-Famnine of 1916--Wa-Revolution--Gold Discoveries--Return of Confidence --Progress-Over-action--Panic-avestments of Capital--Acoumolation of Capital --Strong Position--Gold Yield--Great Pospects for the Future--Price of Money --Dividends and Rates of Bills-Specio Exports Assay-offico--Mint--Aggregate Specie Exportation--Drain on the Banky--Amount in Banks, Nine Cities--Decreaso of Reserve-Increase of Circulation--Imports of past Year--Failures--Annual Report-Proportion-Trade of the past Year-Total in Statement......................................194-212 VOL. XLII.-NO. II.