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illustration. The number of wbite males over 21 years assessed by the State officer, is 1,674 less than by the city officer, for the same year; and so again the State officer finds 220 slaves less than the city officer in the same year. In pass. ing, we may further remark that, to say the very least, gross carelessness is mani. fest in the returns made to the Auditor by many of the commissioners. We might point out a hundred or more instances, but wili now name only one, as an illustration of the general omission of commissioners on subjects of taxation The increase of population in the whole State since 1850, is :Whites....
193,118 22 per cent gain. Slaves....
8 Free Negroes.....
4,785 8 « « «
236,629 The relative increase of the four districts is reported as follows:
Increase of whites. Increase of slaves Tide.water.......
22 per cent 12 per cent Piedmont........ Valley.......... Trans-Alleghany ..
NATIVITIES_POPULATION OF BOSTON AND NEW YORK. The United States census of 1850, and the State censuses of New York and of Massachusetts, gives the means of comparing the population of the two cities according to pativities, and the results are as follows :
1850. 1855. 1850. 1855. Born in United States...........
73,237 72,925 263,937 303,721 " Ireland .........
52,923 68 611 133,720 175,822 Germany ......
2,666 4,587 55,476 95,986 « Other foreign countries. ..... 7,877 12,309 48,589 42,535 Colored....
2,085 2,216 13,815 11,840
138,788 162,748 516,447 629,904 In Boston, owing to the great facilities for “spreading " the population into the surrounding towns, there seems to have been a positive decrease in the numbers of native-born citizens, with a large increase in the Irish element. In New York, a similar cause has operated to reduce the per cent of pative increase while the proportion of increase is by far the largest in the German element. The number of immigrants who arrived, in New York mostly, in the period mentioned, was 1,893,000 persons, showing how large a proportion pass into the interior. MEN MONKEYS OF MALACCA–THEIR MODE OF LIFE, MARRIAGE, CUSTOMS, ETC.
A correspondent of the Boston Traveller writes from Shanghae an interesting account of the habits of the Jakoons, a barbarous people who inhabit the interior of Malacca. Their language and features are unlike those of the Malays proper, of whom they are also politically independent. They have no history, having been found by the early Portuguese voyagers in the country in which they still reside. They are called the Orang-Benner, or “men of the great country;" the Orang-Hutang, or“ men of the forests ;" the Orang-Semang, or "black men ;" the Jakoons and the Kaiats. Oran is the Malay word for man; and Utan or Hutang
for forest, whence the word so common with us, Ourang-Outang, or wild men, if men they may be called, when common opinion has assigned them a rank hardly above monkeys and baboons.
They generally live in houses built of bamboo sticks, and suspended to the tops of lofty trees, to which they ascend by rude ladders. These cabins, suspended to the tree tops, are so narrow that a stranger cannot be admitted without annoyance to a member of the family, or his exclusion ; for one must go down when a new one comes up. Others who have no taste for these aerial abodes-nests, not for birds, but for men-construct Luts raised two or three feet above the ground. The first story serves for lodging, where they eat and sleep, by the side of a fire always kept brightly burning in order to frighten away the tigers and other wild beasts which fill the forests. In the second story they put their arms for safety, their provisions and kitchen utensils, all of which are comprised in pikes, in earthen pots, and one or two great China bowls.
They eat whatever comes to hand, as wild boars, apes, or birds, which last are taken either in shares or shot by arrows, and the roots and tubers which the earth produces in abundance. If they plant rice, it is only enough to meet their absolute wants. Instead of regular labor, they prefer the fatiguing adventures of the chase, and running among the woods. Their cuisine is of the lowest order, their favorite dish being slices of meat half cooked, and still reeking with blood.
Their weddings are preceded by a most singular and ludicrous ceremony. An old man presents the future husband and wife to a large assemblage of invited guests, whom he conducts, followed by their respective families, into a grand circle, around which the young lady, the bride, sets out running upon all fours, and the young man who is the bridegroom in the same style after her. If he succeeds in overtaking her she becomes his wife ; if not, he forfeits all his rights, and " love’s labor is lost.” This often happens when the bridegroom fails of pleasing the young lady, who endeavors to escape from the embraces of a distasteful or odious husband by beating him in this queer trotting match.
Upon the death of one of their number they wrap his body in a white winding sheet, and then deposit it in a grave dug near his hut, sometimes in an erect position, sometimes sitting, and sometimes lying down. They are careful to put a lance at his side, a “parang,” and a “sumpitan,” their instruments of bunting, and of war, but never use any religious ceremony. Still, these weapons placed by the side of the corpse indicate a shadowy belief in a future existence.
Their religion is a confused mass of the grossest superstitions, propagated by the payans, a kind of priests, who are half physicians and half jugglers. Their magical sciences is in great esteem with the Malays. The singular kind of life they lead, the peculiarity of their custom, and the long intervals of their appearance among the people, secure for them a certain prestige and respect. Seen from afar, and through a mysterious veil, they pass for beings endowed with superhuman power, to whom the plants and roots of the forests have revealed their most secret virtues. In a word, they are believed to hold in their hands the power of conferring health or inflicting death. In accordance with this belief, the Malays are careful not to provoke their ill-will.
Naturally, the Jakoons are of an open and ingenuous disposition, and withal inclined to gayety. To the appearance of timidity they join the independence
of a life without control, spent in the midst of thick forests and everlasting verdure. Respectful, without being servile, in conversation they use an abrupt and violent tone of voice, which strongly contrasts with their habitual gentleness and modesty. They have strong liquors, and get intoxicated whenever they have an opportunity.
It is honorable to the zeal of the Catholic priests that they have a missionary, who, notwithstanding the low rank of these people in the scale of humanity, the wide territory over which they are scattered, and the thick forests which it is necessary to penetrate to reach them, and the absence of all roads, while ferocious wild beasts are thick at every step, is laboring among them, and makes his home with them.
Such are the people in whom originated the idea and the stories about the Ourang-Outang—“the man of the forests."
ORIGIN OF PAPER MONEY. One of the primitive forms of symbolic currency in use among the Indians of North America was called “Wampum.” It is thus described by Roger WILLIAMS, of Salem, one of the earliest colonists :." It is of two sorts; one wbite, which is made of the stem or stalk of the periwinkle, wben all the shell is broken off; and of this, six small beads, which are made with holes to string bracelets, are current with the English for one peppy. The second is black, inclined to blue, and is made of the shell of a fish which some English call · Hens"- poquahock-and of this sort three are equal to one penny ; and one fathom of stringed wampum is worth five shillings."
Wampum was introduced into Massachusetts in the year 1628, from Manhades, Dow known as New York, and it appears from the description given of it by Governor BRADFORD, of Massachusetts, to have enriched the tribes by whom it was invented and manufactured, and to have greatly benefited the colonists, as it enabled both to get rid of the inconveniences of barter, which are among us perpetuated in the vulgar use of bits of bullion. Governor BRADFORD thus writes of symbolic wampum :
That which in time turns most to our advantage, is their now acquainting and entering us into the trade of wampum, by which and provisions we quite cut off the trade both from the fishermen and straggling planters. And strange it is to see the great alteration it, in a few years, makes among the savages, for the Massachusetts and others in these parts had scarce any, it being only made and kept among the Pequots and Narragapsetts, who grew rich and potent by it, whereas the rest who use it not are poor and beggarly."
In 1763, when Pontiac, the powerful chief of the wbole Northwest of American Continent, made war against the English, he issued representative money, in in the form of bills of credit or promises to pay, in hieroglypbics of his own invention, with the figure of an otter, his arms being beneath. This is affirmed in a scarce work, published in London in 1765, called “ A concise account of North America, by Major ROBERT ROGERS.” The Major visited Pontiac, after peace was ratified, in the course of his travels through the country, and saw that currency. He observes that the whole emission was duly redeemed.
The following account of the first issue of paper money in Europe, is taken from Washington Irving's Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada :
“ After the city of Albambra was taken from the Moors, the veteran Count DE TENDILLA was left governor, and we were informed that this Catholic cavalier at one time was destitute of gold and silver wherewith to pay the wages of his troops ; and the soldiers murmured greatly, seeing that they had not the means of purchasing necessaries from the people of the towns. In this dilemma what does this most sagacious commander ? He takes him a number of little morsels of paper, on which he inscribes various sums, large and small, according to the Dature of the case, and signs them with his own hand and name. These did he give to the soldiery in earnest of their pay. How ! you will say, are soldiers to be paid with scraps of paper ? Even so, I answer, and well paid too, as I will presently make manifest ; for the good count issued a proclamation ordering the inhabitants of Alhambra to take these morsels of paper for the full amount thereon inscribed. promising to redeem them at a future time with silver and gold, and threatening severe punishment to all who should refuse. The people having full confidence in his words, and trusting that he would be as willing to perform the one promise, as he certainly was able to perform the other, took those curious morsels of paper without hesitation or demur. Thus by a subtle and most mysterious kind of alchemy did this Catholic cavalier turn useless paper into precious gold, and make his impoverished garrison abound in money. It is but just to add that the Count of Tendilla redeemed his promise like a loyal knight; and this miracle, as it appeared in the eyes of ANTONIO AGREPIEDA, is the first instance on record in Europe of paper money, which has since inundated the civilized world with unbounded opulence."
UNTANNED LEATHER. The variety of leather knowo as “ Hungarian leather," at present used chiefly for harness and other similar purposes, is not prepared by tanning, but by impregnating the hide with alum, common salt, and oil. It differs essentially from that which is tapped and curried; for tanned leather consists, as is well known, not of the gelatine of which the hide is composed, joined with the lannin in mechanical union, but of a third substance, lanno-gelatine, as distinct from both as water or air are distinct from the gases of which they are respectively composed. The Hungarian leather, on the contrary, consists of the original fibrous tissue of the hides dried, contracted, and slightly changed in nature, but not converted into true leather. Another difference between the Hungarian and ordinary leather consists in the fact that the skius prepared by the first method lose, on an average, one-half of their original weight. This kind of leather can be prepared for market in three weeks in summer, and in about double that time in winter. The leather may be made at all seasons of the year, since the injurious effects of temperature can easily be counteracted.
DIFFICULTIES AND DANGERS OF BANK OFFICERS. We commend the following remarks from a cotemporary to those young men who are seeking situations in banking institutions :-In our cities and business towns there are no situations so eagerly sought after by young men who think they have any qualifications for such places as employment in our banking institutions. Young men argue that as bank officers are apparently employed but five or six hours per day, they must necessarily have an easy time of it; and when they hear of salaries ranging from six hundred to fifteen hủndred dollars, and once in a while up to two thousand dollars per annum, they fancy that if they could get such a place they would be completely satisfied.
Those who think thus, judge very superficially. They look only at the surface of things. It is true that the number of hours per day in which bank officers are engaged is less than that of most other occupations, and fortunate is it that it is so, or those officers would entirely break down under their combined labor and responsibility. The responsibility that accrues to a bank officer from his position is the element which secures him a large salary, as it should. Take a teller's position for instance. He is counting money unintermittingly five or six hours per day. His faculties must all the time be on the stretch or otherwise he will take counterfeit money, or pay out more money than the check which is presented for payment bears upon its face. After the business of the day is over he must balance his cash. Half the time it is wrong, and then comes a hunt which sometimes extends into the next day before the error is found. Meanwhile the teller goes home-to sleep-nay, to dream of losses of money, loss of bis situa. tion, responsibility of his bondsmen, and, perhaps, loss of character, and all for no fault of his own.
Such a state of mind—the inseparable companion of all bank officers in the commencement of their banking life, is but ill paid for by any amount of money, and if the officer is of sensitive organization, he generally grows the more sensitive the longer be continues in the business. He may be entirely honest himself, but he does not know and never can know that his associates in the bank will also be and continue honest; but he knows that if and when a fraud is perpetrated in the bank, there is great chance of his being involved in it, however innocent he may be.
Talk of the large salaries of our banking officers in view of these risks and these responsibilities. The salaries are not half large enough. Any other busiDess which crowded upon men such a weight of responsibility, would pay double what our banking institutions pay for it. Nor is this all. Certain banks prohibit the executive officers thereof from loaning money on the demand of presidepts or directors. Now and then, however, a president or director, in defiance of this salutary rule, importudes the teller, and if he refuses, the cashier, for such loans. If either of these officers refuse, they know that the soliciting di. rector or president will use bis influence against their retention in office, when.' ever that director or president may get an opportunity, for any president or director who will thus induce a subordinate officer to violate the rules of the bank, will be mean enough to use his influence against that subordinate if he is true to his trust. If the officer yields, the bank is endangered ; if he refuses, his own situation is in jeopardy.
Within a few years eases like the former have occurred in Boston, and in one instance a bank was ruined by the operation. In that case the cashier was censured ; but before that censure was made the community should have known the pressure upon him by those who, from their position, were really the offending parties. It was said that the cashier should have been more firm, but it would have required almost superhuman firmness to have met the case properly.