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KANAWHA CANAL. Governor Wise, in his late message to the Virginia Legislature, has the following interesting remarks on the Kanawha Canal and its railroad connections :

We have seen how much we can venture to expend at once on our improvements. We have but to review them as they now stand, to see their relative importance. The great argument for them all is, that they are indispensable to build up for us a center of trade; and for the value and effect of that I must refer you to my message to the last General Assembly

I repeat that the most important line of the State is the James River and Kanawha Canal. It should not be left where it is any longer. On the 11th February, 1856, I reported that this great work was left " without funds, without credit, bound by a mortgage, and resting its whole weight on the arm of the State." Since then nothing has been done but to appropriate the sums sufficient to meet the interest due on its debts up to 1st July last, and then the appropriations failed, and the State failed to pay its interest on guarantied bonds. This affected the State credit more injuriously than it did that of the canal I ask for an immediate appropriation of this interest, and for a permanent provision for it in future. For the reasons given in my message of 1856, I repeat the recommendation then made, “ that the capital stock of the company shall be increased to the amount of 80.000 shares, of which the State shall take 60,000 in payment of her debt and liabilities due by the canal, and the remaining 20,000 shall be sold, if practicable, to private persons, thus commuting the debt and liability of the State into stock of the company.” This will complete the canal to Covington; and when the Covington and Ohio Railroad is completed, the revenue, it is supposed, will pay the interest on the whole investment.

Besides the connection of this work with the Kanawha, it has another connection, which embraces one of the grandest developments of our State. The continental water-shed east of the Andes is from north to south. The only exception, remarkably, is chiefly in the western part of Virginia's territory. The New River rises far south in North Carolina, and passing our line runs northeast to Montgomery, and thence west of north, cuts through the whole range of the Allegbany Mountains, and rups north to the mouth of the Gauley, thence northwest to the Kapawha. It is one of the most remarkable water passages in the world, and full of development in every respect. Opposite its junction with the · Kanawha, eastward, the heads of the Monongabela rise and run northward to

Pittsburg. Thus Virginia alone has waters, for hundreds of miles, running from south to north, contrary to the general flow of waters. There is great power in this peculiarity of formation, and time will show that it is one of the elements of our future progress and greatness in wealth. It invites Virginia, by all means, to connect the James and the New rivers first, and the James and the Monongahela, if practicable, afterwards. I believe that the connection with New River is practicable, and surveys ought to be ordered for it. Looking to this, and secondarily to test the present location of the James River Canal across the Allegbany ridge, I ordered a small reconnoisance out of the contingent fund the past summer. The president and engineer of the canal gave me every facility and assistance, and I was further aided by Col. Smith of the institute with a corpse of its graduates. The report of Engineer LORRAINE will be submitted to you. I trust the General Assembly will, by a liberal appropriation, enable the institute to purchase a complete set of topographical instruments, and to organize a corps of civil engineers for surveys generally, and especially for ascertaining the best mode of connecting the James with New River, and of improving the navigation of the latter. I recommend to your attention the full and able report of Col. ELLIS on the affairs of the James River and Kanawha Company.

The next most important work is the Covington and Ohio Railroad. It ought to be completed in the shortest possible time. To that end I recommend an appropriation of two millions per annum until the work is finished to the Ohio. Argument is idle on this policy.

The other works should be classified according to their state of completion. . The Charlottesville and Lynchburg Road is nearly finished; the Norfolk and Petersburg Road is finished; the York River has reached the Pamunkey ; the Danville Road will soon be coppected with the works of North Carolina. Upon the whole, then, I recommend for the next two years the following appropriations : To the Covington and Obio Road...

$4,000,000 To the Manassas Gap Road............

200,000 To the extension of the Daoville Road ......

200,000 To the clearing of James and Appomattox rivers ..................

150,000 To all other works, as it may be distributed......................

450.000 Total recommended ..............................

...... $5,000,000 And by all means I urge the charter to construct the railroad from Strausburg to Winchester.

And the Harper's Ferry branch of the Manassas Railroad, (the Loudon branch) diverging from the main stem 21 miles from Alexandria, and 43 miles only in length, upon which $180,000 has been expended, ought to be constructed, to give us access to the northern border on our own territory.

The late transportation of troops from every point to Charlestown and Harper's Ferry and back, required that we should pass through the District of Columbia and Maryland, for the want of 18 miles of road, which the people have petitioned in vain to be allowed to construct at their own expense. It is positively necessary to the State if this border war continues, or ever be renewed. The ways are absolutely necessary for defence.

NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. The annual returns of the New York Central Railroad for the year to Sep. tember 30, 1859, gives the following leading figures as compared with previous years : Gross Transportation

Sinking Construction, earnings. expenses. Interest. fund. Dividends. Balance. 1853...... 23,029,000 4,787,520 .......

.. 1,919,564 .. 1854... 25,907,374 5,918,334 3,088,041 ....

... 1,919,564 ........ 1855.. 28,523,913 6,563,581 3,401,455 951,110 ...... 1,919,564 558,157 1856.. 29,786,372 7,707,348 4,097,867 1,067,759 17 1,182 1,919,564 1,301,036 1857.. 30,515,815 8,027,251 4,453,815 1,084,165 ..... 1,919,564 1,826,572 1858...... 30,732.517 6,528,412 3,487,292 1,089,486 113,294 1,919,564 1,594,326 1859...... 30,840,713 6,200,848 3,849,429 970,059 116,753 1,679,782 1,619,150

VIRGINIA RAILROAD EARNINGS.

The following table on the subject of the earnings of Virginia railroads is from the report of the Auditor of Public Works, and will be found interesting : A STATEMENT SHOWING THE GROSS AMOUNT DERIVED FROM TOLLS, FREIGAT, FARES, AND OTHER SOURCES OF THE RAILROAD AND RIVER COMPANIES.

Total amount

received fiscal Companies.

Total. Monthly average. year 1858-9. Virginia Central....................

$1,034,399 10 $54,442 06 $648,017 42 Virginia and Tennessee ............

875,991 42 58,399 43 678,194 43 Richmond and Danville..........

854,420 78 47,467 82 552,634 72 South Side.........

435,143 33 33,472 56 Richmond, Frederick, and Potomac... 452,374 70 23,809 19 279,945 98 Richmond and Petersburg,..........

253,041 68 13,317 98 162.815 75 Winchester and Potomac............

92,727 64 5,141 49 63,064 43 Roanoke Valley ..................

17,483 17 1,589 38 James River and Kapawha......

180,359 40 20,039 93 Elk River Bridge ...............

2,465 38 145 02 1,847 88

STATISTICS OF AGRICULTURE, &c.

AGRICULTURE OF PRUSSIA, The value of land in Prussia was very low when Mr. Jacob visited it in 1825. He mentions a farm of 2,800 acres of good sandy loam, chiefly arable, which was sold during the time he was in the country for £5,300, or not quite 40s. per acre. Another farm of 4,200 acres of inferior quality had been mortgaged for £3,000. The mortgagee foreclosed, but upon the property being put up for sale it would not fetch the amount of the mortgage, and the creditor was obliged to take it. This cost him little more than 14s. per acre, and being a wealthy man he was able to expend £2,000 more upon it, and thus probably made it a more profitable concern than the previous owner had it in his power to do.

Such was the state of land in Prussia in 1825 ; since which time the system of subdivision has gone on rapidly without any change in the social or political condition of the country to relieve the peasant proprietors from the heavy tax upon their time and labor inflicted by the Landwehr. A striking example of the effect of this law occurred during the late war between the French and Austrians. The apprehensions entertained by the German States that the contest would be extended to the banks of the Rbine, induced the Prussian government to mobilize the Landwehr, or, in other words, to call out the whole of the male population, which was also done by the other States, members of the German Confederation. A friend of the writer's, residing at Bonn, described the effect upon industry as most destructive. "Commerce, manufactures, and agriculture were at a dead lock, and not hands enough were left in the rural districts to get in the harvest.” The following was the distribution of the land in 1852 :

Number. Proportion. Farms under

936,570 50.20 * from 4 to 19"

565,354

28.76 ** from 19 to 189 “ ..

382,515 19.46 " from 189 to 378 “ ..

14,020

0 71 " above 378 "

17,003 0.87 Total. .....................

1,915,462 100.00 The above statement is taken from the official papers of the Board of Trade. It exhibits an increase of more than four-and-a-half to one since Mr. Jacob's time, in the number of farms under fifty acres, and of more than three-and-aquarter to one of those under two hundred and fifty acres. The land is occupied in the following manner :Acres.

Acres. Gardens, vinyarde, & orcbards 892,079 | Forests ...........

13,614,564 Under tillage............. 30,094,640 ! Uncultivated .............. 13,529,614 Meadows.................. 5,266,449 Permanent pastures ....... 5,419,192 Total. ............... 68,816,538

The following was the entire produce of the principal crops in the year 1851:Wheat ................qrs. 3,674,663 Oats .................qrs. 14,218,125 Rye.................... ...... !2,020,250 Potatoes.........

52,593,750 Barley .................. 3,600,000 Total ..........

..................... 86,106,788

4 acr

.............

It is evident from this latter table that wheaten bread forms no part of the common food of the population. Mr. Jacob states that from the time he left the Netherlands, in passing through Saxony, Prussia, Poland, Austria, Bavaria, Wurtemburg, &c., until he entered France, he saw neither in the bakers' shops, in the hotels, nor in private houses, a loaf of wheaten bread. The only form in which it could be purchased was that of small rolls, and they were only seen when foreigners were at table. We believe that since that period it has come more into use amongst the wealthy classes; but still the domestic consumption is very small, the quantity grown as above stated not allowing more than 14 bushel per head per appum. The wheat exported from Dantzic and other Prussian ports comes chiefly from the Polish provinces of Prussia and Russia, where the land is very good, and wheat is more extensively cultivated. Rye bread is universally eaten by all classes, and with potatoes constitutes the only food of the lower classes, meat being a luxury beyond their means of purchasing. The following was the number of live stock in Prussia in 1849 :Hors 1,575,471 | Goats.

584,771 Cattle ................... 5,371,644 Swine ................... 2,466,316 Sheep .... .............. 16,296,928 Wool produced......... lbs. 35,852,343

Between the years 1849 and 1852 there were brought into cultivation 2,748,880 acres of new land, and applied as follows :Acres.

Acres. Gardens, vinyards, &c...... 68,228 | Forest planted........ 1,143,176 Tillage ................... 1,195,110 Meadow ..

170,067 Permanent pasture ........ 172,299 Total.......................

2,748,880 The following is an approximate estimate of the distribution of the land into farms, exclusive of forests :936,570 farms, averaging 24 acres...

2,841,425 565,354 10 "

5,653,540 382,515

22,950,900 14,020

3,505,000 17,003

8,501,500

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250

500

Total..........

42,952,365 The above is sufficiently near to give the reader an idea of the different grades of agriculturists, according to the extent of their holdings.

VINTAGE OF CALIFORNIA. A stranger visiting this locality for the first time is not apt to be very favorably impressed with the Pueblo of Los Angeles ; but a day or two devoted to inspecting its vinyards and wine cellars, and in familiar intercourse with its hospitable people, he can hardly fail to carry away with him pleasant and profitable recollections of his sojourn here. Such, at least, is the experience of a correspondent, who left San Francisco November 3d, and arrived there on the 5th. He writes, that the vinyards, of course, constitute the chief object of interest to a visitor here, and really I confess that I have seldom enjoyed anything more than I have my inspection of the important and rapidly improving wine-growing district of this section. A few facts in regard to this year's vintage may be valuable. I learn from authentic sources that the total production of wine will be about 340,000 gallons, divided as follows :- By Kobler, Frohling & Bauch-at Workman's vipyard, 10,400 gallons; at Roland's, 12,000 gallops; at their own vinyard, 10,000 gallons; at Coronel's, 12,000 gallons; at Wolfskill's, 50,000 gallons ; total, 94,000 gallons. By Sainsevain's, 60,000 ; by Saipserain's per Wilson, near San Gabriel, 30,000 ; by Keller, 50,000 ; by Dr. White, 12,000 ; by Rains, (Cocomungo,) 8,000 ; by Clement, 8,000; by Barron, 7,000; by Huber, 5,000 ; by Laborie, 6,000 ; by Muloch, 5,000 ; by Wyse, 5,000; by Covitzi, 4,000; by Ballerino, 4,000 ; by Messer, 4,000 ; by Dr. Hoover, 3,000 ; by Proudhome, 3,000 ; by Barrows, 2,000; by others, 20,000 to 30,000.

In addition to the wine made, the Messrs. Sainsevain will make of brandy about 3,500 gallons. Messrs. Kohler & Co. will also make a considerable quantity of brandy; but I do not know how much. Many think there is not more than two-thirds of a grape crop this season, although there are considerably more bearing vines this year than last in the country. The season has been unfavorable, and many vinyards have been affected with iodium, and last spring many vines were seriously damaged by the cut-worm eating the buds. It is not often, however, that the vine here in Los Angeles suffers from either of these evils-only once in many years. Next year something like half a million of young vines will come into bearing. Comparatively few grapes were shipped to San Francisco this season. A full wine crop should have reached 400,000 or 500,000 gallons. The Wolfskill's vipyard, the largest in southern California, produces this year about 200 tons of grapes. This vinyard, and also Mr. Wilson's, yields something like a full crop, while others have not half a crop.

RICE CROPS. Comparative statement of the total rice crop of South Carolina and Georgia for 1858 and 1859 :SOUTH CAROLINA.

1859. 1858. Exported to foreign ports from Charleston .......

36,158 Coastwise....

99,057

...... City consumption for the year.......

19,800 Burnt ......::::

3,500 i Stock on hand September 1, 1859... is

1,145 Tierces ....

159,660 Deduct, received from Savannah, Georgia.......... 209 Stock on hand September 1, 1858................. 3,358

3,567

Total South Carolina..................... tierces

166,093

149,061

GEORGIA.

ces

Exported to foreign ports from Savvannah ...............

7,206 Coastwise....

30,501 Total Georgia.............

............. tierces 37,709 31,345 Total South Carolina and Georgia.......... 193,800 180,406

Increase in 1859........ ..........tierces 13,394 The city consumption and stock on hand on the 1st September at Savannah are not included in the above.

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