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with hard labor, for the purpose of comforting those that were sinking under labor. He was scourged, that those on whom the devil had inflicted wounds might be healed. He remained in dungeons, to free those from bondage who sat in the shadow of death, and crown them with light. He was frequently in deaths, with a view of liberating others from the second death. Five times he received forty stripes, save one, for the purpose of delivering those who were chastened of the devil. Thrice he was beaten with rods, that he might reduce men to the ruling rod and golden sceptre of Jesus Christ. He was stoned, to deliver man from his rocky and adamantine heart. He was in the wilderness, with a view of reclaiming lost man, and restoring him to the fold of God. He was in journeyings, for the purpose of gathering up the vagabonds and of opening to them the path of life. He was exposed to perils in cities, that that he might direct lost man to the city of God. He endured hunger and thirst, to deliver sinners from the terrible famine of hell. He submitted to nakedness, with a view of covering the naked sinner with the snow-white wedding garment. He was frequently in tumults, for the purpose of gathering fallen man from the rude rabble of hell. He was scorched, that he might extinguish the fiery darts of Satan. Through a window he

was let down by the wall, that those who were wallowing in the mire, might be elevated to heaven.

But it is not possible to speak of all he did and suffered, seeing he himself has not left much of it on record. But we might here speak of the accommodation of riches, of the comforts of marriage, of the advantages of citizenship, liberty and friends, yet all these advantages he accounted as nothing, and even proceeded to hold them in contempt. He endured martyrdom, not merely once, for he died daily. Thus this blessed man, in one body, and with one mind, endured such numerous and terrible sufferings, as would have daunted a heart of adamant with a soul of fire. And what all the saints passed through, he singly encountered himself and regarding the world as one great circus, or field of combat, he enters, divested of everything, boldly and generously sustains the united shock of earth and hell. This the legions of darkness saw, and vigorously opposed him. It was from the gloomy dungeon itself, that his glory dawned, and continued to shine with increasing lustre to the conclusion of his career. Nor did the tempest of persecution cease to roar, till like Elijah, he ascended in a chariot of fire to heaven, to receive the plaudit of his judge, and the order of immortality. CHRYSOSTOM.

OPEN COUNCIL.

[The utmost freedom of honest thought is permitted in this department. The reader must therefore use his own discriminating faculties, and the Editor must be allowed to claim freedom from responsibility.]

HOLYDAYS.

REPLICANT. In answer to QUERIST No. 17, p. 355, vol. xiii. St. Paul sharply rebukes the Galatians (iv. 10, 11) for the observance of "days, and months, and times, and years." On this account some have considered the observance of holydays to be unscriptural and contrary to the genius of Christianity. Those, however, who regard the observance of the first day of the week as the festival of the Resurrection to be right, must admit that they thus yield the principle; since there is no direct, literal precept for such observance. Again, no one would assert that the observance of birthdays, wedding days, and the like, in families, was wrong; but if such a practice be lawful in the family, why should an analogous one be unlawful in the Church? Let us come to Scripture. The observance of " times" is condemned in Levit. xix. 26, and in Deut. viii. 10, and is classed with passing children through the fire, divination, enchantment and witchcraft. We conclude from this classification that the "times" whose observance was forbidden were those which were held in honor by the heathens of Canaan. It is certain that the principle is not condemned, since the Mosaic law itself enjoins the observance of days, and seasons and years. These were abolished by Christianity, and the observance of them by the Galatians was mere Judaizing. But the observance of others, peculiar to Christianity, is not condemned. Our Lord observed the Feast of Dedication which was not commanded in the

Mosaic law; thus sanctioning the principle of commemorating events by days. Thus there appears to be nothing irrational, or unscriptural, in the observance of days for the remembrance of the incidents of the Gospel history, or to stir us up to imitation of the holy dead. See Col. ii. 16; Rom. xiv. 6.

HOLYDAYS.

REPLICANT. In answer to QUERIST No. 17, p. 355, vol. xiii. The observance of holydays is, in the New Testament, a thing left to the conscience of each man. In its favour we have our Lord's example, who observed the Festivals of the Jews, and gave tacit consent to one of human institution (John x. 22). St. Paul teaches the true principle (Rom. iv. 5). His remarks in Gal. iv. 10, Col. ii. 16, are against those who make a compulsory obligation of what is a voluntary duty, left to every man's convictions.

THE BEST GREEK TESTAMENT.

REPLICANT. In answer to QUERIST No. 18, p. 355, vol. xiii. It is difficult to name any one commentator as the best. The palm, in this country, is contested by Alford on the one hand, and by Webster and Wilkinson on the other. Alford leaves few things unnoticed, and is remarkably free. Yet he is somewhat crotchetty, and a little inclined to prolixity. W. and W. may be strongly commended for indicating delicate shades of meaning in words, and for thus turning mature scholarship to account. Yet they are, perhaps, too much fettered by system. On the whole, we

advise the swimmer to throw away corks as soon as possible. We

are convinced that the best New Testament scholarship can never be made by modern commentators, but comes of study of the Book itself, with a good Concordance, the Syriac and Vulgate versions, the Hebrew Bible and Septuagint, the Apocrypha, Philo, Josephus, the early Fathers, the Antioch Commentators, and the Greek classics.

MAN'S NATURE.

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REPLICANT. In answer to QUERIST No. 19, p. 355, vol. xiii. The question may be much illuminated by the consideration of the Scriptural use of the word nature, puois. St. Paul condemns things which are contrary to nature," (Rom. i. 26), says that the Gentiles do by nature the things of the law" (Rom. ii. 14), and appeals to the teaching of nature (I Cor. xi. 14.) Yet, on the other hand, he speaks of himself and others as "by nature the children of wrath" (Ephes. ii. 3.) In the former class of passages, he seems to refer to man's original and fundamental constitution, which may be partially discerned even in his present state; and, in the last passage, of the present deranged nature, which is as a piece of mechanism disorganized or an instrument out of tune. The former use of the word is the more proper and profound, since sin can only be spoken of in a secondary way as natural. Ecclesiastical writers often use the word as equipollent with "that which is born of the flesh" (John iii. 6,) the lower part of man, as opposed to spirit and grace. Yet the complete man, τὸ ὁλόκληρον-τὸ πνεῦμα και ἡ ψυχὴ καὶ τὸ owμa, is, strictly and precisely, the true human nature; and sin is most emphatically a violation of nature.

CAMPBELL ON THE ATONEMENT.

[Answer postponed.]

THE EVIL SPIRIT IN SAUL.
1 SAM. XVIII. 10.

REPLICANT. In answer to QUERIST No. 21, p. 355, vol. xiii. "And it I was on the morrow that an evil spirit of God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house." Compare chap. xvi. 14-16. An evil spirit under God's control, and by God's permission. Since prophesying was sometime accompanied with a species of frenzy, a man beside himself, in ecstasy, is spoken of as prophesying. The French version says, homme transporté." Or, since God's prophets were possessed with His spirit, so, by analogy, and in a bad sense, when a man was possessed by an evil spirit, he was said to prophesy. Madness and prophesying are conjoined in Jer. xxix. 26. See also 2 Kings ix. 11, where a true prophet is derided as mad.

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Literary Notices.

[We hold it to be the duty of an Editor either to give an early notice of the books sent to him for remark, or to return them at once to the Publisher. It is anjust to praise worthless books; it is robbery to retain unnoticed ones.]

THE REVIEWER'S

CANON.

In every work regard the author's end,

Since none can compass more than they intend.

LIFE AND PHILANTHROPIC LABORS OF ANDREW REED, D.D. By his Sons. London: Strahan & Co.

DR. REED was a man of undoubted greatness. He had but few equals amongst the ministers of his own persuasion. In mental and moral stature he towered head and shoulders above most. Many of his brethren, and some whom we heard some years ago endeavoring to damage his reputation appeared almost pitiably small by his side. He thought as a philosopher, planned as a statesman, and felt as a devout philanthrophist. Once only, we heard him preach, and that was on a public occasion, some twenty years ago; and we were then struck with the thorough grasp he had of the subject in hand, the simplicity of his manner, the clearness of his diction, and the soul-stirring potency of his tenderness. The feeling that played upon his countenance, and trembled on his lip, made every sentence eloquent. He was too big for any denomination. The denominational air on which, alas, most ministers live, would not suit his spiritual lungs. Such a life as his deserved a permanent record. His sons have discharged their duty with delicacy of feeling, discrimination of judgment, and considerable literary ability. May these relics of a sainted man, like the buried bones of Elisha, touch the dead to life!

THE FOUNDATIONS OF OUR FAITH. BY PROFESSOR A. Goss, and others. London: Strahan & Co.

HERE are ten lectures on what are called "The Foundations of Faith." The subjects follow the order of the Apostles' Creed. This is their connexion :-The subjects are- -What is Faith ?-Nature or God,-Sin, its nature and consequences,-The Old Testament Dispensation of the Heathen World,--The Person of Jesus Christ,-Christ's Atonement for Sin-His Resurrection and Ascension,-The Holy Spirit and the Christian Church,-The Doctrine of Justification by Faith,-The Future Life. These subjects, which are confessedly vital ones, are here treated by various authors, and with various degrees of ability. The variety of treatment gives a charm to the volume. Some of these papers are very

masterly. They display a very profound acquaintance with the nature of man, the theory of moral restoration, and the methods of the Divine government. The book as a whole is very valuable, and its advent very opportune.

GOODWIN'S WORKS.

Vol. VII.

London: James Nisbet & Co.

HERE is another volume from the prolific and somewhat prosy pen of Dr. Goodwin. There are men who are, we suppose, theological authorities of the age, who see wonderful things in this author's productions, and we must, of course, believe that such things are to be found in them by the tutored initiates. We confess to a lack of that faculty which seems necessary to the discovery. We see, indeed, that which we find in almost every popular evangelical work of the day, but nothing more. Albeit, we rejoice in their republication for many reasons, and trust that the enterprising publisher will meet with a satisfactory reward.

THE THRESHOLD OF REVELATION. By REV. W. S. LEWIS, M.A. London: Rivingtons.

THE discussions of this book are confined to the first chapter, and the first three verses of the second chapter, of Genesis. Its plan is thus described in the author's own language :-"I desire in the following pages to give a thoughtful and candid consideration to the objections in question. I would take occasion from them. that is to say, carefully to examine in the first place the portion of Holy Scripture to which they object to examine it, as I have said, as inspired, and to investigate, on this supposition, the statements it contains. I purpose endeavoring thus to ascertain how far the statements thus found accord with this view; how far they appear worthy of that Great Author to whom this assumption in reality attributes them; how far they harmonize with those other Scriptures which we believe to have come from Him; and how far they agree, and are meant to agree, with the language of His works." The work is very original in its structure, vigorous in its thinkings, practical in its bearing, and displays a large acquaintance, not only with the scheme of Revelation, but also with scientific truth.

WORDS FROM THE GOSPELS. By CHARLES J. VAUGHAN, D.D. London and Cambridge: Macmillan & Co.

HERE is another valuable volume of discourses from the fertile brain and accomplished pen of one of the most valuable religious teachers of the age. The subjects of these discourses are:-Ignorant PrayersChrist Eating with Sinners-Gospel Righteousness-Four Thousand Men Fed in the Wilderness--Mismanagement of Eternal Interest— the Divinity of Work-The Gradual Miracle-The Gospel Fire-The Unchangeable Words-The Offence of Christ-The Voice in the Wilderness-&c., &c. Altogether, the number of discourses is twenty-two. They

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