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FIELD SERVICE REGULATIONS.

U. S. ARMY.

ARTICLE I.

ORGANIZATION.

LAND FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES.

1. The militia consists of all the able-bodied male citizens of the respective States, Territories, and the District of Columbia (including males of foreign birth who have declared intention to become citizens) between the ages of 18 and 45 years. This body, from which the land and naval forces of the United States are drawn, is divided into two classes-the organized militia of the several States, Territories, and the District of Columbia, and the reserve militia. Persons in the military or naval service of the United States are exempt from militia duty.

2. The organized land forces of the United States, in peace and in war, consist of the Army of the United States and of the organized militia when called into the service of the United States. In time of peace the Army of the United States consists of the Regular Army, which is the permanent establishment; in time of war it consists of the Regular Army and the Volunteer Army, the latter being maintained only during the existence of war or while war is imminent.

UNITS OF ORGANIZATION.

3. In time of peace the largest permanent unit is generally the regiment, but when authorized by the President, brigades and divisions composed of organizations of the Regular Army, or of the militia, or of both, may be organized for the purpose of instruction.

Such brigades and divisions to be organized as follows:

A brigade to consist of two or more regiments of infantry, three being the normal organization.

A division to consist of

3 brigades of infantry,
1 regiment of cavalry,
2 regiments of field artillery, organized as a brigade,
1 battalion of engineers,
1 company of signal corps,
4 field hospitals,
1 ammunition column,
1 supply column, and

1 pack train. A cavalry brigade to consist of two or three regiments, three being the normal organization; when acting independently one battalion of horse artillery to be attached. A cavalry division to consist of

3 brigades of cavalry,
1 regiment of horse artillery,
1 company of engineers (mounted),
1 company of signal.corps (mounted),
1 ammunition column,
1 supply column, and

2 field hospitals (with light transportation). In the discretion of the President, the composition of the units mentioned hereinbefore may be varied whenever in his judgment the public interests so require.

The normal staffs for the brigades and divisions mentioned in this paragraph will be as follows: For a division

1 chief of staff, colonel.
1 adjutant-general, lieutenant-colonel.
1 inspector-general, lieutenant-colonel.
1 judge-advocate, lieutenant-colonel.
1 chief quartermaster, lieutenant-colonel.
1 chief commissary, lieutenant-colonel.
1 chief surgeon, lieutenant-colonel.
1 chief engineer, lieutenant-colonel.
1 chief ordnance officer, lieutenant-colonel.
1 chief signal officer, lieutenant-colonel.

3 aids, captains or lieutenants. For a brigade

1 adjutant-general, major.
1 quartermaster, major.
1 commissary, major.
1 surgeon, major.
2 aids, lieutenants.

In addition to the staff officers mentioned in this paragraph and their necessary assistants, such other staff officers may be detailed and are authorized as may be deemed desirable for the proper administration of a command.

When smaller units than are herein provided for are brought together in time of peace, suitable staffs may be detailed therefor. (125482, A. G. O.)

4. In time of war, or when war is imminent, troops in the service of the United States, whether belonging to the Regular or Volunteer Army, or to the militia, will be organized, as far as practicable, into divisions of three brigades, each brigade to be composed of three or more regiments.

Whenever three or more divisions are assembled in the same army, the President is authorized to organize them into army corps, each corps to consist of not more than three divisions.

The horse batteries of the division may be combined into a separate command, and as corps artillery remain under direct control of the corps commander.

When several army corps are united under the command of one chief they constitute an army. One or more cavalry divisions usually form part of such an organization.

5. Brigades in divisions and divisions in army corps receive numerical designations upon organization; for example, first brigade, second division,” “third division, fourth army corps.

Army corps are organized only by special authority from the President, and are numbered in the sequence of the dates of their organization.

Šeparate armies receive territorial designations.

6. The division is both a tactical and an administrative unit. In matters relating to courts-martial, the supply service, and money and property accountability, the administrative control vested in commanders of territorial departments devolves, in the field, upon division commanders, under the orders of the commanding general of the army or department.

Commanders of separate brigades have the powers of division commanders when the troops under their command have been officially designated in orders from department or army headquarters as constituting “a separate brigade.

7. The division forms the basis of army organization. It should be complete in all its parts and capable of acting independently at any time. When brigades are detached they will be supplied with the due proportion of the auxiliary arms and services corresponding to their independent functions and the nature of the special service expected.

8. In time of war the assignment of regiments to brigades, brigades to divisions, divisions to army corps, and army corps and cavalry divisions to armies, with names of commanders and the higher staff officers, will be published in tables of organization emanating from the War Department under authority of the President. Such arrangement will not be changed by subordinate authority except temporarily, and then only for cogent reasons.

As the troops arrive at rendezvous they will be assigned to the places indicated in the table of organization.

9. In time of war when the land forces of the United States are organized into brigades, divisions, army, corps, and cavalry divisions, a list and description of the symbols, flags, pennants, and badges by which these units shall be distinguished will be published by the War Department.

COMMANDERS AND STAFF.

10. The commanders of army corps and of separate armies are designated by the President. When two or more armies are combined under the direction of one commander he will be distinguished by the title of general in chief.

In case of death or disability of the commanding general of an army or corps the next in rank shall exercise command until the will of the President be known.

11. All military units larger than a company are provided with staffs of commissioned officers, whose number and rank increase with the size of the command. In units larger than a brigade, and in separate forces commanded by a general officer, the staff service is under the supervision of an officer of the general staff designated as chief of staff:

12. The military staff of the commanding general of an army will consist of the aids authorized by law (personal staff), the chief of staff, officers of the General Staff

, the Adjutant-General's and Inspector-General's Departments, the chiefs of artillery, cavalry, engineers, and signal corps, and a propost-marshal-general. The administrative staff will consist of superior officers of the Quartermaster's, Subsistence, Pay, Medical, Ordnance, and Judge-Advocate-General's Departments, with such subordinate officers as may be required.

13. The commanding officer, his staff, and the personnel attached thereto constitute the headquarters of a military command.

An officer detailed as commander of the headquarters guard of an army, corps, or division is vested with authority to establish, arrange, and command the headquarters camp and to place the posts

and guards. He will direct the movements of and furnish the escort for the headquarters train, and in cooperation with the provostmarshal preserve order at headquarters.

14. The chief of staff of an army should enjoy the complete confidence of the commanding general and a considerable degree of independence in the performance of his ordinary duties. He organizes and supervises the operations of all the staff departments and regulates the details thereof by means of orders issued in the name of the commanding general. In all matters the wishes and directions of the commanding general, either expressed or implied, must form the basis of action by the chief of staff. It is the duty of the latter to bring to the notice of the commanding general all matters requiring attention, and, when called upon, to indicate the action he deems necessary or desirable.

The chief of staff, after working out the necessary details, converts the ideas and decisions of the commanding general into orders or instructions, conveys them to the troops, and sees that they are executed. In these duties he is assisted by such officers of the General Staff, of the Adjutant-General's Department, and InspectorGeneral's Department as may be necessary,

He elaborates the arrangements for exploration and protection, and for the marching, fighting, and camping or quartering of the troops, establishes a service of information concerning the theater of war and the enemy's forces, collects important material for reports of operations and subsequent history of the war, and exercises a general supervision over all records and returns and the supply of suitable maps. He should be informed at all times as to the state of supplies and the strength, armament, equipment, health, marching powers, and morale of the troops and be prepared to render a report thereon. He issues instructions to the provost-marshalgeneral and to the general commanding the base and line of communications of the army, draws up the orders for special reconnaissances, raids, and detached service, and administers through intelligence officers, the intelligence service, which comprises within its functions the field post-office, the secret service, the subject of reconnaissance and the collection, preparation, and distribution of military information, including maps and sketches. He performs such special functions as may be delegated to him by the commanding general.

The duties of chief of staff of a corps and of smaller commands are similar to those detailed above.

15. The chiefs of the administrative services will organize the administration of their respective services and exercise the super

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