讀者評論 - 撰寫評論
according action advance guard allowed ammunition animals arms army arrangements artillery assigned assistance attack authority belligerents body brigade camp carried cars cavalry charge chief column commanding officer communication consist convoy corps cover defense Department detachments detailed direction distance division duty effective enemy enemy's engagement engineer established field fire flank force formation front ground halts horses hospital hostile important infantry instructions issued main body means miles military mounted necessary night observation occupied operations orders organized outpost party patrols persons picket placed position possible posts practicable prepared prevent prisoners protection rations rear rear guard regimental remain reserve roads rule sent sentinels sergeants ship soon staff strength supply taken tion trains transportation troops units unless usually wagons wounded yards
第 198 頁 - ... allows of all destruction of property, and obstruction of the ways and channels of traffic, travel, or communication, and of all withholding of sustenance or means of life from the enemy ; of the appropriation of whatever an enemy's country affords necessary for the subsistence and safety of the army...
第 200 頁 - The law of war does not allow proclaiming either an individual belonging to the hostile army, or a citizen, or a subject of the hostile government an outlaw, who may be slain without trial by any captor, any more than the modern law of peace allows such international outlawry; on the contrary, it abhors such outrage.
第 201 頁 - The law of war can no more wholly dispense with retaliation than can the law of nations of which it is a branch ; yet civilized nations acknowledge retaliation as the sternest feature of war. A reckless enemy often leaves to his opponent no other means of securing himself against the repetition of barbarous outrage.
第 199 頁 - Commanders, whenever admissible, inform the enemy of their intention to bombard a place, so that the non-combatants, and especially the women and children, may be removed before the bombardment commences ; but it is no infraction of the common law of war to omit thus to inform the enemy. Surprise may be a necessity.
第 217 頁 - ... 140. Commanding officers have the right to conclude armistices binding on the district over which their command extends, but such armistice is subject to the ratification of the superior authority, and ceases so soon as it is made known to the enemy that the armistice is not ratified, even if a certain time for the elapsing between giving notice of cessation and the resumption of hostilities should have been stipulated for.
第 198 頁 - Nevertheless, as civilization has advanced during the last centuries, so has likewise steadily advanced, especially in war on land, the distinction between the private individual belonging to a hostile country and the hostile country itself, with its men in arms. The principle has been more and more acknowledged that the unarmed citizen is to be spared in person, property and honor as much as the exigencies of war will admit.
第 190 頁 - The personnel protected in virtue of the first paragraph of article 9, and articles 10 and 11, will wear attached to the left arm a brassard bearing a red cross on a white ground, which will be issued and stamped by competent military authority, and accompanied by a certificate of identity in the case of persons attached to the sanitary service of armies who do not have military uniform.
第 209 頁 - Men, or squads of men, who commit hostilities, whether by fighting, or inroads for destruction or plunder, or by raids of any kind, without commission, without being part and portion of the organized hostile army, and without sharing continuously in the war, but who do so with intermitting returns to their homes and avocations, or with the occasional assumption of the semblance of peaceful pursuits...
第 216 頁 - No prisoner of war can be forced by the hostile government to parole himself, and no government is obliged to parole prisoners of war, or to parole all captured officers, if it paroles any. As the pledging of the parole is an individual act, so is paroling, on the other hand, an act of choice on the part of the belligerent.
第 196 頁 - As Martial Law is executed by military force, it is incumbent upon those who administer it to be strictly guided by the principles of justice, honor, and humanity — virtues adorning a soldier even more than other men, for the very reason that he possesses the power of his arms against the unarmed.