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openheartedness. This Minister asked the Bishop what books he studied most, when he laid the foundation of his great and clear learning. To which his answer was, “ that he declined reading many ; but what he did read were well chosen, and read so often, that he became very familiar with them ;” and said, “they were chiefly three, Aristotle's Rhetoric, Aquinas's Secunda Secunda, and Tully, but chiefly his Offices, which he had not read over less than twenty times, and could at this age say without book.” And told him also, “the learned Civilian Doctor Zouch-who died lately--had writ Elementa Jurisprudentia, which was a book that he could also say without book; and that no wise man could read it too often, or love or commend too much ;” and told him “these had been his toil : but for himself he always had a natural love to genealogies and Heraldry ; and that when his thoughts were harassed with any perplexed studies, he left off, and turned to them as a recreation ; and that his very recreation had made him so perfect in them, that he could, in a very short time, give an account of the descent, arms, and antiquity of any family of the Nobility or gentry of this nation."
Before I give an account of Dr. Sanderson's last sickness, I desire to tell the Reader that he was of a healthful constitution, cheerful and mild, of an even temper, very moderate in his diet, and had had little sickness, till some few years before his death; but was then every winter punished with a diarrhæa, which left not till warm weather returned and removed it: and this distem. per did, as he grew older, seize him oftener, and continue longer with him. But though it weakened him, yet it made him rather indisposed than sick, and did no way disable him from studying -indeed too much.—In this decay of his strength, but not of his memory or reason,—for this distemper works not upon the understanding,-he made his last Will, of which I shall give some account for confirmation of what hath been said, and what I think convenient to be known, before I declare his death and burial.
He did in his last Will,* give an account of his faith and per
* Bishop Sanderson's Will is recorded in the Prerogative Court of Canteibury, in the volume called Juxon, Article 37. After his death, it was industriously reported that he repented of his writing against the Presbyterians, and
suasion in point of Religion, and Church-government, in these
“ I, Robert Sanderson, Doctor of Divinity, an unworthy Minister of Jesus Christ, and, by the providence of God, Bishop of Lincoln, being by the long continuance of an habitual distemper brought to a great bodily weakness and faintness of spirits, butby the great mercy of God-without any bodily pain otherwise, or decay of understanding, do make this my Will and Testament,-written all with my own hand, -revoking all fo.mer Wills by me heretofore made, if any such shall be found. First, I commend my soul into the hands of Almighty God, as of a faithful Creator, which I humbly beseech him mercifully to accept, looking upon it, not as it is in itself,—infinitely polluted with sin, -but as it is redeemed and purged with the precious blood of his only beloved Son, and my most sweet Saviour Jesus Christ; in confidence of whose merits and mediation alone it is, that I cast myself upon the mercy of God for the pardon of my sins, and the hopes of eternal life. And here I do profess, that as I have lived, so I desire, and—by the grace of God—resolve, to die in the communion of the Catholic Church of Christ, and a true son of the Church of England : which, as it stands by law established, to be both in doctrine and worship agreeable to the word of God, and in the most, and most material points of both, conformable to the faith and practice of the godly Churches of Christ in the primitive and purer times, I do firmly believe : led so to do, not so much from the force of custom and education,—to which the greatest part of mankind owe their particular different persuasions in point of Religion,—as upon the clear evidence of truth and reason, after a serious and impartial examination of the grounds, as well of Popery as Puritanism, according to that measure of understanding, and those opportunities which God hath afforded me: and herein I am abundantly satisfied, that the schism which the Papists on the one hand, and the superstition which the Puritan on the other hand, lay to our charge, are very justly chargeable upon themselves respectively. Wherefore I humbly beseech Almighty God, the Father of mercies, to preserve the would not suffer a Church Minister to pray by him, which is refuted by the narrative of Mr. Pullin's giving him the Sacrament.
Church by his power and providence, in peace, truth, and godliness, evermore to the world's end : which doubtless he will do, if the wickedness and security of a sinful people—and particularly those sins that are so rife, and seem daily to increase among us, of unthankfulness, riot, and sacrilege-do not tempt his patience to the contrary. And I also further humbly beseech him, that it would please him to give unto our gracious Sovereign, the reverend Bishops, and the Parliament, timely to consider the great danger that visibly threatens this Church in point of Religion by the late great increase of Popery, and in point of revenue by sacrilegious inclosures; and to provide such wholesome and effectual remedies, as may prevent the same before it be too late.”
And for a further manifestation of his humble thoughts and desires, they may appear to the Reader by another part of his Will which follows.
“ As for my corruptible body, I bequeath it to the earth whence it was taken, to be decently buried in the Parish Church of Buckden, towards the upper end of the Chancel, upon the second, orat the furthest the third day after my decease ; and that with as little noise, pomp, and charge as may be, without the invitation of any person how near soever related unto me, other than the inhabitants of Buckden ; without the unnecessary expence of escutcheons, gloves, ribbons, &c. and without any blacks to be hung any where in or about the house or Church, other than a pulpit cloth, a hearse-cloth, and a mourning gown for the Preacher; whereof the former-after my body shall be interred—to be given to the Preacher of the Funeral Sermon, and the latter to the Curate of the Parish for the time being. And my will further is that the Funeral Sermon be preached by my own household Chaplain, containing some wholesome discourse concerning Mortality, the Resurrection of the Dead, and the Last Judgment; and that he shall have for his pains 5l. upon condition that he speak nothing at all concerning my person, either good or ill, other than I myself shall direct; only signifying to the auditory that it was my express will to have it so. And it is my will, that no costly monument be erected for my memory, but only a fair flat marble stone to be laid over me, with this inscription in legi. ble Roman characters, DEPOSITUM ROBERTI SANDERSON NUPER LIN
COLNIENSIS EPISCOPI, QUI OBIIT ANNO DOMINI MDCLXII. ET ÆTATIS SUÆ SEPTUAGESIMO SEXTO, HIC REQUIESCIT IN SPE BEATÆ RESURRECTIONIS. This manner of burial, although I cannot but fore. see it will prove unsatisfactory to sundry my nearest friends and relations, and be apt to be censured by others, as an evidence of my too much parsimony and narrowness of mind, as being altoge. ther unusual, and not according to the mode of these times: yet it is agreeable to the sense of my heart, and I do very much desire my Will may be carefully observed herein, hoping it nay become exemplary to some or other : at least however testifying at my death—what I have so often and earnestly professed in my life time-my utter dislike of the flatteries commonly used in Funeral Sermons, and of the vast expenses otherwise laid out in Funeral solemnities and entertainments, with very little benefit to any; which, if bestowed in pious and charitable works, might redound to the public or private benefit of many persons.'
I am next to tell, that he died the 29th of January, 1662 ; and that his body was buried in Buckden, the third day after his death ; and for the manner, that it was as far from ostentation as he desired it; and all the rest of his Will was as punctually performed. And when I have—to his just praise—told this truth, “that he died far from being rich,” I shall return back to visit, and give a further account of him on his last sick bed.
His last Will-of which I have mentioned a part—was made about three weeks before his death, about which time, finding his strength to decay by reason of his constant infirmity, and a con. sumptive cough added to it, he retired to his chamber, expressing a desire to enjoy his last thoughts to himself in private, without disturbance or care, especially of what might concern this world. And that none of his Clergy—which are more numerous than any other Bishop's—might suffer by his retirement, he did by commission impower his Chaplain, Mr. Pullin,* with Episcopal power to give institutions to all livings or Church-preferments, during this his disability to do it himself. In this time of his retirement he
* Mr. John Pullin, B. D. and formerly Fellow of Magdalen College, Cambridge. His name is subscribed to a copy of commendatory Latin verses prefixed to “ Duport's Greek Version of Job.” He was a Prebendary, and also Chancellor of Lincoln.
longed for his dissolution : and when some that loved him prayed for his recovery, if he at any time found any amendment, he seemed to be displeased, by saying, “ His friends said their prayers backward for him: and that it was not his desire to live a use. less life, and by filling up a place keep another out of it, that might do God and his Church service.” He would often with much joy and thankfulness mention, “ That during his being a housekeeper-which was more than forty years—there had not been one buried out of his family, and that he was now like to be the first.” He would also often mention with thankfulness, “ That till he was three score years of age, he had never spent five shillings in law, nor—upon himself—so much in wine: and rejoiced much that he had so lived, as never to cause an hour's sorrow to his good father; and hoped he should die without an enemy."
He, in this retirement, had the Church prayers read in his chamber twice every day; and at nine at night, some prayers read to him and a part of his family out of “ The Whole Duty of Man.” As he was remarkably punctual and regular in all his studies and actions, so he used himself to be for his meals. And his dinner being appointed to be constantly ready at the ending of prayers, and he expecting and calling for it, was answered, “It would be ready in a quarter of an hour.” To which his reply was, " A quarter of an hour! Is a quarter of an hour nothing to a man that probably has not many hours to live ?” And though he did live many hours after this, yet he lived not many days; for the day after—which was three days before his deathhe was become so weak and weary of either motion or sitting, that he was content, or forced, to keep his bed : in which I desire he may rest, till I have given some account of his behaviour there, and immediately before it.
The day before he took his bed,—which was three days before his death,—he, that he might receive a new assurance for the pardon of his sins past, and be strengthened in his way to the New Jerusalem, took the blessed Sacrament of the Body and Blood of his and our blessed Jesus, from the hands of his Chaplain, Mr. Pullin, accompanied with his wife, children, and a friend, in as awful, humble, and ardent a manner, as outward reverence
After the praise and thanksgiving for it was