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}$ralls of their residence with a fort of viscid substance or line them with silk.

The period of their change into chrysalids of nymphs is fixed. Some change in May, some in June; others in July, August and September. The time of emerging from this state is also regulated. Some remain in it only twelve days, while others continue fifteen, sixteen or twenty. Some do not get free from their prison so soon, but are detained there three weeks or a month ; others even two months, others six, others nine, ten, and even some a whole year; as the Phalæna Abiynthii. It is easy then to conceive that insects must issue from their cones in different months of the year. We find them appearing in the months of February, March, April, May, June, July, and August, and even in November and December. Some infects have this remarkable property, that they produce two broods that issue from their prison at two different seasons of the year, and present themselves on the theatre of the world; for it deserves particular attention, that they never come forth, but at the time when there are plants and leaves sufficient to furnish them with food. "Without this wife ordination of the providence of God, these little creatures would perish at their birth.

May I not now be allowed to ask if these transformations can be the effect of chance? If they were, is it possible that there could be so much regularity and order in the different particulars necessary to operate such wonderful metamorphoses? Whatever is the effect of chance is subject to po fixed, no determinate order. To day it operates in one way, to morrow in another, but here all is regular without the shadow of variation. Who is it then who has taught these insects to accomplish what is necessary,

each each according to its species, for passing from one state to another? How do they know that in order to defend themselves, they have need of a cone more or less strong according to the greater or less degree of delicacy in their constitution? Whence comes it that these animals, without the aid of reason, are found folded in their cones, with so much art, that however narrow their mansion, they have enough of room, although were their members extended, three times the space would not be sufficient to contain them? From whom do they receive that sagacious foresight, which prompts them, to take the proper measures for securing themselves against external injuries? Who hath instructed them to choose the most safe and proper places for undergoing their changes? What artist has taught them, to weave their various webs, in which the chrysalis is as ,softly laid as if it were on down? By what means are they informed of the precise time when it is necessary to construct their habitations and to retire to them. Whence comes it that the period • of remaining in their cones is so regulated that they never leave them except in the season when they are sure to find food i I cannot but acknowledge in all this, distinct traces of the boundless wisdom of the Creator. No, a blind cause could not operate such wonders; it must be infinite, and sovereign intelligence: and since insects are incapable of so many perfections, it can be no other than a Deity who has created them, and who governs them by his Providence.

CHAP. VIII.

Of The Sexes Of Insects^

Modern philosophers as I have already remarked have well observed that insects are produced by generation. The experiments they have made on this subject, have even taught them to distinguish the males from the females, and they have described she marks by which they are so be known. The detail of these marks is the subject of this Ghap* serin the first place the male is distinguished from the female by its size. He is generally shorter and more slender than the female, which is undoubtedly the effect of wisdom in the Creator. The females being obliged to carry a great number of eggs, it was necessary that they mould be larger and thicker than the males that they might have room to lodge their eggs.

They are also distinguishable by their antennae. Those of many ma-les are pectinated, of the females plain. Lister observed that the males of spiders have eight eyes with knobs at the extremities of the antenna? which the females have not. The antennas of some other insects are distinguished in the same way. Those of the male are smaller, shorter, and more opposite to each other.

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The •wings are a third discriminating mark between the male and female. In spine species {he male only is furniihed with them, the female either wants them altogether or has them very short. In other species where both sexes have wings, there arfi some which bear on thole wings the characters of their sex. On those of the male are perceived small spots which are not found on those of the female.

Insects which insert their eggs into the bark of trees, into the earth, into the substance of leaves, or into other insects, are furnished with a tube longer or jhorter for the purpose of penetrating to the place tfhere they wish to deposit them. This tube, which ferves as a passage to the eggs, affords another mark of distinction between the sexes. As the male has no occasion for it, the Creator has bestowed it only on the female.

We discover the sexes likewise often by their colours. The beauty of the male generally exceeds that of the female, his colours being more brilliant and fhewy. This rule however is not without exception, for the females are sometimes more beautiful than the males.

Lastly, they are distinguishable by the found of their voices. This seems to have been bestowed on some insects solely to procure them the means of approaching each other for the purpose of generation: and therefore the male alone has organs proper for producing a small sound in order to attract the female. This rule however like the former is not general. There are species of infects in which both sexes are provided with the organs necessary for producing this sound.

tt is not without reason that God has thus impressed marks of distinction on the different sexes of ani* mals. He has provided in this way for thtir multiplication, to which the male as well as the female are incited by an instinct so natural, that they suffer if they do not indulge it. It cannot be doubted that this is the immediate operation of the Deity \ on this point the Scripture is decisive. After having related the creation of man, it adds that " God crea"ted them male and female, that, he blessed them^ *' and commanded them to increase and multiply< "and replenish the earth." Gen.' 1,27,28. Shall we say that this law respects man only, and that infects are excepted from it, because there is no mention made of them ? the contrary will appear evident from the seventh Chapter of the same book.. God irritated against the human race, resolved to destroy them by the waters of the deluge. But as this could not be done without exterminating, at the sama time* all the terrestrial animals* he commanded Noah to take a pair of each species that they might replenish the world ariew. "Of every clean beast, fays "he, thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male "and his female j and of beasts that afe not clean, "by two, the male and his female. Of fowls "also of the air by sevens, the male and the female.'1 and why?" to keep feed alive Upon the face of all "the earth." Gzn. vir. 2,3. That insects are comprehended in the number of these animals is evident. * In the seventeenth day of the second month

* Noah and his family entered into the ark; they 'and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle 'after their kind, and'every thing that cfeepeth upon

* the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his 'kind, every bird of every fort. Arid they went in

* unto Noah, into the ark. two and two of all fltfh,

* wherein is the breath of life. And they that went

* in, went in male and female of all flesh as God

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