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which the Germans called the thread-worm, because jt is hardly thicker than a thread. The water Tipulæ, the larvæ of the small water Tipulæ, which when united in great numbers, form on the surface of the water a kind of green carpet; and a water worm, whose mouth resembles the opening of a trumpet. In water is also found the insect called the hippocampus, Sea-worms, and Sea-stars, and twO worms one of which has a large, and the other a small proboscis. Earth worms are.not in less quantity. Besides the common earth worms, there are some to be found in dunghills, in grass, in corn, in pulse, in roots, in wood, and even in the medulla of putrid wood. Many species are found in the leaves of plants. Some fix themselves on the upper, some on the under surface, in order to conceal themselves; some lodge in the substance of the leaves, others in their galls. Some penetrate thf fruit of tree*, others enter into bee-hives. Some attach themselves to animals, like those which are found on beetles,^ and which adhere to fisties, to birds, to dogs, and swine, and other beasts. Even the intestines of animals are not secure from them j some are found in the entrails of fisties, of horses, and of men. Those found in man are not all of the same species, some are round and long, others round and stiort. Some are long and depressed^ some stiort and depressed j and some are bred ill wounds and putrid sores.
Infects with feet, and without .wings are very numerous, and have not all the fame number of feet. I know a species of water flea, which has only two. The species which have fix are most numerous; among these is comprehended the Afilus or Oestrum Marinum, the Coyculus, water bugs, land fleas, a sort of mites, which breed in the parenchyma of leaves, certain worms found in stones, the a[glliiarvenses, the aphides of leaves, the Cochineal
worm, worm, and ants. Under this last species ought to be comprehended the white and red ants found in, the East Indies, the formica-leo, and the ant of the Philippine Islands, called Sinum. In continuing the enumeration of insects, with six feet, we mall find worms which devour green and dry wood, bugs, ainong which I rank the Hocitexca of the East Indies, and the Ytzuaque of Mechoacan, the lice of bees, of the Dor-beetle, of dogs, of sheep and other animals: Ticks, mites, fleas, and dermestes. The fame variety is observable in the insects with eight feet. The greater part of spiders must be ranked in'this order; such are many sorts of foreign spiders, aquatic and terrestrial; such also are the Tarantula, the great spider of Brazil, called the Nhamdu guasu; the spider or flea, which they call Tunga, and that to which they give the name of wolf; all of which are possessed of a very dangerous, and often mortal poison. Many species of lice, have also eight legs, as well as the land and water scorpions, and some species of small caterpillars, which adhere to leaves.
I rank in this class of insects with ten feet, certain species of foreign spiders, and the caterpillars, called Geometræ, the aquatic onisci have twelve feet, the aquatic fleas, and common caterpillars, the water louse too, and others have fourteen. The . Oniscus Ceti, has sixteen. We observe eighteen feet in those white caterpillars, spotted with black, which feed on the leaves of the Alder. Those worms of the colour of ochre, which are found in rotten wood, and which afterwards change into tha kind of beetle, with a proboscis, (Curculio) have twenty-four feet. Lastly, there are some, which have still a greater number of feet, 'as many ipecies of small centeieds and Scolopendræ, both aquatic and terrestrial, know in particular two species, one of them having
one hundred and eight feet, and the other no less than one hundred and eighty four.
I observed above, that among winged insects, some had naked wings, and others had their wings covered with a cafe. The wings of the former, are either quite smooth and transparent, or covered with a sort of meaL
Among those with smooth wings, some have two wings, and some four; to the former of these belong the gnats, whether of Europe or America; the most remarkable of which are, the Maringoin, the Mosquito, the Yetis, and winged ant. To these must be added, many species of flies, such as the Asilus aquaticus, the flies that are found on dung, in the earth, on leaves, and not only those that fuck the juice of flowers, but of fruits; those that are voracious, and eat other insects, and the flesh of serpents, and other animals. We refer likewise to the same class, the flies which attack dogs, and horses, the gad flies, the Ricinus volans; those that, are found on ihe leaves of the hazel tree, the Ichneumons, which have certain hairs issuing from the posterior part of the abdomen like a tail, some having one, two, or three of these, and others four; to these we add the Taons and Tipulæ.
The number of insects which have four uncovered wings, smooth and membranous, is not less great than those which have only two. In this class are the aquatic flies with a downy abdomen, wasps, bees, drones, and different species found in the Brazils, g-akhoppers, the (hining flies, the Ephemeiæ,the crikct, and the (Gryllotaipa) mole cricket. To these B ay be added dragon flies, large and small, a species of gnat called by the Germans, Kerder-mutke, the fly with the scoipion's tail, and others of the fame kind; some winged aphides, the winged scorpion ;• some aquatic gn*ts, the ichneumon, and various o* ther forts of flies. .>
The insects with mealy wings, as if very fine powder had been strewed over them, have four wings. I include in this class, the day butterflies of every species and colour; the Phalenæ or moths, which during the day lurk in obscurity ; the Tineæ, whose Wings are as long, though not so broad, as those of moths, and whose body is often not larger than that 'Of a fly.
Speaking of insects whose wings are covered with a case, we distinguished them into two kinds. The cases of the one leave a part of the abdomen bare^ and those of the others cover it entirely. Among the first, are various forts of bugs ; the aquatic, some of which swim on their back, those that are found in dung, and those that live on trees. To these we may add, the earwig, the May beetle, the St?.phylinus, the Silpha Vefpillo, and others of the fame kind. Those whose wings and abdomen are entirely covered, have not all bases of the fame degree of hardness. In some it is very tender and delicate as in grasshoppers, both foreign and indigenous, in the Mantis of Italy, the Arbe, the Selaam, the Hargol, the Hagab of Palestine, the hooded locust of America, the walking leaf of the East Indies, &c. In others, the covering is much harder, and this class is very numerous. In the first place we enumerate the Buprestis, and different forts of cantharides, the Dytisci, the Cerambyces, the small hemispherical Lady flies of which the red are the most common, the Curculios, and many others, to which we may join the different species of Scarabcei with horns, both straight and crooked j the flying stag &c.
If toe contemplate for a moment that prodigious number of different species of insects, some of which ■toe have mentioned; if we attend to the diversity which reigns among them, with respect to the figure and fitness of their limbs j if we consider that each species is furnished with every thing necessary for its existence, but with nothing more 5 how must we be struck with admiration, and what ideas will we not entertain of the infinite wisdom of the Creator I Should an artist ingenious enough to imitate exactly the figures of these different animals, exhibit them to the view of spectators, how would he find his skill celebrated! The delicacy of the work would be admired, and the author extolled: but what disproportion would there not be between the labour of such an artist, and the productions of the divine workman! Allowing that the former should perfectly succeed in imitating the external appearance qf the animal, could we thence conclude that the artist had equalled the skill and wisdom of the Creator? Ne, there could be no comparison. The master-piece of such an artist would be altogether destitute of that which forms the chief beauty in the works of God, as the flighest examination would convince us. Where would "we fee that internal structure which the most inconsiderate are astonished at? Where could we find those wise and subtile springs which move of themselves? What artist could imitate those organs which are lo minute as to elude our fenses? Let us then be consistent; if we admire the- address of a workman even when we confess it infinitely below that o£ the divine being, let us not refuse to the Creator the glory that is due to him. As much as his wisdom, apparent in the structure of an Infect, transcends that of the most ingenious artist, so far ought our praises of the creator to exceed those we bestow on his humble imitator. On the sight of any insect let us accustom ourselves to magnify