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THEOLOGY. 249

children, in the form of thick and short hairs or bristles,'and fa cannot be got out, without irritating them. They are discovered, and the child cured, by rubbing his back opposite to a warm stove, or in a bath of honey and garlic. The' insects come forth along with the sweat, and it is then easy to scrape them off" with a knife, or a crust of bread, as soon as they shew their head. Some, instead of this bath, put che children as far as the neck into a lee, in which the dung of fowls has been boiled,and allowing them to fweat.while they excite the insects to come .out, by rubbing them with their hand dipt in honey. ■As soon as they are seen, they are scraped off as be^ fore, and this must be continued two or three days, till no more appear. During this process, it is advantageous to give the patient a dose of tincture of antimony ^ or essence of myrrh, and to wash him in water, jii which wormwood has been steeped, and a suitable quantity of aloes.

It is customary to extirpate worms from the intestines, by various forts of bitter herbs. The mostin use are the lesser centaury, camomile, marsh trefoil, feverfew and rue; these are boiled in wafer, and the decoction drunk for some time. Things that are sweet, prove equally efficacious with those that are bitter, provided they be. accompanied with wormseed, or infused in hydromel, or enclosed in an apple, a pear, a peach, in prunes, or any thing else that children aie fond of. tf they discover repugnance or disgust,, and refuse to swallow these, they are rubbed on th;.m abput the navel, and the friction serve;; for vlv<«.? ought to have been taken internally. All sons t f oi', however, do not answer this purpose; they mailT«e inch as have a strong sme!l.; and are of a glutinous aud bituminous quality, for ex:-mp'e, petroleum, oil of inuber, and all those which exude from the juniper, tjic birch, the hex, or the hazel

I i tree. tree. Such things as have a strong taste, are likewise commended, that is, all in which a salt prevails, because its acrid nature disagrees with the worm, and obliges it to leave the body. For this reason, I would propose salt-petre? and sal-ammoniac; and mineral Waters, both cold and hot. The common people are not ignorant of the use of these. People who inhabit the sea coasts, give their children sea Water to drink, and those who live inland, cure them with water used in the refining of salt. Neither would I reject the vitriolic salts obtained from metals, such as sal martis, and lunar crystals. Orange and lemon juice, spirit of vitriol, spirit of salt-petre, and clyflusf of antimony, are beyond every thing in putrid fevers, proceeding from worms: but the dose must be cautiously prescribed, as the too great acidity of these, Remedies would convert the chyle into a solid substance, The risque of mistaking, with regard to children at the breast, obliges me to warn against the consequences; for whatever the proportion might be, it would not fail to coagulate the milk on their stomach. Hartshorn, sal amm,oniac, and other volatile spirits have likewise the properties of a vermifuges The fame may be said of astringents: various experiments on tea, the rind of the pomegranate, and root of the mulberry have long ago brought them into repute. Purgatives, likewise, ought not to be rejected, provided they be accompanied with turbeth or jalap, and that care is taken to prepare the patient by suitable medecines. If opium be thought proper, or other anodynes, I would strongly recommend caution, for instead of a cure, the consequence might be a fever.

"When worms have got into the stomach, we should not only proceed in the manner directed above, but they must be attracted towards the lower Intestines, by injections of honey and milk. Dulci

fied mercury is, in this cafe, considered as the prime • specific; bus, in the use os it, two things must be attended to, with great care: First, not to give it in the form of powder, or in too great quantity:—< Secondly, to abstain from it, when, the duodenum is surcharged with acrimony. In my opinion* it would be best to prescribe it in the form of art electuary, or rather in troches, which seems to be the safest way. But the physician must judge, and prescribe for his patients, according to their age, their strength and constitution: he must find the means of speedily discharging those worms which he has been successful in destroying, lest they become more prejudicial after their death, than they were when alive*

The poison of insects is cured with the assistance of antidotes. If any external part is affected, terra sigillata may be applied, root of gentian, and angelica, leaves of carduus benedictus.j sage^ rue, juniper berries, oil of citron, serpent stone, scorpion, tarantu'Ja, and other venomous infects, provided they are bruised. These are so many emollients and aperitives, but which would not be sufficient for any internal part. Whether the poison of an insect, which has been swallowed, resides in the stomach, or has already mixed with the mass of blood, there is a necessity for counterpoisons, as active and effectual; such as the glossopetræ, cinnabar, oil of almonds, mallows, and wormwood, gentian wine, milk, butter, lard, viper's flesh, oil of scorpions, &c.

Of antidotes in general, none appears to me so singular, as that for the bite of the tarantula. It con* lists not in the sympathy of animals, nor in the strength of metals, nor in the quintessence of vegetables: it is in music alone that it must be fought* It has so much influence on the affected persons, that it puts all their, sluggish - members in motion, so that

Ii 2 they they get up and dance till they put themselves infix a profound sweat, and then fall down in a lethargy. The perspiration continues, during this state of rest, "which frees the body from the poison diffused thro' it. Another singularity is, that the fame air does not always produce the fame effect; various kinds must be tried, till one suited to the quality of the poison is so md; there is, however, one favourite air, which is agreeable to almost all the patients; it is called, by the Italians, I* Asia Turchesca. Neither is the fame 'instrument of music always used, one patient desiring the tambour, another the flute, the hautboy, the harp, the violin, &c and each dances and agitates himself, till the strength of the poison is evaporated by the violence of the motion. The difference of symptoms observable in different patients, is observable in the tarantulas themselves. They are of various colours, and when taken, they are placed on thin boards, laid over a vesstl of water. At the found of a musical iustrument, some are seen to leap, others remain at rest, according to the difference of their temperament.

Before concluding this chapter, I have to mention one or two other methods of destroying flies. Riegulus of arsenic is a most deadly poison to them,and the use of it could not be sufficiently recommended, if it were possible to expect the necessary attention from those employed in preparing it; but, the carelessness of most people, makes me almost inclined to decry this method, notwithstanding its fucceis I leave it, therefore, to the prudence of those who are acquainted with its effects, and who are cautious in trying the experiment, to provide for the safety of themselves and their families. This poison is given to flies in a cup, or in earthen vessels made on purpose*'

^n 1735 appeared an anonymous work containing the description of an apparatus for destroying fleas.' In 1729 was published the third edition of a curious work on a fort of trap for these insects. Thfc reader may consult these woiks, and prosit from the receipt of Dr Southall an Englishman, who acknowledges his having got it from a negro. Thjs receipt has the singular effect of attracting the whole fleas in a house to the same spot where their death awaits them. . ,

CHAP. VI.

Of The Improper Use Of Insects In The Affair*

OF LIFE.

When mankind, neglect to make a good use of reason, and give themselves up to vain and chimerical speculation, there is nothing in nature which they may not pervert into a source of delusion. Every object however which we behold is distinctly marked with its own peculiar character which cannot be mistaken unless we willingly deceive ourselves. This is the cafe of those persons who presume to look into futurir^, and who apply things to other uses, than those for which God intended them. Matthiolus tells us that every gall that grows on the oak, if it has not a hole in it, does withdut exception contain either a fly, or a spider or a worm; that the first foretokens war, the

second:

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