The Thebans, having convoked 1 from all the cities [deputies] to hear the letter3 from the king, and the Persian, who brought the despatch,* [after] exhibiting the king's seal, having read1 its contents, the Thebans called upon those who wished to be friends to the king and to themselves, to swear accordingly; but the deputies from3 the cities replied that they had been sent,9 not to swear, 10 but to hear: and bid them send to their cities, if they had any need of oaths. Indeed,11 Lycomedes, the Arcadian, added 12 this, that the assembly1s itself ought not 1 to meet 15 in Thebes, but wherever 16 the war might be. The Thebans being angry 17 with him, and declaring that he was ruining the confederacy,18 he even declined19 to take his seat at 20 the council, 21 but took his leave and 22 departed, and with him all the envoys 23 from Arcadia. The assembled 24 [deputies] having refused to take the oaths 25 in Thebes, the Thebans despatched envoys to the states, calling upon them to swear that they would act 26 according to the king's letter, in the belief that each individual 28 state would shrink 26 from offending 29 at once themselves and the king. When, however, on their arrival 30 at Corinth first, the Corinthians resisted,31 and replied that they did not want?

2 Partic.

3 Επιστολή. 4 Τὰ γράμματα.

1 'When the Thebans had convoked.' σvykaλeîv, aor. 1. act. fut. accusative. W. Gr. Gr. § 56, obs. 4. 5 Partic. aor. 1.act. of deíkvvμɩ.

8 Οἱ ἀπό. 9

7 Ταῦτα.


Τὰ γεγραμμένα.
Gr. Gr. § 156.

10 Partic. fut.

12 Καὶ—ἔλεγε. 16 *Ενθα,

11 Μέντοι.

Opt. (oratio obliqua). W. of oμvvμ. W. Gr. Gr. § 36, obs. 4. 13 Σύλλογος. 14 Not even―ought,' etc. with conjunctive and åv. W. Gr. Gr. § 177, b.

abs. with dative of person.

20 Καθίζειν εἰς. συνεληλυθότες. 28 Μία ἑκάστη.

21 Συνέδριον.

25 To swear!


18 Τὸ συμμαχικόν.

2 Απεχθάνεσθαι.

15 To be.'

17 Χαλεπαίνειν, gen. 19 Not even willed. 23 Πρέσβεις.

22 Απιών.
26 Future infinitive.
30 Gen. abs.

24 οἱ

27 Thinking?

31 Ὑφίστημι,

confederate engagements 32 with the king, many other states also followed their example,33 [by] replying in the same style.34 Thus was the struggle 35 of Pelopidas and the Thebans for power 36 brought to nought.37

I aor. act.


32 Κοινοὶ ὅρκοι. 33 Επακολουθεῖν.

34 Κατὰ ταὐτά.

36 'H ȧpxn, objective

Iepißoλn, sc. 'the compassing of power.' genitive. W. Gr. Gr. § 130, b. Διαλύω, aor. I pass.



Lycurgus,1 indeed, established in Sparta the following3 institutions, likewise opposed to the rest of the Greeks. For, in the other states, every man, as we all know,' makes money as fast as9 he can; one man farms,10 another is a shipowner, another a merchant, 12 while others subsist 13 by handicraft.14 But in Sparta, Lycurgus forbad 15 freemen to touch any money-making occupation, 16 while he enjoined them to consider whatever wins 18 liberty for states [as] their own sole employment. 19 Why, indeed, should wealth be zealously pursued 20 in a country where, [by] enacting 21 that all should contribute 22 equally to the means of subsistence,23 and should live in the same style,24 he effected 25 that no one should long for wealth for the sake of luxury? 26 Indeed, 27 not even for the sake of clothes might they make money :28 since they are adorned, not by costliness 29 of dress, but by good-habit 30 of body.

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28 Verbal adjective of xpnparisw. W. Gr. Gr. § 166, a


27 Αλλὰ μήν.

2 Πολυτέλεια.

20 Ευεξία.

Nor even for the sake of having 31 [means] to be liberal 32 towards their 33 comrades,34 could they amass money,35 since he declared 36 the aiding 37 their companions 38 by personal toil 39 more honourable than by munificence,40 pointing out that the one was a function 41 of the soul, the other of wealth.

31 Τοῦ ἔχειν.

34 Σύσκηνοι.

37 To

32 Δαπαναν. 33 Tous. W. Gr. Gr. § 115, obs. 2. 35 Χρήματα ἀθροιστέον. 36 Ποιεῖν, αον. I act. 39 Labouring by the

peλeiv. W. Gr. Gr. § 117. 38 Οἱ συνόντες. Participle pres. act. of dañavâv.





41 Εργον.



Senators,1 if any one among thinks that more men are being executed than is necessary,3 let him reflect that, where constitutions 5 are changing, these things everywhere happen, and that there must needs be here a great many enemies to those who are changing [the government] into an oligarchy, both because the city is the most populous 10 of all in Greece," and because the commons 12 have been bred in freedom a very long time.13 Now we, assured1 that democracy is a bad constitution for men like us 15 and you: assured also, that the commons will never be 16 friendly to the Lacedæmonians who saved us, and that the aristocrats 17 will ever remain 18 faithful to them, are endeavouring to establish 19 this constitution for 5 Τοῦ καιροῦ. 4 Εννοεῖν, * Μεθίσταμαι. 7 Ανάγκη εἶναι. 8 Οἱ μεθίσταντες. 10 Πολυάνθρωπος. 11 Ai Ελληνίδες. 12 Ο δήμος. 13 Accus. W. Gr. Gr. § 141, a. 14 Participle aor. act. γιγνώσκω. 15 Οἷοις ἡμῖν. 16”Av, with optative. W. Gr. Gr. $167. 17 Oi BéλTIOTOL. In Greece, as elsewhere, those in power were always 'the best,' in their own estimation. Thus, in Cicero, 'boni,' constantly means 'aristocrats,' because the orator's politics were aristocratic. So, in Theognis, the 'bad,' are always the democrats. Aiareλeiv, opt. with äv. 19 Kadioτημı, present tense, which, like the imperfect, frequently signifies an endeavour, inasmuch as it

1 Ὦ ἄνδρες βουλευταί. I aor. act. imperat.


2' Die!

5 Πολιτείαι.

· Διὰ τὸ εἶναι.

ment. 29


these reasons' 20 with the advice 21 of the Lacedæmonians. Whenever 22 we find any man opposed 23 to the oligarchy, we get rid of him as far as we can. And it seems to us to be especially 25 just that, if any member of our own faction 26 injures 27 this settlement,28 he should suffer punishIndeed, 30 treachery 31 is more terrible than war, in proportion as 32 it is more difficult to guard ourselves against an invisible 33 than a visible [danger], and more hateful, inasmuch as men are afterwards reconciled 34 and become attached 35 to enemies, but whomsoever 36 they detect 37 in an act of treachery,38 with him no man yet was ever reconciled, or can be reconciled for the rest of his life.40 However, in order that11 you may know, that these acts of his are no novelties, but that he is by nature a traitor, I will recall his deeds to your remembrance. 43


23 Εναντίος.

2'Eàv, with

24 Εκποδὼν

represents the agent in the act of doing something. W. Gr. Gr. § 41, obs. 2, a. 20 Through these things. 22 Γνώμη. conjunctive. W. Gr. Gr. § 177, b. ποιεῖσθαι. 25 Πολὺ μάλιστα. 28 Karáσraois, dative.


Η Λυμαίνεσθαι.

31 Προδοσία.

26 Τις ἡμῶν αὐτῶν.
Δίκην διδόναι. 30 Καίτοι.
34 Σπένδομαι.

32 Τοσούτῳ —ὅσῳ. 33 Αφανής.

36 "Ov av, with conjunctive. W. Gr. Gr. § 177, b.


3s Betraying,' participle of #podidoμi.


35 Πιστοί.

37 Λαμβάνειν.

• Σπένδομαι, 1 aor. mid.

40 Τοῦ λοιποῦ, sub. χρόνου. 41 "Iva, with conjunctive. W. Gr. Gr. § 176. 42 This man does not do these things new.' 43 Αναμνήσω ὑμᾶς.


This man, though always1 honoured by the people, was most eager to transfer3 the popular government to the four hundred, and was a leading man5 among them; but when he found an opposition to the oligarchy framed," he [was the] first [who] became a leader of the people9

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against them; whence, I presume,10 he is surnamed 11 Buskin.12 Now, a man worthy of life 13 ought not to be clever14 in leading 15 his colleagues 16 into danger,17 and then to change 18 immediately, if any opposition should arise; 19 on the contrary,20 he ought to persevere in his efforts,21 as if [he were] in a ship, until they gain a favourable wind; for if [he does] not,23 how will they ever arrive 24 at their proper ports,25 if they are instantly to sail 26 the opposite way,27 whenever 28 any difficulty arises ? 19 All revolutions 29 are confessedly 30 sanguinary; 31 but you, through your versatility,32 are responsible for the death of great numbers 33 at the hands of 34 the people on the fall of 35 an oligarchy, and of great numbers at the hands of the aristocracy 36 on the overthrow of 35 a popular constitution.37 Yet this is the man who, when commissioned 38 by the admirals 39 to recover 40 those Athenians 41 who were disabled in the naval-action 43 near Lesbos, though he himself failed to recover them,45 nevertheless impeached 46 the admirals and sacrificed 47 them, in order 48 that his own life 49 might be saved. How, then, can it possibly 50


10 Δήπου. 11 Επικαλοῦμαι. to fit either foot indifferently. 16 Οἱ συνόντες.


17 Τὰ πράγματα.

15 Προά

12 Kóbopvos, 'a shoe large enough 13 Infinitive. 14 Δεινός. 18 Μεταβάλλεσθαι. 19 Ην τι ἀντικόπτῃ. 20 'Αλλά. 21 Διαπονεῖσθαι. W. Gr. Gr. § 190. Force of dia in composition. 22 Ἐς οὖρον καταστῆναι, conjunctive with ews av. W. Gr. Gr. § 177, b. 23 Mn, after ei. W. Gr. Gr. § 168. 24 Αφικέσθαι, opt. 25 Ενθα δεῖ. 26 Optative. 27 Ες τἀναντία. 28 'Eneidav, with conjunctive. 29 Μεταβολαὶ πολιτειῶν. 30 Δήπου. 31 Θανατηφόροι. 32 Διὰ τὸ εὐμετάβολος εἶναι.

33A cause to very

many to have died. 34 Υπό. 35 'Ek. This preposition denotes succession from one state to another. W. Gr. Gr. § 184.

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36 Οἱ βελ40 ' Ave

44 Περὶ,

50 Ποτέ.

having recovered them. 49 He himself?

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