macy.13 The senate, then, has declared," that the supremacy by 15 sea should be yours, and the Lacedæmonians' that by land; and to myself this partition seems to have been made,16 not so much 17 by man,18 as17 by Nature 18 and by accident. For, in the first place, you have a situation 19 admirably adapted 20 for this [purpose]; for a great many states that stand in need 21 of the sea, dwell around your state, and all these are weaker than your own: and, besides this, you possess harbours, without which it is impossible to employ 22 a naval power; and have also many ships of war; 23 and it is a national policy with you to develop 25 [your] naval force. In addition to this, 26 you are quite at home in 27 all' the sciences 28 relating to 29 maritime affairs; 30 and, indeed, are far in advance of 31 others, in skill at any rate, in naval tactics; 32 for the sustenance33 of most of you comes from the sea: so that, while promoting your private interests,35 you at the same time become versed 36 in conflicts by sea. Further, there is this from no country could a larger collective 37 fleet 38 sail forth, than from yours; and this is no trifling 39 [advantage] towards supremacy: for all men gladly rally round 40 the first power that shows strength.41 Moreover, it has been given to you by the gods to be prosperous in this [sphere]; for while you have fought very many and very important battles at sea, you have had very few reverses,43 and a great many successes.43



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That this science1 is both necessary and becoming to you, judge3 from the following considerations. The Lacedæmonians formerly were at war5 with you [for] many years; and, though in possession of your territory, made no progress towards your destruction; but when destiny10 at last allowed them a maritime ascendancy," you at once fell utterly beneath their power.12 It is manifest, therefore, from facts like these,13 that all your safety depends upon 14 the sea. Such, then, being the case,15 how can it be politic 16 for you to allow 17 the Lacedæmonians to take the lead 18 by sea? for they 19 openly 20 avow that they are less conversant 21 with this art 22 than you. Besides, in contests by 23 sea, the risk encountered is not equal 24_ they risk 25 only the men on board 26 their ships of waryou risk your children, your wives, and your whole city. Such, then, is your position:27 examine, 28 now, that of the Lacedæmonians. In the first place, they live inland; 29 so that, while they are masters of 30 the land, they would be able to live well, even should they be debarred 31 from

2 Προσήκων.


4 'Ek

Ενθυμεῖσθαι, 1 αor. pass.
usually refers to what precedes,
6 W. Gr. Gr. § 141, a.
7 Kpa-

· Επιμέλεια. Tâvde oûtós (see Preface, xvi. 22) öde to what follows. 5 Πολεμεῖν. TOUTES, with genitive. • Οὐδὲν προκόπτειν. 11 To prevail by sea.'

10 Ο θεός.




19 Ο.

Τὸ ἀπολέσαι ὑμᾶς.

12 Them.'

13' In these'

14'Αρτᾶσθαι ἐκ, perf. pass. 16 Οὕτως πεφυκότων, SC.

16 Καλῶς ἔχειν.

20 Καὶ αὐτοί.


17 Επιτρέπειν, 1 aor. act. 'To

21 Απειρότεροι nominative before

the infinitive, because the subject is the same as that of the preceding

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the sea. Conscious 32 of this themselves, from their very childhood 33 they adapt their training 35 to continental 36 warfare; and, what is most important,37 in obedience to 38 their officers,39 they excel by land, and you by sea. Now, that the service 40 by land is no less necessary for them than that by sea to you, we can assure ourselves from facts; 42 for you, [after] warring with them for many years, and frequently defeating them at sea,43 made no advance towards their reduction;45 but when they were once defeated by land, they were in immediate danger of losing 46 both their children and wives and their whole city.

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33 Εὐθὺς ἐκ παίδων. 34 Ποιεῖσθαι. 37 Πλείστου ἄξιον.

35 Ασκησις. 38 Τὸ πείθεσθαι, sub. κατά. 39 Οἱ 42 Τὰ ἔργα.

40 Επιμέλεια. 41' Know.'

4 Οὐδὲν προὔργου ἐποιεῖτε.

43 Κατα

45 Τὸ τούτους καταπολε

μῆσαι. 46 The danger to them was concerning,' etc.


The ancestors of these men, having been thus honourably born and educated, enjoyed1 a commonwealth of their own construction,2 which it is well briefly to review.3 For a commonwealth is the nurture of men, a good [commonwealth] of good men, the contrary of bad men. It is requisite, therefore, to show that our predecessors were bred in a glorious commonwealth, through which, indeed, both they and the men of this generation,5 among whom are those who have recently perished, were virtuous. For the constitution was then the same as now, an aristocracy, under which we are now living, and ever have lived, with few exceptions.8 One man calls it a democracy, another something else, as he likes; but it is in reality an aristo8 Επιμνησθῆναι. 4 Οἱ πρόσθεν

1 Οἰκεῖν.



Ο Αλήθεια.

2 Κατασκευασάμενοι. 5 Oi vôv. 'Of


* Πολιτεύεσθαι.


8 Ως τὰ πολλά.


cracy ruling with10 the approval of the people. We have always had kings: at one time hereditary,12 at another elective; 13 but the commonalty 14 has the chief power over the state: it assigns magistracies 15 and power 16 the men from time to time17 approved to be the best: and no man has been repulsed 18 by infirmity, or poverty, or the obscurity 19 of his ancestors, nor honoured for the opposite [qualities], as in other states; but there is one standard 20-the man approved [as] clever or virtuous, has power 21 and office. 22 Our identity of origin 23 is the source 24 of this constitution: for other states are composed 25 of men of all races 26 and of unequal condition,27 so that their commonwealths also are unequal, despotisms, for instance,28 and oligarchies. Some men live regarding one another as slaves, others as masters: but we and our [countrymen], all born brothers by 29 the same mother, do not desire 30 to be slaves or masters of one another, but our natural equality of birth 31 compels us to seek a legal equality of rights,32 and not to yield to one another in any other [point] save a reputation for virtue and wisdom. 13 Αἱρετός. 14 Τὸ πλῆθος.

10 Μετά.

15 Αἱ ἀρχαί. 10 Αγνωσία. γένεσις.

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2 Ανώμαλοι.



Η Εὐδοξία.

12 Ἐκ γένους.
17 > Αεί.

18 'ATEλaúvo, perf. pass.



Αρχειν. · Εξ ἴσου

16 Τὸ κράτος.

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25 Karaokevάw, perf. pass.




31 Κατὰ φύσιν

This war was waged' by the whole [strength] of our state in behalf of themselves and of their fellow countrymen2 against the barbarians; but when peace ensued,3 and the state was honoured, there came upon it, what is wont to befall the prosperous among men: in the first place, 1 Διαντλεῖν, 1 αor. pass. 2*Αλλοι ὁμόφωνοι. 3 Γενομένης, gen. abs. 4 Προσπίπτειν.





emulation, and after emulation, envy; which, indeed, plunged the state, against its will, into war with the Greeks. War having burst out 9 after this, they engaged,10 at Tanagra, in conflict with the Lacedæmonians in behalf of the freedom of Boeotia: but it having turned out a drawn12 battle, the second engagement's proved decisive,1+ for the Lacedæmonians decamped,15 abandoning the Boeotians whom they professed to aid, 16 while our men gained a victory, three days afterwards,17 at Enophyta, and justly recalled 18 those who were iniquitously exiled.19 These men then were the first who, after the Persian war, fighting for Greeks against Greeks on that occasion 21 in defence of freedom, after proving themselves brave 23 men, and delivering 22 those whom they were succouring, were interred 24 with public honours 25 in this mound.26 A long war having ensued, and all the Greeks having marched and ravaged 27 our land, thus 28 making 29 an unworthy return 30 to the state, our countrymen, after defeating 22 them in a naval action, and seizing their leaders in Sphacteria, though they had the power 31 to put them to death, yet spared and restored them, and made peace, thinking that against 3 men of the same race 33 they ought to war only as far as victory, and not, through a special 34 enmity to one state, to annihilate the common [bond] of the Greeks, but that against the barbarians [they ought to carry on war] to extermination.35

5 Ζῆλος. 6'АTò, W. Gr. Gr. § 183.

6 'Ev.

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9 Γενομένου.

10 Συμβάλλω.

14 Διακρίνειν.


* Καθίστημι, 1 aor. act.

11 Máxeo baι, partic.

15 Οἴχεσθαι ἀπιών.

12 Αμφισβητήσιμος. 13" "Epyov. 16 Bondeiv, imperfect, which often signifies an attempt, whether bond fide or professed. W. Gr. Gr. § 41, obs. 2. JELF, § 398, 2. Preface,

§ viii.

17 Τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ.

18 Κατάγειν.

19 Φεύγειν, partic.


20 Πρῶτοι.

21 Ἤδη.

22 Aorist.

23 > ̓Αγαθός.


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25 Honoured by the state.

33 Τὸ ὁμόφυλον.

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31 'Eέóv. W. Gr. Gr. § 163, obs. 35 Διαφθορά.


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