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language susceptible—an antithesis inimitably taken off in the Menexenus* are strangers to the pure taste of Demosthenes. Nor do we find that the orator's study of Thucydides led him to adopt those fantastic usages of neuter verbs, participles, adjectives, and complex syntactical combinations for single substantive nouns,† which Col. Mure's elaborate criticism traces to the influence of Antiphot on his pupil; or to substitute definitions for simple predicates, § metaphysical || for physical agencies, and attributes¶ for the persons by whom they are exercised-characteristic traits of the rhetorical portions of the historian's work. For the narrative style is terse and vigorous, and generally chaste, and comparatively exempt from the obliquities of taste engendered by the morbid and fantastic subtlety peculiar to the school of Gorgias, then in the ascendant. The favourable criticism of Mar

fulfilment [Ελπὶς καὶ ἔργον]: Profession and performance ["Ονομα καὶ ἔργον].

* C. v.

† E.g. Τὸ δεδιὸς, τὸ θαρσοῦν. i. 36. Τὸ εὐτυχές, ii. 44. Τῆς γνώμης τὸ μὴ κατὰ κράτος νικηθέν τῆς ξυμφορᾶς τῷ ἀποβάντι. ii. 87. Τῷ αὐτίκα χρησίμῳ ὑμῶν τε καὶ ἐκείνων πολεμίῳ. iii. 56.

Cf. ANTIPHO, de Cade Herod. 7: 'Ev τ vμeтéρw dikaiw. 96: Tò vμéтeρov evσeßés. Cf. 79. Becker. Thucyd. speaks of Antipho, viii. 68. § E. g. i. 9o : Τὸ μὲν βουλόμενον καὶ ὕποπτον τῆς γνώμης. iii. 1o: Εν τῷ διαλλάσσοντι τῆς γνώμης. vii. 68: ̓Αποπλῆσαι τῆς γνώμης τὸ θυμούμενον. Cf. ii. 59, 61 : Ἐν τῷ ὑμετέρῳ ἀσθενεῖ τῆς γνώμης. Cf. i. 142.

This must imply some reserve; but we shall search in vain in Demosth. for any parallel to the passage, vii. 45, where Poverty, License, Hope, Love, Chance, are personified and arrayed against each other. Cf. ii. 62, where Talent, personified, appears as an actor on the political arena. In v. 103, we find Hope again personified. By a still more ambitious development of the figure, Vengeance is personified, and even plays the injured party seeking redress. iv. 62. ¶ Demosth. would never have written, Tò μérepov déos Boúλetal. THUCYD. iii. 14.

cellinus acknowledges the sophist's influence on the diction of Thucydides. Cicero compares the style of his speeches to Falernian of an excellent vintage, but of too recent a date to be sufficiently mellow for the palate [Brut. c. 83]. The broad distinction recognised by Tully between the style of history and that of oratory, allowed him fully to appreciate the high merits of the historian as a 'rerum explicator prudens, sincerus, gravis: non ut in judiciis versaret caussas, sed ut in historiis bella narraret.' Orat. 9. Indeed he elsewhere bestows the highest praise on the admirable vigour, rapidity, and condensation of his narrative [de Orat. ii. 13); while, consistently with his own idea of the principles upon which public oratory ought to be founded, he warns the candidate for the honours of the Forum against imitation of his speeches. These he describes in the following terms: 'Ipsæ illæ conciones ita multas habent abditas obscurasque sententias, vix ut intelligantur: quod est in oratore civili vitium vel maximum.' Orat. 9.

The style of Demosthenes is not only negatively distinguished from that of the historian by the absence of the eccentricities above detailed; it is also marked by the fullest development both of structure and inflexion, of which the Attic tongue in the hands of its most consummate master was susceptible. That development*-the transition of the Old into the Middle Attic-displays itself in various forms, some of which, more or less common to the literature of the epoch, may be briefly mentioned here.

* DONALDSON, New Cratylus, p. 55. Marcellinus (Vita Thucyd.) notices Thucydides' predilection for archaic forms. Lysias, in his speech against Theomnestus, is obliged constantly to explain to the court the obsolete phraseology of the laws of Solon.

(1) The increasing prevalence of the middle forms of the verb.

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(2) The predilection for deponents, especially deponents passive-which latter, though they do occur in Thucydides,* are far more common in Demosthenes; e. g. Meid. 46, KEKÓμiσтaι Xáρiv, has received a favour,' 1122, 26. Tivi συμβέβλησαί πω; ‘whom have you ever aided with a loan? 'Meid. 52. Ovx ó éσкeμμévos, 'not the man who has ὁ ἐσκεμμένος, considered', 47; λελύμανται τὸ ἱππικὸν ὑμῶν, ‘he has injured your cavalry force,' cf. p. 226; à πeπoλítevμai, 'my political career, 486, 1; ἃ τούτου τοῦ νόμου γεγράμμεθα, 'the points which I have censured as unconstitutional in this law. The list of such forms may be almost indefinitely extended.

(3) The use of the future middle in a passive or quasipassive sense, probably for the sake of euphony. Instances of this occur in the old Attic: nine cases, at least, in different verbs, will be found in Thucydides: but it is more common in the later Attic. See PORSON, Advers. 222; PIERSON, Mar. 13, 367.

(4) Preference for the second in place of the first aorist passive, also for the sake of euphony ; e. g. συλλεγείς, ἀπαλλαγείς, for συλλεχθείς, ἀπαλλαχθείς. VALCK, ad Phan. p. 356, sq. 979; PORSON, on Phan. 986; JELF, Gr. Gr. § 367, 3.t

(5) Substitution of the double TT instead of σo. This is a general characteristic of middle Attic. VALCK. on Phon.

* iii. 90: Ενέδραν πεποιημέναι. vi. 36: Πόλεμον καταλελυμένους. + Mr. JELF, Gr. Gr., p. 309, says, the use of the infinitive with the article in the genitive, to denote an object, aim, or purpose, is an Attic idiom, 'not usual in the old orators, but very usual in Demosthenes.' It does, however, occur in Thucyd., at the very outset of his History, i. 4, sub fin. Cf. SOPH. Ajax

Δραμοῦσα τοῦ προσωτάτω.

p. 149, but it also occurs in Aristoph., e. g. Oáλatta, θάλαττα, HEMSTERH. ad Plut. 396; and is said to have been introduced by Pericles; MATTH. Gr. Gr. p. 8, fifth edition. Attic ears were very sensible of the harshness of the sigma, and Sophocles was deservedly ridiculed for the hissing line,

Ἐς τὰς ἀδελφὰς τάσδε τὰς ἐμὰς χέρας.

(6) Substitution of pp for po, which the old Attic used in common with the Doric, Ionic, and Æolic. VALCK. on Phon. p. 22. We find, however, μuppivov and μúppivov μυῤῥινών μύῤῥινον in ARISTOPH. Ran. 156, Eq. 364.

(7) Changes of form, such as πλeúμwv, yvaþeùs, for πνεúμшν, кvаþeús, BRUNCK. ad Aristoph. Plut. 166; add to these σuv instead of the older §úv.

(8) Development of prepositions; and this in two respects.

(a) Less frequent use of cases without prepositions; e. g., Demosthenes would not have written T Tŵv ÉvaνTív Kakóσe, without éπì, THUс. iii. 82.

(B) Extension of the meaning of some prepositions ; e. g. eis Toùs Exxĥvas, 'with respect to,' PLATO, Symp. 179, ; see STALLBAUM, cf. 219, D; èπì, 'engaged with,' Rep. 376, Ε; ἡ μὲν ἐπὶ σώμασι γυμναστική, cf. 408, Β.


In Plato and Demosthenes, Sià' means 'by help of,' with accus. e. g. Rep. p. 352, C, cf. Index Orat. Att. diá.*

BUTTMANN (Meid. Index), remarks that Demosthenes uses vπèp in the sense of Tepí. It is just as if a Latin writer

*We cannot expect to find certain forms of linguistic development rigorously limited to particular eras. Much will depend on the bias of the writer; e. g. Thucydides and Lysias were cotemporaries: Thucydides inclined towards the older, Lysias towards the later Attic. It will be observed, also, that the 'Rance' and 'Plutus, quoted above, were the later—indeed, the 'Plutus' was the latest play of Aristophanes.

were to employ super instead of the more common de, as in Virgil's line:

'Nil super imperio moveor.'

(9) The following arrangement with regard to the article preponderates in Thucyd.: τὴν τάξιν τῶν ὁπλιτῶν. Xenophon prefers τὴν τῶν ὁπλιτῶν τάξιν.

(10) Omission of the article with ouros, e. g. in PLATO, Rep. 621, B. OUTоs μûlos éσálŋ. Stallbaum, however, inserts the article, 'in omnibus editionibus adhuc neglectum.' Cf. 399, C. Symp. 179, C. TOûTO Yépas. Wolf had written, τοῦτο τὸ γέρας; but Stallbaum does not receive the article: he, however, considers yépas as the predicate.

(11) Commencement of sentences with enclitics; e. g. DEM. de Cor. 240 : τινὰς δὲ καὶ . . . . κατεστρέφετο.

(12) Elliptical use of ἂν with ὥσπερ; e. g. ὡσπερανεί. See JELF's Gr. Gr. § 430.

(13) New and more artificial forms of attraction; e.g. PLATO, Rep. 443, Β. ἀρχόμενοι τῆς πόλεως οἰκίζειν. See STALLB. ad l. c.

(14) Intransitive sense of transitive verbs; e. g. πapaKIVEîV, PLATO, Rep. 540, A, to shift one's ground. XEN. Mem. iv. 2, 35: ẻπl Tivi, to be highly excited at anything. DEMOSTH. 193, 27: =vewτepíšeiv. Cf. ȧvaσтpépeiv, Lidd.


(15) Development of abstract nouns in place of combinations with the participle and article, the adjective and article, etc. Not, however, that the latter are disused; only they do not retain their awkward Thucydidean prominence. Thucydides would not have written, ἡ συνεχὴς καὶ καθ ̓ nμéρav TоMIтela, Orat. Att. 1469, 11, for his daily conduct or deportment. οἷς γάρ ἐστιν ἐν λόγοις ἡ πολιτεία, 399, 8, Totus vitæ cursus. Ἡ προαίρεσις ἡ ἐμὴ καὶ ἡ πολιτεία 'H ý Sieπρágaτо, 257, 7, my political administration.

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