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been little occupied with public affairs. His last words are stated to have been expressive of his devotion to his King and country. The funeral at Florence on January 7 was very imposing. His remains were afterwards conveyed to Biella. The Turkish ambassador at Rome was ordered by the Sultan to attend the General's funeral, in token of the gratitude of Turkey towards the commander of the Sardinian forces in the Crimea.

MR, ANDREW MURRAY.

The death is announced of Mr. Andrew Murray, F.L.S., the naturalist, whose later life has been mainly occupied in close scientific observation upon the injury done by insects in our fields and gardens. Other natural history subjects of less direct practical importance occupied his attention at earlier periods of his life. In 1866 he published his well-known “Geographical Distribution of Mammals,” in which he brought together such facts as were known, and illustrated the distribution by coloured maps. In 1858–9 he was elected president of the Royal Physical Society, and he filled also the office of president of the Royal Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

M. RASPAIL.

From Paris we have news of the death of M. Raspail, the French chemist. He was born on January 29, 1794, and had consequently almost attained his 84th year. His scientific works, published in the early days of his career, procured him considerable reputation, and the active part he afterwards played in politics as an advanced Liberal soon made him even more widely known. During the reign of Louis Philippe he was prosecuted again and again for his writings, and a paper which he edited was condemned twenty times in twelve months, and had to pay fines amounting to 100,000 francs. Even so late as 1875 he was condemned to a year's imprisonment, and at the age of 81 underwent his sentence.

MR, SHEPHARD,

Dr. Tristram, the Chancellor of the Consistory Court of London, on taking his seat at the Chapter House, St. Paul's Churchyard, on January 21,

announced to the bar that he had just received information of the death of Mr. Shephard, the Registrar of the Court over which he presided. He added that he believed the deceased gentleman had held the office of Registrar of the Consistory Court for some sixty years, and he understood his father had held the office some fifty years before him.

DR. STOKES,

William Stokes, M.D., Dublin and Edinburgh, Regius Professor of Physic in the University of the former city, whose death is just announced, was one of the ablest physicians of the present day, and his professional fame was known not only in the city of Dublin, where he had acquired a very extensive practice, but amongst medical, scientific, and archaeological bodies in England and on the Continent. His writings are standard works in the profession to which he belonged, and in which he attained such eminence, and his death is universally lamented, not the least by the poor of his city, to whom he was a constant benefactor and friend. Dr. Stokes was some time President of the Royal Irish Academy, and his election to the chair of that learned body was a just tribute to his high acquirements in archaeological knowledge. At a meeting of the Academy, which gave expression to the universal regret, Lord O'Hagan wound up his eulogium in these words: “He (Dr. Stokes) was an hereditary lover of Ireland, and his love was as wise as it was strong. He loved the scenery of Ireland, her traditions, the picturesque and melancholy scenes of her history, and her crumbling ruins.” Dr. Stokes was, at the period of his decease, 73 years of age.

February.

THE LATE POPE PIUS IX,

Pope Pius the Ninth died at the Vatican, after a long and gradual decline, between five and six o'clock on February 7, and the longest and certainly one of the most important Popedoms in history has thus come to an end. The life which has thus, as it were, faded out in its eighty-sixth year, once reached a zenith of popularity, and broke into a richness of promise such as is given to not many even of the greatest careers.Mastai Ferretti, born at Sinigaglia, near Ancona, on May 13, 1792, the son of a noble family, had always led a life that might fairly be called exemplary. His constitution was weak and sickly. He was liable to epileptic fits from his childhood, and this tendency threatened at one time to mar his hopes of being allowed to enter the Church. His own inclinations and those of his mother were, however, entirely for his adopting the priesthood, and the epileptic tendencies gradually disappearing, Mastai Ferretti was ordained a priest. He celebrated mass for the first time at Easter, 1819. At once he became one of the most earnest and devoted priests the Church in her best days had ever known. In 1823 he was sent on a mission to Chili; in 1825, on his return to Rome, he was placed by the Pope in charge of the Hospital of St. Michael; and shortly afterwards he was made Archbishop of Spoleto. In 1836 he was sent as Apostolic Nuncio to Naples, and there he won for himself a noble reputation by the fearless devotion with which he attended upon the sick during a terrible outbreak of cholera. He was translated from the see of Spoleto to that of Tincia, and on December 14, 1840, he was proclaimed Cardinal. In the beginning of June, 1846, Gregory XVI. died. Cardinal Ferretti arrived in Rome on June 12, and four days afterwards was elected Pope, by a Conclave which lasted fortyeight hours. Pius IX. went to work at once to justify the high opinion formed of him. He reformed various ecclesiastical abuses. He reduced greatly the expenses of administration. He abolished various sinecures. He granted an amnesty to political prisoners. He relieved the Jews from some most oppressive regulations, odious relics of the barbarous mediaeval system. He modified the censorship of the press, and granted to Rome a political constitution which brought laymen back again into a share of government and power. To make the popularity of Pius IX. still greater, Austria took alarm and offence at his liberal movements, and sent forth haughty remonstrances. Austrian troops actually occupied Ferrara. The Pope made a spirited protest, and in a moment the cry went all over the nation that Pius IX. was about to rally Italy to arms for the expulsion of the foreigner from his soil. Garibaldi hurried home

from South America to offer his services to the new deliverer of Italy; but before he arrived upon the scene the aspect of affairs had changed. The demand for reform at Rome, and for a movement against the Austrians, began to exceed anything he had anticipated. The voice of Mazzini and his followers was heard, and the Pope took fright at the threatened fall of dynasties and drew back. He protested that, as a Pontiff, he could not make war against a Christian Power. He qualified some of his reforms. He called to his councils the ill-fated Count Rossi. The war of national independence went on without Pius, or in spite of him. Venice was proclaimed a republic. Milan drove out the Aus. trians. Rossi was assassinated ; the population of Rome demanded the formation of a new Ministry, and a declaration of war against Austria. The Pope fled to Gaeta; the short-lived Triumvirate of the Roman Republic was proclaimed, and Pius IX. and Italy parted then and there for ever. The Pope had had his chance and lost it. It never came again, nor, we suppose, did he ever wish for it. From that day to the day of his death he was regarded as the enemy of Italian freedom. In April, 1850, Pope Pius IX. returned to his capital, where he reigned twenty years longer, by the support of a French military garrison, and by the catlike cunning of his Secretary of State, the late Cardinal Antonelli. But he had already lost, for himself and his successors in the Papacy, the loyalty of the Italian people. His political independence was virtually destroyed, his temporal dominion continued merely on sufferance, and was destined to be shaken to pieces and swept away by the next storm of a revolutionary war. That came in the events of 1859 and 1860, when the French and Piedmontese conquest of Lombardy was followed by the Papal provinces of the Romagna casting off their allegiance to the Pope, and by the Piedmontese troops expelling his foreign legion from Umbria and Ancona; it came again in 1870, when the withdrawal of the French garrison from Rome allowed the Italian kingdom to force an entrance at its gates. The Pope, as an Italian Sovereign Prince, had no supporters left to him among the Italian nation: it was inevitable that his throne should fall. There is no more to be said of the political errors and disasters of this reign, except so far as concerns the later phase of his dispute with several European Governments, particularly with Germany, upon the limits of the ecclesiastical allegiance he has claimed in their dominions. These disputes arose from the promulgation of his Encyclical Letter and Syllabus, and from the decree of his OEcumenical Council in 1869, inspired by theological views which we do not here pretend to discuss. It is sufficient to record that Pius IX. had the consolation of proclaiming that “the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ea cathedrá—i.e., when in discharge of the office of pastor and teacher of all nations he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the universal Church—is, by the Divine assistance promised to him in the person of the blessed Peter, possessed of that infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed that his Church should be endowed in defining doctrines regarding faith or morals, and that therefore such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church, irrefragable.” This was a notable achievement; but its magnitude will perhaps be better understood, its importance better tested, and its consequences, good or bad, better developed under some of the successors of the late Pope. Of his personal character and behaviour, throughout a life extended to the eighty-sixth year of his age and thirtysecond of his reign, there is no evil to be told beyond a venial exhibition of such faults of temper, and occasional slips in the way of levity or vanity as are common to the most amiable men fond of public applause.

EARL BATHURST.

The death of the Right Hon. Earl Bathurst occurred on February 24, at his residence in Half Moon Street, Piccadilly. The deceased nobleman, William Lennox Bathurst, fifth Earl Bathurst, also Lord Apsley, of Apsley, in Sussex, and Lord Bathurst, of Battlesden, in the Peerage of Great Britain, was born at Apsley House, Hyde Park, on February 14, 1791, and was, therefore, in his eighty-eighth year. He was the second, and eventually the last surviving, son of Henry, the third Earl, by Lady Georgina Lennox, sister of the fourth Duke of Richmond, after whom he received his second baptismal name. He was entered at an early age at Eton, under Dr. Goodall, where he had among his

school-fellows and form-fellows Mr. Justice Coleridge and the late Lords Downshire, Ellenborough, Clinton, Desart, Falmouth, Bayning, Henley, and Cholmondeley. From Eton he passed to Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his bachelor's degree in Easter Term, 1812, obtaining a second class in the school of “Literae Humaniores,” and not long afterwards was elected to a Fellowship at All Souls' College. In 1821 he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, having already sat in the Parliament of 1812 as M.P. for the since disfranchised borough of Weobley. For upwards of thirty years— namely, from 1827 down to 1860—he acted as one of the clerks of the Privy Council, a position which brought him constantly in contact with public men of every shade of politics and opinions, and in which he was almost as popular as his fellow-clerk, Mr. Charles Greville. In his private convictions he was a staunch Conservative. Late in life—namely, in the year 1866—he succeeded, by the death of his elder brother, to the earldom, which now passes to his nephew, Mr. Allen Alexander Bathurst, M.P. for Cirencester, only son of his younger brother, the late Colonel the Hon. Seymour Thomas Bathurst, M.P., by Julia, only daughter of Mr. John Peter Hankey. His lordship was born in October 1832, was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and has sat as M.P. for Cirencester in the Conservative interest since the year 1857. He married, in 1862, a daughter of Lord de Tabley, by whom (her ladyship died in 1872) he has three sons.

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK.

George Cruikshank, one of the most fertile and original of modern illustrators, passed away on February 1, at his residence in Hampstead Road, after a life of almost incessant labour, at the ripe age of eighty-six years. The productions of his pencil are so numerous, and his style is so uniform, that in mentioning what he has done during his long career the attention is as naturally directed to the subject as to the execution. Beginning life at an age when most youths are still at school, Cruikshank was employed illustrating children's books and other literature of that class. He then, in conjunction with a literaryman, published two illustrated monthly periodicals called The Scourge and The Meteor, and his contributions to Mr. Hone's political squibs “Tam o'Shanter," and “Disturbing a Congregation,” this last being painted for Prince Albert. Until within a short time of the lamented artist's death he enjoyed vigorous health, and hot only worked at his profession, but was a constant attendant at meetings of a philanthropic character.

which were amongst his next efforts, were received with much favour by the public. Taking his idea, probably, from Hogarth, to whose genius as a caricaturist Cruikshank in some points approaches, the deceased painter occupied himself with a series of plates intended to represent “Life in London,” with the object of warning the young and inexperienced against some of the pitfalls that await them in populous towns. An unfortunate misunderstanding between him and the writer of the letter-press induced Cruikshank to abandon the unfinished undertaking; which was completed by his brother Robert, and afterwards obtained an extensive sale, being also dramatised. This was followed by “Life in Paris '' and the “Points of Humour,” as to which latter production many critics have spoken in terms of high approval. The connection between George Cruikshank and the late Charles Dickens was auspiciously begun when the two young men produced “Sketches by Boz,” although the illustrator's share in the suggestion of some of the characters in “Pickwick " has since been a matter of frequent, and even yet unsettled, controversy. No one will, however, deny very high praise to both writer and designer, while many believe that Cruikshank's illustrations in “Oliver Twist" form one of the most attractive features of the book. The novels of Ainsworth and Sir Walter Scott have also been embellished by the facile pencil of the deceased, as well as a whole host of other works of the same description. Cruikshank’s “Omnibus" appeared in 1842, and although Laman Blanchard assisted with the letter-press, the chief merit of the performance is due to the artist, Conspicuous throughout all the series of Cruikshank's works is astrong tendency to display the evil results of intemperance, and to this end his “Gin Trap,” “The Bottle "—a production dramatised at eight London theatres simultaneously—“The Worship of Bacchus,” a large oil-painting, besides numerous other productions, weredirected, “The Worship of Bacchus,” leaving its artistic position out of the question, is a striking testimony not only of the perseverance of the painter, but of his zeal in the cause which he had at heart. In his later years Cruikshank turned, his attention to oil-painting, and exhibited at the Royal Academy and the British Institution, among other contributions, his illustrations— “Titania and Bottom,” “Cinderella,"

MR. CHALMERS, R.S.A.

Mr. G. Paul Chalmers, R.S.A., died in Edinburgh Infirmary on February 20, from the effects of injuries which he received on February 16, when he was found insensible in an area in Charlotte Street, Edinburgh, suffering from a severe scalp wound. Since then he partially recovered consciousness, but was unable to give any account of his proceedings. A gold watch, his purse, containing money, and his hat, had been abstracted. Mr. Chalmers, who had resided in Edinburgh since about 1854, was born in Montrose, Forfarshire, in 1836. He was elected an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1867, and an academician in 1871. He took a high rank among the Scottish artists, and has produced a number of well-known works. He has two pictures in this year's exhibition of the Royal Scottish Academy, and one of his pictures was purchased in 1864 by the Royal Association for the promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland. The Council of the Royal Scottish Academy have offered a reward of 100l. to anyone who will give information which may lead to the apprehension of Mr. Chalmers' assailant.

MR. THOMAS CHITTY.

The death is announced of Mr. Thomas Chitty, the well-known pleader, in his seventy-seventh year. Mr. Chitty was never called to the Bar. He practised as a special pleader, and his large business attracted to his pupil-room a crowd of students. Among those who read with him were Lord Chancellor Cairns, Lord O'Hagan, Chief Justice Whiteside, Mr. Justice Willes, Mr. Justice Quain, and Sir James Hannen. He was the editor of “Chitty's Practice,” which passed through many editions, and was long the hand-book of practitioners of the old school, and he was also editor of Burn's “Justice of the Peace.” Mr. Chitty began his practice below the Bar in the year 1819 at an unusually early age. He rose rapidly into a large business, and

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The Rev. Dr. Duff, D.D., died this month at the age of seventy-two. He was renowned in the history of Christian missionary enterprise in India, as the founder and conductor of an important set of institutions for the moral and religious benefit of the native races. It was in 1830 that the young Scotchman went out there, having been educated at St. Andrews, under Dr. Chalmers and others, to open a high school or college for Hindoo youths at Calcutta. This was a project set on foot by the directing authorities of the Established Presbyterian Kirk of Scotland, at the suggestion of the Moderator, the Rev. Dr. Inglis. It was meant by the aid of Rajah Rammohun to convey superior instruction through the medium of English—making the Hindoos learn English, as the condition of admitting them to a share in the scientific and technical acquirements of the European world. The expectations, however, of Dr. Duff and other zealous promoters of English Missionary Colleges and schools in India, went considerably beyond that of providing a merely temporal benefit for their pupils. It was hoped that many of their Hindoo students would become so deeply impressed with the truth and value of the Christian religion, that they might supply a large number of native preachers and teachers, ministers and pastors, to impart its blessings to the heathen population. Readers of that most interesting biography, the “Memoir of Norman Macleod,” may find his remarks upon the subject in the extracts from his Address to the Scottish General Assembly, after his return from visiting the Indian Missions. It appears that Dr. Duff, who had then, in 1872, been carrying on the system thirty-five years, though since 1843 in connection with the Free Kirk of Scotland, could only reckon 206 converts altogether, while he had 3,000 young persons, male and

female, in his schools in Bengal, with

fifty Christian agents, four of them

clergymen, at twelve different stations. “As to ordained missionaries, three only have been contributed by the institution since its commencement. The same general results have been obtained at Madras and Bombay.” Dr. Duff, along with many other Scottish missionaries in India, joined the secession from the Established Kirk in Scotland in 1843. He returned to Scotland in 1864, and became Professor of Theology in the Free Kirk College at Edinburgh. He also founded a college for missionaries in that city, and continued in other ways, by his personal labours and procuring funds, to further that interesting Cause,

MR. WILLIAM EVANS.

The oldest member of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, Mr. William Evans, whose death has this month to be announced, was born December 4, 1797. He was the son of Samuel Evans, of Flintshire, an artist of considerable power, one of whose works is now at Burlington House. He was born and educated at Eton; for a short time he studied medicine, but soon became a pupil of De Wint, and took up art as a profession. In 1828 he was made an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, and in that year exhibited four drawings—“Eton,” “Windsor,” “The Thames Fisherman,” and “Barmouth.” He rose rapidly in his profession, and was elected member in 1831. From that time till a few years ago he was a constant exhibitor, contributing many, and often large and important works, to the exhibition, and was most energetic and zealous in endeavouring to promote the welfare of the Society. Early in his career he was appointed teacher of drawing at Eton, a post which he held till 1856, and then resigned in consequence of increasing duties and responsibilities as the head of one of the houses in the college. In this position the remainder of his useful life was spent, and his name will long be remembered by many for the good influence he exercised over those with whom he was associated, and all who have the best interests of Eton at heart will feel what a heavy loss the school has sustained.

SIR GEORGE B. L'ESTRANGE.

Sir George Burdett L'Estrange died on the 5th inst. at Harcourt Road,

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