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Seth Frising hastily) Heard you Adam Judge of the world !-Icomo the rocks tremble?

(the rocks fall together with a tremenEve. Adam!

dous crash) O death-t is tbouSeth. More and more they trem- come-come-I die. ble

R. H.

CRITICISM.

“ Nulli negabimus, nulli differemus justitiam." The CONTEMPLATIST; a Series of ing this paper, and some ensuing ones, Essays upon Morals and Literature. to the consideration of a topic which By William MUDFORD, Author has been brought before the public of Nubilia, &c.,

mind by a nobleman, whose name will МА TANY of the Essays of which long be remembered, and long revered,

by all whose natures are not unsusceppeared originally, in the Universal tible of the feelings of pity and Magazine, but they are here consi. humanity. The topic to which i derably enlarged and altered. To allude, is Cruelty to Animals; nor will enter into remarks, therefore, would I be deterred from my purpose by Þe superfluous, but there is one num- any consciousness of my own insig. her, the eighth,which is devoted to the nificance, or the small infuence which consideration of a subject that cannot I may be expected to have over the be too generally understood and felt. conduct of my fellow subjects. Public This we will extract ; and it will serve, opinion must be gradually overcome. likewise, as a specimen of the author's The conversion that is progressive is style.

likely to be permanent; and, though • To plead the cause of humanity is lead a nation's voice, yet, there is

,

not be the let of every man to a task pleasing to the heart of a good man; and it is one, also, from the perhaps, no mau who is totally inca execution of which more honour is pable of exerting, somewhere, a salu. derived than from inquiries, however tary influence. We allow that the ingenious, which tend only to amuse

meanest individual has power to the mind, or to gratify the curiosity. communicate the seeds of vice and Speculative benevolence is sometimes immorality, and wliy then may not productive of more extensive benefit the same individual become the ihan actual, because the latter may be vehicle of virtue and humanity? To only local and temporary, while the wait for splendid opportunities of fornier may continue to operate un- doing good, is to let life slip away in obstructed by time or place. The the intention of benevolence; but to writer who consecrates his talents to seize, with sincerity, every occasion the cause of virtue, is a never ceasing worthy in the sight of God. And let

of doing it, is to approve ourselves benefactor to mankind. scarcely a moment when he may not

no man be withheld from exerting solace himself with the idea that he is himself to bis utmost, whatever may producing some good: the page which be his station in society; in that he has devoted to the inculcation of station let him act, and he will not morality, may be working its effect, act in vain. For myself, if I shall when the author is resigned to langous bereafter have reason to believe that or to mirth, or when he is pining in what I am about to write has carried sickness and in sorrow: and he hay conviction to one heart only, I shall console himself with the hope, that not think my-labour fruitlessly when even death shall have consigned ployed. him to the dreary abode of the

• The first emotion with which the sepulchre, his fellow creatures will be mind is filled, as it contemplates the still benefited by the labours of his relation of brutes to man, is that of life.

kindness. They are weak, we are "Inspirited by this conviction, I powerful: they are obedient, we are have formed the resolution of dedicat. imperative: they serve, we comunand

They are humble and patient; they tous, so impious ? No, the law of endure the ills wbich we inflict upon nature is here our guide, whose voice them without a murmur, and are still condemns, loudly condemns, the horas ready to obey as if they had been rid practice. cherished with abounding love and “There is no bosom so obdurate, mercy. With us they conterd not for but it will confess this truth, if it be supremacy. Their actions are devoid properly presented. Nature is always, of all that can justly provoke us to re- the same, and when she can be apsentment; and though, for the pur- proached through the thick enveposes of domestic and public economy, lopements which passion, habit, and needful asperitics may be requisite to society have thrown around her, we fit them for our use, yet, they do not shall find her uniforın in her decisions. justify the wanton abuse of a privilege Even they who commit the very enorwhich we possess by inheritance, but inities of which I now complain, for which we shall surely be respon- would not deliberately inculcate them sible hereafter. He who is truly mer- to their offspring, nor defend the perciful, will always avoid the infliction petration of them upon the abstract of unnecessary pain; and even that principles of propriety and right. Men which is necessary, he will perform will dare to do what they will not dare with emotions of sorrow and regret. to justify. It is so in all other vices, That heart must be lamentably bar- and it is so in this. The practice of dened which is insensible to the wail- it is continued without reflection, and ings of distress, which bleeds no: at without remorse: but place it before the groans of the dumb creation. It their eyes in all its hideous truth, and is scarcely to be believed, that in they would shudder at the monstrous civilized man that ferocity is to be apparition. Like the guilty Thane, found which can behold, unmoved, they will be afraid to think of what the agonies of animals subjected to they have done; look on it they dare needless torture; nay, more, (and I not.' blush while I write it) that there flere then is that solemn voice should exist individuals who can which speaks in every boson), and malignantly inflict pain and anguish which no man ever despised with upon unoffending creatures, and exult impunity. To this let him appeal, in the sobs and convulsions of expir- who is tempted to doubt the propriety ing pature.

of regulations, whose object it is to “Shame and reproof have lost all restrain those by the fear of punishpower over such minds; all feeling is ment who can be restrained by no annihilated in their hearts, and it is other motive. Let him ask himself if vain to hope for their reformation by animals have corporeal feeling like his the gentler impulses of awakened com- own? Let him ask whether pain be a passion and reinorse. No, the strong desirable sensation, or whether we arm of the law must be raised to awe have a right to infictit unnecessarily ? them. But, shall we be told, that to The answers to these questions will be curb such horrible excesses, to abridge the noblest sanction of those measures the empire of groans and misery, in which Lord Erskine is enforcing in give humanity a wider play, and to behalf of injured animals. They too, gratify the virtuous feelings of our who stigmatise the proceeding as the nature, is to infringe upon the inde- offspring of a morbid delicacy, of a feasible rights of man, and to enforce too refined humanity, shew only their arbitrary and vexations regulations? own weakness or their own cruelty. In what book, in what record, in The cause of bumanity is the cause of what moral code shall we find it nature and of God; and is it possible written, that man has a right to tor. to defend such a cause too zealously? ture? In what bloody pandect shall Believe it not, ye who are willing to we find this right acknowledged ? In embrace any counsel which flaiteks what constitution are we told that it is your own doings. Harken not to the morally or politically right to abuse delusion which would persuade you the creatures of God's hand? What that it is weakness, and not virtue, modern Draco will dare to promulge that bids you be merciful. Throw an ordinance so monstrous, so iniqui. away the stubborn prejudices which obscure your reason and harden your tend to have many fears lest every hearts, and learn compassion even for man should be abridged of an onthe meanest creature that has life and limited right to exercise cruelty. feeling. You will never want the But this ferocious freedom may be mercy which you shew, nor will you safely resisted. It will always be easy be without a sweet consolation when to distinguish between peedful severity you reflect upon your deeds.

and wanton barbarity; and, besides, The quality of mercy is not strained ; the very consciousness that there is a It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven law to punish cruelty, will'operate as Upon the place beneath: it is twice blessed: a powerful check upon those indiviIt' blesseth him that gives and him that duals who, now, set at defiance every takes :

feeling of humanity. No man can 'Tis mightiest in the miglaty.

walk through the streets of this nie. We do pray for mercy, tropolis without having hourly occaAnd that same prayer doth teach us all to sion to wish that he could call in the render

aid of power to befriend the harmless The deeds of mercy.

victims of human brutes. Without SHAXSPEARE.

such an anxiliary, interference only “There is a fashion in most things,'subjects the ivtruder to such conseand I wish I could succeed in bringing quences as every man is not disposed humanity into fashion. Man will do to encounter. much from custom wbich he will not I would willingly, however, divest do from reason; and it is therefore of the lovers of English liberty of all fears importance that he should acquire the for the constitution, of which they are habit of doing right. A vice that is so vociferously proud, by convincing generally discountenanced will always them that such laws as I am sure it is be acted with caution and timidity; the intention of Lord Erskine to sug, but that which has ceased to be re- gest, will never rob my countrymen of garded with abhorrence by the mass one legitimate right. It is the busiof mankind, will be perpetrated with ness of law, negatively to enforce the few emotions of shame. It is thus practice of virtue by the probilition with cruelty to animals, which, unless of vice, and whatever comes under fagrantly infamous, seldom meets with this denomination, whatever is an that reprobation which it were to be offence against the moral system of wished always followed it. If, there- society, may, and ought to be, the fore, any means can be devised, hy object of legal punishment. A misde which the minds of the multitude ineanor may be more or less criminal, may be awakened to a due sense of but if it be a misdemeanor, there can the enormity of this practice, the basis be no doubt that some correction will be laid of its gradual extinction; of it should be provided. The muland to effect this salutary reformation tiplication of crimes is one of tbe conmust be the labour of many indivi- sequences of civilization; but, it is duals directed to the same purpose. another consequevce, that as those The subject being thus brought before crimes become dangeroos or inconvethem, under various aspects, on various nient to society, the wisdom of the occasions, and with various degrees of legislature provides remedies. Let do ability, the great stream of public man believe that political liberty can opinion wi! be slowly turning from exist with moral depravity. Where its present channel, till at length it good and bad are left is undistinwill be happily directed into one guished confusion, there exists a radi. where its course may produce every cal source of corruption which, by ineffect which a wise and good man can fecting the principles of conduct, wish for.

prepares the way for a universal They who condemn the project degeneracy of manners that, like a of legal interference, seem not to have canker, will fester round the core of any very exact potions upon the sub- social life, and spread infection ject. Eager to display their own through its innost fibres. But, to sagacity, by detecting the weakness of oppose a barrier to such degeneracy, a legislative measure, they confound is the office of well-digested laws; liberty with licentiousness, and pre- and a nation is then most truly great

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when it is most virtuous. If there be usefulness, and cheerful obedience any one who is prepared to prove, with stripes and blows. I am willing that the exercise of wanton cruelty to believe, however, that iniquity so towards animals is not a crime, it will Aagrant, requires only to be known be then proper to consider bow we and felt to be detested, and I shall reshall resist an attempt to shackle it sume, therefore, this subject in some with penal laws; but, while the gene- ensuing papers, not without the hope, sal voice of mankind, while universal that by repeated efforts I may be able nature denounces it as a crime, in the to aid, in some degree, the success of abstract, why should it be wished to a cause so truly noble, generous, and shelter it from that visitation of humane." punishment which we judge to be so The following is the table of connecessary in all other cases?

tents: " But there are some who think it a No. 1. Introductory Address.-No. needless refinement of humanity, and ?. The Hill of Literature and the who condemn it as a measure which Temple of the Essayists, an Allegory, may enervate the national character. No. 3. Vindication of Authors by What! is our courage in the field, or profession.-No. 4. The Narrative of on the seas, to perish, if we are not Julia.—No.5. The Narrative of Julia allowed to feed it by a cowardly in. continued.-No. 6. Critical Examifliction of pain upon a belpless, a nation of the styles of Addison, Johnharmless, an uoresisting animal? Is son, and Goldsmith.—No.7. Critical the heroic ardour of the warrior to be Examination of Milton's Samson Agoderived from so dastardly a source? nistes.- No. 8. On the Iniquity of Shall our armies be beaten, and our Cruelty to Animals; some consideraDavies taken, when it is no longer tions on Lord Erskine's Bili.--No. 9. permitted to our populace to strike The Narrative of Julia continued by out the eyes, to dissever the tendons, her Friend.--No. 10. Analysis of the to crush the bones, or mercilessly to Tragedy of Sir Walter Raleigh, by scourge the unfortunate brute that Sewell. -No. 11. The Narrative of chance places within their power? Julia concluded.-No. 12. The EnorMust we without the continuance of mity of Aduliery-seduction, whether such practices, lose, immediately, that a greater crime -No.13. The Dignity venerable and honoured name which of the Human Mind--the basis of all our ancestors have transmitted to us Man's Superiority.-No. 14. Critical as a precious deposit, and which we Examination of the Poems and Genius have yet virtue enough to love and of H. K. White.--No. 15. The same cherish. I hope noi: I hope our subject continued.-No. 16. The same national character is founded upon subject concluded.-No. 17: Matrisemething better than this savage monial Infelicity; its probable causes freedom which is now so loudly in- state.- No. 18. The Evils of Sussisted on. I hope we may still con- picion, illustrated by a Narrative.tinue to be a great, a brave, and a No 19. Considerations on the Utility generous people, even though there of the Learned Languages. —No. 20. should pass a law to punish causeless, Account of John Wilde, Esq.-No. or vindictive cruelty to animals. 21. The Difficulty and Importance of

“ Surely it is no evidence, either of Self-Knowledge. manhood or of honour, to oppress the unresisting, or to punish the unof. Memoirs of Robert CARY, EARL fending. Whoever looks upon the animal creation with a mind properly

op MONMOUTH. Written by Himdisposed, will be immediately struck

self. Ad Fragmenta RegaLIA ; with the conviction, that man, though

being a History of Queen Elizahe is the lord, was never meant to be

beth's Favourites. By Sir Robert

NAUNTON. With Explanatory the tyrant of it. The sense of benefits received

Annotations.

THIS is a republication of no orconfer them. But here it is otherwise.

we We are unmindful of all that we should think ill of the state of public ebtain, and we becompense fidelity, taste, if it were coldly received. We

resure kindness towards those who T Hinary a importance; and

could wish, indeed, it had been print- the works which we possess of this naed with a little more economy of ture, seems to have some claim upon paper and type. All works of real public favour," value and importance should be given The preface to this volume contains to the literary world as cheaply, as some interesting historical remarks, possible. It is a hard tax, in these which tend considerably to elucidate hard times, upon a poor scholar, that the memoirs, and the explanatory he mu: : either starve his body or his notes, by the present editor, judimind. If he buys books, he must ciously supply the omissions of the want his mutton : if he buys his former one. mutton, he must want books.

The memoirs themselves are emiThe following advertisement will nently amusing. They exhibit a explain the origin and republication court of Elizabeth and of herself

, fresh' and faithful picture of the of this work :

whom they sometimes display in a “ The memoirs of Sir Robert Cary light not very amiable, though writwere first published from the original ten by a man wbo deemed highly of M-, ky the Earl of Corke and Orrary. her, and crouched beneath berimThey contain an interesting account perions sway. The author relates of some important passages in Eliza- nothing but what he saw, and he beth's reign, and throw peculiar light was engaged in many of the most imupon the personal character of the portant events of her reign. Queen. The original edition having Among the extracts which we now become very scarce, it is pre propose to make from this volume, it sumed that a new impression will be would be unpardonable to omit the acceptable to the public. Several following account of the destruction additions have been made to the Carl of that numerous fleet which Spain of Corke's explanatory notes, parti- equipped for our destruction: Spain, cularly to such as refer to Border that country for whom we are nos mattes. These additions are distin- fighting on her own shores! Strange guished by the letter E.

mutability of human events! “As a suitable companion to Cary's “ The next year! 1583) the King of Memoirs, the Fragmenta Regalia, a Spain's great Ariadn came upon our source from which our historians coast, thinking to devour us all.have drawn the most authentic ac. U on the news sent to court from count of the court of the virgin Puymouth of their certain arrival, my Queen, have also been reprinted. Lord ('umberland and myself took The author, Sir Robert Naunton, josť horse, and rede strait to Portslived in the element of a court, and mouthi, where we found a frigate that had experienced all its fluctuations. carried us to sea : and having sought His characters of statesmen and war- for the Heets a whole day, the night riors are drawn with such spirit, as after we fell amongst them; where it leaves us only to-regret iheir brevity, was our fortune to light first on the und the obscurity in which be some spanish Hest; and finding ourelves times thinks it prudent to involve in the wrong, we tacked about, and in them. To lessen this inconvenience, some short time got to our own teet, a few explanatory notes have been which was not far from the other. At added.

our coming aboard our admiral, we Memoirs are the materials, and stayed there awhile ; but finding the ofien the touchstone of history; and ship much pestered, and scaut of even where they descend to incidents cabins, we left the admiral, and went beneath her novie, they aid the aboard Captain Reiman, where we studies of the antiquary and the stayed, and were very welcome, and moral philosopher.

while, there. much made of. It was on Thursday fore, it is to be regretted, that the that we came to the feet. All that reserved temper of our nation has day we followed close the Spanish generally deterred our soldiers and Armado, and nothing was attempted statesmen from recording their own on either side; the same course we story, an attempt to preserve, explain, held all Friday and Saturday, by or render more generally accessible which time the Spanish fleei cat

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