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and then caught the infection, and declared in favour of nature, and crop the nymphs and graces, the standards was the word. - Elderly men discarda of beauty and elegance in remote ed those immense bushes of cow. ages, became the models from which hair which had so long been thought the votaries of fashion as well as the the necessary appendages of age and painter' and sculptor drew all their competence, and adopted a substitute ideas of what was graceful or becom- more resembling a natural head. The ing. In observing on what is gained faculty, who had mostly laid aside by the sex in this revolution in taste, their orange or other professional the remark of the Bow-street officer colour, now farther assimilated their applies with considerable force. Let appearance to that of their fellowus imagine a group of females dress. citizens, and physicians are no more ed like our lady of the manor, every to be distinguished by their dress, lineament of their form obscured or except a few, who have in general distorted, and after the mathematical little else to distinguish them. This question of the heighth and breadth reformation in taste even reached the of each individual is considered, what clergy, who, averse as they may seem remains to give one a superiority to to the name of reform, many of them another but the charm of face? We cashiered their unfortunate peruquiers, will next suppose an equal number, and the amount of the powder tax not of nudes, but of the more modest and the price of cow's-tails fell quietly copyists of the antique. The face is together. The price of provisions coonly a part, the form first draws our operated; the war-office rescued attention, and she finds that as far as some thousand barrels of flour from personal attractions only are consi- the waste to which it was otherwise dered, we have more than double the destined; and in this point of view number of charming women. When alone, the disuse of powder may be the ladies had, thus discarded their considered a beneficial change in the whalebone armour, to have retained customs of the country. With the the load of superfluous ornament ladies and some of the gentlemen, which fashion had piled upon their Brutus and Titus have had the boa heads would have shewn the same nour of giving a name to two differerror in taste, as the artist, who, ent modes of setting off the hair, artihaving executed a fine naked bust of ficial ringlets have succeeded, first Garrick, gave him a full-dressed head for those who wanted them, and next of hair and a bag. But Messrs. Pitt for those who did not; but, whatever and Co. prevented their committing yagaries they may have run into, I that solecism by a measure which believe the women understand too succeeded like many of their other well their own interest to attempt a measures. The powder tax first re- counter-revolution. itored to their natural colour, and cur- Whether the changes in female tailed of their dangling incumbrances dress have been so unfavourable on behind, those heads which had often- the whole to health as some have 2st shaken in doubt or disapprobation imagined, I may be permitted to of the measures which' rendered it doubt. If the stift' swadding with necessary. The example of so many which children as soon as they were persons in all ranks of society, served born used to be encased at Hainburg, is an apology to their own pride ; for was the cause of that city furnishing many who were indifferent to men so many examples of early decrepiand measures, would have scorned to lude in every possible variety of disconfess that they could not afford tortion, surely the whalebone case their guinea. The younger branches in which females of every age, shape, of large families from economy dis- and size used to be trussed, which, if carded powder, and when, in a few it did noi, like the bed of Procrustes, instances, a good bead of hair, with reduce them all to one length, mouidall the advantages of the new style of ed all the fashionables to one shape, dress and a good person to co-operate must have been the cause of many with it, had been fairly set in compa. distortions and inore disorders from rison with the best powdered speci- so unnatural a compression of the mens the artist could furnish, taste vital parts, tban are to be apprehended
from the exposure of them to the it bas long been almost confined to cold. The story of the Indian is well the ranks; but a late order of the known, and though it has an indeii. commander-in-chief, which will have cate sound to say that our ladies are the effect of a sumptuary law, enbecoming all face, it may be very near joins the use of gaiters, and the disthe truth. The principal ill couse. use of lace to the several classes of quences to be apprehended are that a officers whom the use of boots and few delicate creatures who would the attempts to rival their superiorsin inevitably have been screwed into a finery, orien drove to disbonourable consumption, may now find their expedients to elude or pacify the creway to that melancholy goal by ano- ditors, wbich their extravagance in ther road.
those with other expensive tineries, The changes that have taken place brought upon them. 'The order from dmong the men are on the whole the same quarter for cutting off those very much in favour of ease and pro- immense queus, which were highly priety. Instead of silk brocade and inconvenient at home and in action, buckram, frogs and gold Jace, the conld only be of use as a handle to squareness of skirt and immensity of the pursuier, and perhaps a derrien cuff, or the closely fiited jackets, guard to a run-away, may be consiwhich in their effects approached the dered as a tacit censure on the introstrail-waistcoat ; both in the make duction of them, which, with the and materials of their garments furs, fringes, and furbelows of German which they have adopted, is an union origin, with which our cavalry is of of simplicity and atiention to per- late so ridiculously bedizened, occasonal convenience; and the differ- sioned an indignant veteran to reence between a man of first rate mark, that he did not see any thing elegance in an undress, and a gay a certain personage had acquired on disciple of George Fox is not ofien his foreign travels, convertible to the scarcely discernible. The enormous service of his country, that be might buckle, which instead of being adapt- not have learnt in an apprenticeship ed to keep on the shoe, was obliged to an army tailor. to have a shoe made on purpose to Among articles that do not come fasten it, has been exploded for the precisely under either of the heads old, but neat and comfortable fashion proposed in the commencement of of the shoe-tye. The introduction of this paper, but which have come into the Polish pantaloon and half-boot general use are the umbrella and pawas about cotemporary with that of rasol. The former is now made of the shoe-tye, but though almost as such cheap materials that it is in the universally adopted, they have not bands of every class above mendicity, the same recominendations of ease and the latter has but one more lower and economy, and the general use of to make, to be twirled on the Sunday boots bas perhaps militated more by those who have twirled the mop than any other change of fashion during the rest of the week. Voltaire against the interest of the poor in in his sneering way, says, the Pope general, by uniting with other causes has an army of soldiers who mount to raise the price of leather, so that a guard with umbrellas. Many people Jabouring man must, to procure a no doubt suppose it a poetical license; pair of strong shoes, sacrifice a large I did so myself, till I happened to see proportion of his weekly earnings. the guard relieved at Raizburg, ope The gaiter, lighter and inore econo. rainy morning when I really saw mical, has partially succeeded the some of the men-machines of his half-boot; but the appearance of Serene Highness of Mecklenburg economy in dress being one of the Strelitz take the same defence againsi extervals of poverty, the gaiter, with the weather. all its recommendations, can only be But this is a digression; and to reexpected to obtain a very inferior turn to and conclude my cursory replace among the fashionables, though marks, I shall endeavour, in few among the classes above or below words, to describe the effects these the fashion, its rise is become very revolutions in dress have produced on general. As a military accoutrement, our manufactures. The great trial of
lannel and calamanco versus dimity mand occasions very little complaint. ind muslin, seems in the court of If I have omitted to notice, any reashion to be terminated by a com- markable and general change of the rómise in which the staple com- kinds 1 alluded to, I can only hope nodities of Britain, like her interests some one of your numerous corren a late convention, are only consi- spondents willl give me the correclered as of secondary importance.- tion, I shall be very happy to receive Flannel, it is true, in spite of Dr. either for faults of omission or comDarwin, bas regained among the men mission. ven more, perhaps, than it has lost I remain, Sir, imong the women, but calamanco
Your obedient servant, with its stiff ungraceful fraternity of stuffs seems irrecoverably banished,
H. M. except among a few old fashioned people, and the lowest classes of the OBSERVATIONS on the DiffereNCE community, and economy has joined
BETWEEN a Great Man and an with fashion to prevent a recal. To
ILLUSTRIOUS Man. what rank has ihe rage for muslin noi extended both upwards and down
For the Universal Magazine. wards? Silk, for a short period, was TE must not confound, as the almost laid aside, and the looms of vulgar do, the poweful with Manchester and Glasgow supplied its the great man. Power often comes place, but its eclipse was of short du, either from birth, or by different conration ; for its uniting lightness with junctures of fortune, or rather, by the warmih must ever render it a fa- different external arrangements of vourite with the fair and to the fashion- providence; but we cannot become able world it has this powerful re. a great man except by the single incommendation, that while its price is ward qualities of the heart and mind, in a certain degree a check upon its and by the important benefits which descent among the vulgar, anjong its we may confer upon society. varieties of texture and colour, and of
These are the great men who merit uses to which it may be applied, fa- our esteem, our praises, and our inshion can ever find something costly, ward, respect : for, external respect too whimsical to be, in the common is the privilege of ihe powerful man, phrase, every body's money, although of the man who is in an elevated siits price may not confine it entirely to tuation. Esteem is given to the perthe opulent. In the various fashions son: outward respect is given to the of dressing the hair without powder, place. the frizeur, by degrees, superseded Neither must we confound the the milliner, and the milliner, under great man who is distinguished by his the title of dressmaker, has exploded great talents, his great virtues, and his the old business of mantua-naking, great benefits, with the illustrious at least its name. An immense num- man who is, in truth, distinguished ber of hands employed in the manu- by his great talents and by his great facture of buckles has been obliged to benetits, but not by his great virtue. turn their industry into another chan- I shall now proced to mark, more nel. The manufacturers of Noting- accurately, the differences which seham and Leicester have been sensibly parate them. affected by the introduction of pan. taloons, but the former by its ingeni
SOLON: EPAMINONDAS: ALEXous imitations of foreign patterns of Jace, opened itself a trade, 'which, in Each nation has its great men. We the general stagnation of commerce, are naturally led to compare them has given food and clothing to thou- with each other, and we cannot well sands who might otherwise have been discern which is the greatest but by pining in inactivity and want. Lei- comparing them with each other. It cester, in the elastic stuffs produced musi be done therefore, in her stocking frames, enjoys a trade I. The greatness of their talents in of such extent at home, that the pri- surmounting great difficulties. vation of great part of her foreign de- II. The greatness of the ambition
of some, the greatness of the zeal of of others, the public interest, may, others, to procure the public good. sometimes, have an apparent great.
II. The greatness of the advan- ness by great successes, such as those tages or the benefits which they have of Alexander : the great difficulties procured, either to men, in general, which are surmounted excite our ad. or to their citizens in general. miration, and demonstrate either great
Epaminondas appears to be the courage or great talents : hence the greatest man among the Grecian cap- success of difficult undertakings may tains. It is true that Alexander has render a man very illustrious, very caused more noise by his conquests, celebrated; but, without virtuous but the difficulties which he sur- motives they never can make a great mounted were, all things considered, man. less great than those which Epaminondas surmounted. Now, it is the tates. Now, what increase of bappi,
Such is the rule which reason dicgreatness of the difficulties which are ness resulted from the conquests of surmounted, which proves the great. Alexander, either to the Macedonians
, ness of talents, of courage, and of to the Grecian republics, or to human perseverance.
nature ? Besides, that which is decisive in the comparison of these two men is, that
He who surmounts great difficulties the enterprises of Alexander had no- merits our admiration, but he dos thing laudable in their motives, he not always merit our esteem or ow acted only from ambition, for his own
praises. We admire an excellent self-interest, for his own aggrandise- rope-dancer; we regard, with astoment, and for his own pleasure; a
nishment, those superstitious Indians motive which has nothing really great who practise abstinence and other in it: whereas Epaminondas, in all mortifications of the Aesh, and who his principal undertakings was in seem to surpass the energies of na: Auenced by the pleasure which he ture: they perform things which are found in procuring the welfare and extremely difficult, and we admire advantage of his fellow-citizens, a
the difficulty: but this admiratioa is motive truly virtuous and conse
not joined to a great esteem for their quently laudable. Hence, Epami- person'; whereas, we pay admiration, mondas procured greater advantages great-esteem, and kindness towards to his country than Alexander did to those who, like Epaminondas, effect his; and thus, Epaminondas is a great enterprises which are both difficult man, and Alexander is only a con
and advantageous to their country. queror, a warrior, a celebrated cap- I think no Grecian can be compared tain, á king of great reputation ainong to Epaminondas, except Solon, who kings. In a word, he is at most, only surmounted great difficulties by his an illustrious man, and more illus- great malents and by his great pero trious by his success than by benefits severance, and whó, from anotives conferred by him, upon his country. perfectly virtuous, rendered great
It is permitted to have, as a motive services to his country in making it · for our actions, our own personal in- approve of wise and salutary laws.
ferest, when there is nothing, imjust in our designs. It is even allowable
Scipio: CÆSAR: SYLLA. that our pleasures may operate as mo- Among the Romans, Scipio, the tives when they are innocent and cone conquercr of Hannibal, appears to us formable to propriety. To act solely to surpass the great men of his nation, from a desire to augment our own Cæsar' executed nothing so difficult as interest, our fortune, or our pleasure, Scipio: he never had a Hannibai 10 is the ordinary course of ordinary conquer. men : but that which is ouly. per. Caesar augmented the power of mitted, contains nothing distinguished, Rome; but Scipio augmented it also
, nothing virtuous, and consequently and saved the Romans from the merits no praise.
slavery of the Carthaginians: le seThose enterprises which are neither cured the internal liberty of the RoJaudable nor virtuous because they man republic, anu augmented ito kave not, for their motive, the interest power with all that of ihe rapeblo
of Carthage, which balanced that of attempt. Cataline formed a similar Rome.
scheme; but he failed. Who will With regard to the motives of Cæ- dare to conclude, from the success sar: he laboured only for his own of Cæsar, that he is a great man; elevation and to increase his own while the other, merely from his rower. Scipio, on the contrary, in failure, is only an intamous traitor ? his enterprises, sought rather the ho- Who does not see that they are, in hour and delight of rendering great fact, both of them infamous traitors, ervices to his country, by preserving who sacrificed, unjustly, and without ill her liberties at home, and by in- any scruple, the greatest interests of reasing, considerably, her power the state to their own individual in-, without, than to augment his own terests; and that consequently, they mportance.
are, fundamentally, both of them Cæsar working for himself, in the worthy of hatred and of public exc. onquests in Gaul, rendered great cration ? ervices to the Romans; but, as soon It must not be supposed that Cæsar is hc availed himself of the forces and rendered himself master of the reof the authority which the Romans public, merely from the fear that ad confided in him, to overthrow Pompey would have done it if he heir government, and to render him- had not; for if he felt, as a prinelf, in despite of the sanctity of oaths cipal motive, the welfare of his coun-' ind of religion, the tyrant of the re. try, and its real augmentation, would ublic, I no longer consider the ser- be not, when he entered Rome vicrices which he has performed, I con- torious over the tyranny of Pompey, ider only the treason he has been would he not, I say, have restored to guilty of. He appears to me in no his fellow-citizens the liberty of sufther light than the ordinary one of frages in the choice of magistrates in ambitious man,-a cheat celebrated and of ministers of state? Would or his great talents, who has been he not have reinstated the republic ble to conceal his pernicious inten- in the sovereign authority? Would ions and his unjust ambition under he not, in conjunction with Cato, be appearance of effective services. and other well-meaning individuals,
It is so certain, that, all things con- have improved the plans of scrutiny idered, he deserved blame rather in elections, especially for the prinihan praise, that, if he had been cipal offices? Would he not have lacilledat Pharsalia, where he caused boured, with them, thus to close for o many Romans to perish, and if ever, to future political kpaves, the Pompey, being conqueror, had re- road to corruption in that respect, tored to the senate 'its ancient au- which he had, himself, employed in hority, and to the people the liberty attaining public situations ? of suffrages, as Sylla had done, it is That was the only way by which certain that Cicero, Hortensius, Cato, he could have acquired ihe noblest and the other good citizens, would, and most desirable reputation which without any hesitation, have placed, a good man could wish. It was the Cæsar, vanquished and punished, in only way by which he could obtain the same light as Cataline ; with this that title of a great man to which he difference, however, that it Cæsar bad aspired: but lie bad not a mind of rendered greater services tothe republic sufficient sagacity nor of sufficient than Cataline, he had, also, caused it integrity to feel and achnowledge in more misfortunès : so that his name what consisied the true greatness of would have descended down to pos- man; his soul had not suíficient eleterity landed with the same infámy vation to feel, like Cato, that the as the celebrated name of Cataline, essential quality of a great man is to who, on his side, was not. without strive for the honour of increasing, great talents, but failed of success in at our own hazard, the welfare of our his infanjous undertaking.
country. He thought otherwise, and The intention of Cæsar was to ren- followed the path of men of ordinary der himself master of the government, ambition, who, instead of sacrifiring and, consequently, to overthrow the to true greatness, which is inmutable republic: he suxceeded in the base and immortal, sacrifice only, io great