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trade-winds, &c. The effect which that they supply not only her own the difference in the gravity of bodies consumption, but that of Italy. and produces upon the matter and fluids Germany. The manufactures of on the surface of the globe, is 306 France never before prospered so times greater than the effect produced much. by the attraction of the moon, and Analysis of the Commercial Situation of 1372 times greater than any effect

England and France. produced by the sun.

England. --As the power of England FRANCE.

rests upon her commerce, that comAnalysis of the Financial Situation of merce consists in the circulation of England and France.

the produce of the New World. We England.—England cannot have have proved that four-fifths of her more than 300 millions of revenue: retcoue arose from brokerage ; it is she has, however, 1500 millions: but the coffee, therefore, the sugar, the 300 millions represent her actual indigo, the dye-woods, the muslins of wealth, and 1200 millions the revenue India, which constitute her fortune; of her monopoly; whence it results, all her prosperity consists in drawing that when England is ever so little these productions from both the Ineramped in her commerce, the ex. dies, and in promoting their introchange becomes unfavourable to her; duction into Europe. she can no longer support herself, and France.-France has an interest she requires a paper money. Paper wholly continental; her revenue arises money is a natural and indispensable from the produce of her fields, of her consequence of the situation of a na. vines, her olives, her tobacco, her fation, which, like England, has created brics of silk and linen; and from the a factitious revenue. England pays cottons of her southern provinces. 600 millions of joterest for debt; that Like the continent, she has an interest is twice her real and reasonable re- in rejecting the merchandise of the

Indies, and in profitting by the bounty France.-France has 800 millions of of Nature, which has placed within sevenue in time of peace. This is the old continent what may enable it only two thirds of what she can raise to dispense with the new. Thus, the in time of war. By adding 30 centimes shackles which she has thrown upon to her rates of imports, her çevenue is English brokerage are such, that the saised to 1200 millions. This revenue consumption of sugar, of coffee, and is wholly derived from her own terri. colonial produce, has within three tory. She has 50 millions of debt, years decreased one half in Europe. that is to say, one-sixteenth of her.or. The discoveries which she has made diuary income. It is obvious from enable her even to replace the prodacthis

, that France has not, apd ought tions of the continent. The sugar not to have a paper money. France from grapes is sold cheaper than the inay be considered as a rich farmer, cane-sugar ever was, even at the pewho finds every thing upon his farm. riod of greatest communication with She has no need of commerce, but as the colonies. The cottous of Naples an agent for selling her productions, and of Rome are superior to those of Germany, Italy, are open to her spe. America. The kermes, the woad, and culatious; and even England is happy the madder, thanks to the aids of cheto receive, when she chooses to send, mistry, compensate for the want of the surplus of her produce. The colonial dyes. Already soda is made Bank discounts twice as much as the every where. When the New World Cuissc d'escompte discounted in 1780. was discovered, the arts of chemistry It has 120 millions of notes in circula- were in their infancy. tion. These are true bank notes, con- The continental system has provertible into specie at pleasure, and duced a real, a prodigious revolution. not forced. The coinage of France It will oppose an insurmountable ob. is the best in Europe. Money is there stacle to the brokerage of England; abundant, and the rate of ivterest is and in proportion as the continental trom 4 'to 5 per cent. Her manufac- powers feet, and they have felt it for fures are in such a state of prosperity, a long time, that it is their interest to


tax the importation of colonial pro- in London unattended: he has, ten duce, they will have sugar, coffee, times, been very near being assassicotton, and indigo, from the cootinent nated; he will take care not to go itself. This result is not chimerical. among a crowd-it is probable that The actual prosperity of France, the he would not do so with impunity. aid which she derives from the arts to In order to have sailors, they are procure that which she wants, from pressed, they are carried off in the that this revolution has advanced five public streets without law, and like sixths of its course. It has been si- savages. In these expeditions men lently working, it will burst fosth; are beaten, they are killed; every and, at a general continental peace, where authority acts with violente. England will be astonished at the pro- The English government then has all gress of the arts of chemistry in Eu- the characteristics of tyranny and op: rope, of the naturalization of the cul. pression; it employs the bayonet and ture of the plants of America on the the cannon to keep in obedience one continent, and the repugnance of the of the principal divisions of its emcontinent to give her its gold, and impire, and to restrain its capital; it poverish itseif when it fiuds an equi. shackles'six millions of its citizens in valent within itself. These are the the exercise of their religion. great causes of the diminution of Eng. France. --All the powers allied to lish commerce; these effects will be France are aggrandized; all the counmore efficacious than the Decrees of tries united with it receive fraternal Milan and Berlin. Let these Decrees treatment; toleration, there, is entire continue in force a few years longer, and absolute; within the circumfe. and they will make themselves be felt rence of the Louvie is the chapel of a century after they have been re- St. Thomas, where protestants offivoked.

ciate: the Emperor appoints and pays Analysis of the Politics of England and of the Consistory, and the ministers;

the bishops and clergy, the presidents France.

organize the seminaries and the England.--The alliance of England schools of Geneva and Montauban. bas caused the ruin of the powers who Civil authority has no right to restrain have courted it; witness the Stadthol- the conscience; this is the principle der of Holland, the Kings of Naples of the French monarchy. No troops and Sardinia, and the other Princes are necessary in the united countries. who have given themselves up to it. Piedmont, Tuscany, Genoa, had not England is, in her internal policy, in- 1500 troops when the Emperor was at tolerant; a population of more than Vienna. There were only 1200 men six millions of Christians cannot pro- in garrison at Paris. The conscripfess their religion; cannot hold 'em- tion was levied, taxes were exactly ployments in ihe state, or in the army, paid, and everything was tranquil

. without renouncing their faith. Eng. At no time has an armed force been land oppresses the nations with whom employed since the close of the Revoshe upjies, because she carries her op- lution; and the Emperor promenades pression so far as not to leave them in the midst of the crowd wbich coihe free exercise of their religion. vers the Carousal, or in the park of Such are the effects of the English St. Cloud in his chariot and four, at administration. Ireland cannot be slow pace, with the Empress, and a guarded without a considerable army. single page, and amidst 150,000 spec. Tranquillity cannot be maintained in tators surrounding his carriage, and London without an armed force. Even blessing the father of the country. in London, English troops have been Opinion is all-powerful in France, scen to fire upon the people-old men, from the lowest class to the highest; women, children to enforce the re- all listen to reason, and march when the spect due to the law. It was not only trumpet sounds. The conscription is the bayonet that was employed-it regulated like the taxes; it is levied was cannon, and trains of artillery, without commotion, without disorder: which were brought to London, to the magistrates of the people preside make the government respected. The over the whole; there is nothing of King of England durst not go abroad violence or tumult to be seen.


he remained fixed and immoveable; According to the German Pæda.. his eyes turned wildly here and there gogic Magazine, (vol. ill. p. 407.) without taking cognizance of any obdied lately in Swabia, a school master, ject, and the muscles of his face were who for one and fifty years had super: body. Being left to bimself, he passed

fallen and fixed like those of a dead fashioned severity. From an average nineteen days in this condition, withinferred by means of recorded obser out eating, drinking, or any evacuaFations, one of the ushers has calcu. tion, and died on the twentieth day, lated that, in the course of his exer.

Italy. tion, he has given 911,500 canings, There were lately in Rome several 124,000 Aloggings, 209,000 custodes, establishments for the support of mis136,000 tips with the ruler, 10,200 sions and tolerated churches, includ. boxes on the ear, and 22,700 tasks to ing several English, Scottish, and get by heart. It was further calcu, Irish colleges. All these institutions lated that he had made 700 boys stand have lately been suppressed by the on peas, 600 kneel on a sharp edge of French emperor, and their possessions wood, 5000 wear the fools cap, and confiscated. Some of the beads of 1700 hold the rod. Martial's observa these colleges have been called upon tion, Ferulæ tristes, sceptra pæda- to deliver up their accounts... A short gogorum cessant," seems not yet apo time before this suppression, Mr. plicable to Swabia.

O'Canan, an ecclesiastic, intending Remarkable instance of the effects of to carry with him to America, certain fear...-George Groehantzy, a Polander,

balls of consecration, left Rome for who had enlisted as a soldier in the Naples, where, being arrested, and service of the King of Prussia, de- stripped of his packet, he died in the serted during the last war. A small course of two days. party was sent in pursuit of bim; and

As a compensation for the loss of when be least expected it, they sur

the gains and amusements of superprised him singing and dancing among stition, an imperial decree issued from a company of peasants, who were got

of the together at an inn, and were making minister of the interior, 500,000 francs, merry.

This event, so sudden and to be applied to the establishment of unforseen, and at the same time so manufactures in Rome, to the encoudreadful in its consequences, struck ragement of the growth of cotton, in him in such a manner, that giving a the neighbouring country, and to the great cry, he became at once altoge- improvement of the climate and agria ther stupid and insepsible, and was

culture. seized without the least resistance.

Spain. They carried him away to Glosau, It appears, from good authority, that where he was brouglrt before the the crop of fine wool of all descripcouncil of war, and received sentence tions is lessened in this kiugdom.-as a deserter. He suffered himself to “We have," says a letter on this subbe led and disposed of at the will of ject, “ this vear less than a third part those about him, without uttering a of the usual quantity, and it is to be word, or giving the least sign that he feared that, in future, it will not be knew what had happened or would moce abundant, the flocks baving been bappen to him. He remained im- diminished, not only by the unfavousmoveable as a statue wherever he was ableness of the season, but also on acplaced, and was wholly passive with count of the shieep being liarrassed by respect to all that was done to him or the frequent journies they have been about him. During all the time he obliged to take. Many of them have was in custody, ke neither ate, drank, been obliged to change their pastures bor slept, por had any evacuation. entirely, which never fails injuring After some time they knocked off his the wool, and occasions a greai mfefetters, and left him at liberty to go riority in comparison with its fi mer whitler he would. He received his state, both with respect to the fineness liberty with the same insensibility that and the staple. he had showed upon other occasions : UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. XIV.


MEMOIRS OF REMARKABLE PERSONS. ABRAHAM GOLDSMID, Esq. any other parties were successful in

N Friday morning, Sept. 28, this thč negociation with the minister, in a great measure, not only our own, ciate the bargain, until at length but the fate of neighbouring nations, (though willing to participate) no one has for the last twenty years greatly cared to enter the lists against them, depended, put a period to his exist- and they were considered as the prinence by a pistol, in a water-closet, cipal loan-jobbers. To įhe facility situate in a part of the shrubbery, with which money was obtained called the Wilderness, at his house at through their means, may probably Morden, Surrey. He was discovered be attributed the long continuance of about cight o'clock mortally wounded, a war which has nearly desolated Eubut not dead. Medical assistance was rope; for however the tyrannical consent for, but he died at ten o'clock, in duct of Bonaparte may be reprobated, the bosom of his aff}icted family. He it is indubitable, that our having subwas in the 53d year of his age. The sidized other powers opposed to him, extreme irritation of his feelings, from has been the great cause of his invetethe pressure of the many intricate rate malignity and hostility towards concerns in which he was involved, this country. had, for the last ten or twelve days The great Frederick of Prussia is preyed upon him so much, that he believed to have owed his resources was visibly disturbed; and in'a mo- during the height of his glory to a ment of mental delirium, he com. Jew of equally distinguished celebrity; mitted this fatal act, which has de- who, if we may credit Voltaire, was prived his numerous family of an in- bis great confidante and friend, and estimable parent

assisted in the partition and despoliaThe origin of this wealthy indivi- tion of Poland. In like mannet, the dual is said to have been so low, that Goldsmids enjoyed the confidence of there are persons living who remeinber the prime ministers of England, and the head of the family to have been a even princes of the blood have been retailer of sealing-wax and hair.rollers entertained by the deceased in the in the public streets of the metropolis, most costly and sumptuous manner. from which he emerged, till by great On a very receut occasion the dessert economy and extraordinary applica- of fruits alone is said to bave cost tion to mercantile traffic, the house 700l. but how insignificant was such : latterly employed more than 100 clerks, sum to his immense acquirements, who were arranged in distinct rooms when favoured by a successful issue, in a suite of offices, and there was as they generally were, till the recent scarcely an article, either of native or calamitous circumstances so fatal lo foreign produce, with which you his mental peace. might not have been well supplied by It is known that in conjunction their firm. The returns were of course with Sir F. Baring he took half of the iminense, and their dealings marked late loan for 14 millions; and sup. by the strictest punctuality; but from posing, as has been advanced, that he dealings in goods they became dealers had distributed amongst his friends, in money, and though iron may some- without profit, 3 millions thereof, (as times be as profitable as gold, yet it is has been his general practice) 4 milnot so rapidly rendered productive. lions remained to bis

' firm. In the This induced them to turn their at- commencement at least, and till after tention to more enlarged speculations, the first or second instalment is paid even the provision for feets and of 10 per cent. the omnium (as it is armies; indeed such was the success called) generally bears a premium, of the firm, that it was long currently and if only of a quarter of 5s. per cent believed on the Stock Exchange, that the profit on 4 millions is 10,000l.; if no load of government could be pro- a half or 10s. per 100l. 20,000l.; if ductive unless the Goldsmids were 3-4ths or 15s. per 100l. $0,000l.; and concerned therein; and in order to if i per cent. 40,000). In the present render this opinion valid, whenever year the premium has been as high a

91 per cent, which would yield a profit wicked and direful pursuit of indiviof 100,0001.; and on former occasions dual aggrandizement, at the expense it has frequently exceeded that pre- of the blood, treasure, and liberties of mium even to 5 and 6 per cent. and the whole world ;-while Mr. Goldthis is often obtained by the advance smid could feel himnself thus exalted of not more than a loth or 5th part of in his own ideal consequence ;, while the principalsum required, before the enabled to give splendid and ostento whole is disposed of bv the fortunate tious fetes to the first princes of the contractor, often without any regard blood, which in fact cost him nothing to the supposed goodness of the bar- but a few days speculation in the gain, but depending more frequently Alley, where lie could COMMAND the upon the successes of commerce or funded market, we heard nothing but agriculture wielding a superfluity of of the munificene of Mr. Goldsmid, wealth. The recent embarrassments the most distant syiptom of the inand dirkiculties of the trailing part of sanity of such a man was never even the community, unfortunately for Mr. lisped. But, alas ! to confirm the de. Goldsmid, had in the present year generacy of the age, and the scandaprevented bis finding that ready nar! lous venality of the press, the moment ket for this funded stock which he the towerivy pride of this idoliser of expected, and instead of a premium wealth is checked by a few reverses, of 94, it had actually fell to a discount and he finds that he can no longer be of 64 per cent previous to the shock- the supreme burometer of the British ing catastrophe which terminated his Funds, the whole country is put in a existence! Such are the fatal effects state of alarm by the rashness of this of speculation and avarice!! . man, who, in the morning, is consi

Eulogiums, ai ke obnoxious to truth dered sufficiently SANE to transact and decency, upon the character of business in the Stock Market to the this individual, having appeared in amount of hundreds of thousands, but the columns of almost all the daily who, failing in his object to elerate papers without intermission, from the the price of the funds to the goal of period of his death up to the present his ambition, returns home and meditime, it becomes necessary that a few tates the cowardly and diabolical act brief rema: ks should be made upon of self inurder where he deliberately the genuine claims of this departed rises from liis bed next morning, and individual to, public remembrance. seeks the most retired spot to perpe. A ('oroner's inquest has returned a trate. But Mr. Goldsmid was a rich verdict of issanity upon the body;- man, therefore, notwithsiaoding that but we should but ill discharge onr his destructinn of himself was thus duty if we hesitated to atsirın, that, in perpetrated with all the system of preour minds, a thirst for money and a arrangement, yet this last and worst most criminal and toweriny ambition act of human tirpitude is to be sofienobviously formed the leading charac- ed by the appellation of the term teristics of the man, and that the rash insanity, and the world is to be told termination of bis existence, was no- only of his private acts of munificence. toriously the result of a temper in- and generosity! That Mr. Goldsmid flated with worldly ambition and in- may have been the instrument of ad. ordinate pride, and no other species of vancing to wealth many individuals, insanity! -While he could revel in as his encomiasts affirm, we doubt nøt; millions, (for thousands he looked down but let these men take into their con.. upon with contempt, -millions ob- sideration how many families havo tained in the worst species of human been reduced to ruin by the imspeculation, because they were wrung mensity, of his inirigues and spocula, nut of the vitals of national prosperity; tions in the Alley, and sure we are, while he could indulge in the arro- if they mean to reason as christians gant idea that he was the pecuniary and as patriot citizens, they must see prop, in a manner, of a rapacious and in the public life of Mri Goldsmid profligate administration, and that he much more to deprecate and deplore could supply them perpetually with than to applaud and hold up to the money on loan, wbich enabled them admiration of a credulous, oppressed, to mortgage their country in the and ill-used multitude. Looking to

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